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Introducing the program

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1 Part 1 of Effective practice in Civics and Citizenship Education: A guide for pre-service teachers

2 Introducing the program
This program provides an overview of CCE and: encourages pre-service teachers to develop understanding of the scope, concept and importance of Civics and Citizenship Education (CCE) in schools provides introductory information, discussion questions and activities to explore effective teaching and learning for CCE in pre-service education classes encourages pre-service teachers to explore a variety of resources for CCE, particularly the website: Time: The program will require a minimum of two hours class time, but will take longer if a more extensive investigation of questions, websites and resources is undertaken.

3 Beginning with your views
Task In your class, brainstorm what you already know about CCE: What is CCE? Why do you think CCE is on the education agenda now? What evidence have you seen of how CCE is taught and learned in schools? What resources have you seen being used? What links are made between CCE and other school programs?

4 CCE 1997–2009—a brief overview of the context
The Discovering Democracy program provided resources and professional development for teachers (1997–2004) and: ‘… aimed to help prepare young people to become effective and responsible citizens, learn about the operation of the Australian system of government and law, explore what it means to be an Australian today, and learn about Australia's democratic heritage and the values underpinning it, including equality, liberty, fairness, trust, mutual respect and social co-operation’. Source: Curriculum Corporation, 1997

5 CCE 1997–2009—a brief overview of the context
The National Centre for History Education / Commonwealth History Project (1999–2006) provided strong links to CCE and excellent resources for teachers See You can also find strong links to CCE in the various stages of the Australian Government’s Values Education Study (2003–2009) See

6 Developing your understanding: CCE as a key element of education in Australia
Goal 2 of the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians (MCEETYA, 2008) states that all young Australians become ‘active and informed citizens’. See _on_the_Educational_Goals_for_Young_Australians.pdf Also, in curriculum documents across the nation, CCE has a strong emphasis. Effective development of CCE in schools can ensure the development of key knowledge, skills, behaviours and values for life, that empower students to be active and informed citizens in their own local communities, in the Australian nation, the Asia-Pacific region and the wider world. To guide the development of curriculum goals and teaching and learning for CCE, a range of curriculum documents and programs will be introduced to you in this program. Optional task: Conduct a web search to find out how CCE is represented in your local curriculum

7 The Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians states students should be able to: ‘act with moral and ethical integrity appreciate Australia’s social, cultural, linguistic and religious diversity, and have an understanding of Australia’s system of government, history and culture understand and acknowledge the value of Indigenous cultures and possess the knowledge, skills and understanding to contribute to, and benefit from reconciliation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians be committed to national values of democracy, equity and justice, and participate in Australia’s civic life relate to and communicate across cultures, especially the cultures and countries of Asia work for the common good, in particular sustaining and improving natural and social environments be responsible global and local citizens’ (pp. 08–09) * Task: Talk about and plan strategies to achieve each of these goals - now, or later when you have worked through the program.

8 Why CCE at this time? Young people need to have civic knowledge and skills and the ability to engage in our social, legal, political and economic systems in order to sustain a vibrant democracy. Civic megatrends: Complex issues affect Australian society in multiple ways and demand a response that is both knowledge and values based; for example, globalisation, mobility of people, gaps between rich and poor. Civic realities of everyday life—living and working in a democratic society must be understood. CCE should have connection with the multiple needs of young people, be inclusive of youth culture, and must address the things that matter to young people. Task: Discuss what other reasons explain why CCE is important in school programs

9 Defining CCE One definition of CCE is that:
‘Civics and citizenship education promotes students' participation in Australia's democracy by equipping them with the knowledge, skills, values and dispositions of active and informed citizenship. It entails knowledge and understanding of Australia's democratic heritage and traditions, its political and legal institutions and the shared values of freedom, tolerance, respect, responsibility and inclusion.’ Source: National Civics and Citizenship website Task: Discuss this definition. Then consider additional phrases to develop a broader definition that also includes global and environmental citizenship as key dimensions

10 How successful has implementation of CCE in schools been?
National evaluations of government-funded programs in CCE from and national testing of Year 6 and Year 10 students in 2004 and have provided data to analyse the various factors influencing student proficiency in CCE. Pre-service teachers can read the report of the National Assessment Program: Civics and Citizenship Years 6 and 10 Report 2007 at CC_2007_Report_16Feb07.pdf In your class, divide up sections of the report, particularly pages 81– 109 (Chapters 5 and 6). Discuss how the findings can inform teaching and learning of CCE in schools.

11 How can CCE be effectively developed and practised in schools?
To develop a range of knowledge, skills, values and capacities, CCE needs to be developed in multiple ways, including: through the whole-school ethos, culture, environment and programs, for example democratic practice, student councils and student engagement in classroom programs, for example through integrated, cross- curriculum themes or individual disciplines (history, economics and politics) through school partnerships and links to the community, for example service learning and involvement with local councils The next section provides a diagram to explain this approach, and then introduces you to more examples.

12 Whole-school approaches to CCE

13 Ideas for effective teaching and learning strategies for CCE
It is important that in the teaching and learning approaches developed in individual classrooms, teachers model democratic practice by: using democratic pedagogies, for example listening to and encouraging diverse opinions and debate about issues establishing class rules and boundaries holding classroom meetings to develop skills in decision-making and negotiation developing community-based research projects engaging students in conversations about teaching and learning using peer assessment and self-assessment. These practices lead to democratic classrooms (schools) for a democratic society.

14 CCE in engaging classrooms: further examples
Conducting mock elections or studying real elections at the state, national or global level as they occur. Visit the Electoral Education Centres. See Developing understanding of parliamentary processes using the Parliamentary Education Office website in Canberra, or a visit to state or federal parliament. See Investigating democratic movements: the Eureka rebellion or the Tiananmen Square student protests in Beijing.

15 CCE in engaging classrooms: topics and approaches
Integrated approaches to studying contemporary issues, for example global poverty, nuclear testing in North Korea, climate change and sustainability issues. Studying the theme of ‘rights and responsibilities’: the focus could be on Indigenous Australians, Australians in wartime, changing rights for women in the 1960, rights in Ancient Greece, or studying South Africa during the period of apartheid in History classes. Exploring human rights: for Indigenous Australians, asylum seekers or the people of Tibet, or see examples of activities on the Amnesty International website:

16 Examples of CCE in whole-school programs
Students playing a part in defining the school vision, goals and values. Organising Reconciliation events to increase recognition and understanding of Indigenous Australians. Involvement in the Freedom from Hunger Campaign and other fundraising campaigns. Creating a ‘green school’ through environmental programs. Student participation programs: Student Representative Councils or Student Action Teams. School elections and active engagement in voting processes. Buddy systems to encourage peer mentoring. Joining in celebrations for ANZAC Day. * Task: In your workshops discuss how schools could implement some of these whole-school programs

17 School partnerships and community links
Students can have authentic learning experiences in the community through, for example: service learning: students engaging with local youth programs, child care, Clean Up Australia Day contacts with local community groups and organisations: Scouts, Rotary, Lions Club, sporting or environmental groups classroom learning that has a real purpose, for example making leaflets for the local tourist office, helping the local historical society or the RSL to collect and make meaning from oral reports or being actively involved in ANZAC Day.

18 Getting students actively involved in global communities: practice examples
Interventions that transmit a vision of the school community lead to promotion of tolerance and collective participation, for example Round Square and International Baccalaureate schools’ commitment to service learning. Interventions that transmit a vision of human potential lead to an increased sense of individual responsibility, a precondition for global responsibility. Students at a Melbourne college finance a school in Bangladesh—when the delta floods they start all over again!

19 Getting students actively involved in global communities: practice examples
Student-initiated projects can develop individual responsibility and motivation. Students study examples of positive action in diverse communities. Students help in homework programs for recently arrived refugees. Discuss examples you have observed during your school experiences of student engagement in the community at the local, national or global level.

20 Assessing CCE Key performance measures for CCE have been developed – national testing of students in randomly selected schools is conducted every three years, for Years 6 and 10 National assessments were conducted in 2004, 2007 and will occur in See: national_assessment,9011.html On this website you can find out answers to these questions: Why a national assessment in Civics and Citizenship Education? What is being assessed through the Civics and Citizenship Assessment Domain? What will the assessment consist of?

21 National Statements of Learning for CCE
National Statements of Learning for CCE were framed to guide the development across all states and territories. See: national_statements_of_learning,8990.html These statements are very useful for you in considering what key content and understandings students should achieve through civics and citizenship education programs

22 What have we learned? The last national CCE assessment was conducted in 2007 with Year 6 students from 349 schools and 5506 Year 10 students from 269 government and non-government schools participating. The results showed that nationally 54 per cent of Year 6 students achieved or bettered the Year 6 proficiency standard and 41 per cent of Year 10 students achieved or bettered the Year 10 proficiency standard. The findings show that: students require opportunities for authentic engagement in school and community civic activities parents play a key role in CCE students performed better where their schools provided opportunities to participate in CCE activities and in school governance activities, such as voting and decision-making.

23 Developing your understanding of national CCE assessment
Reports from the testing demonstrate that there is still further development required in school programs in CCE. Task: As a class activity you can explore details about the report findings. See html You could discuss two questions: What do the results tell us about the state of CCE in our schools? How does the report suggest we could improve CCE? Task: Download the 2007 Year 6 or 10 Civics and Citizenship School Release Materials Sit the tests and then review the answers in your classes

24 CCE resources: there is an extensive range
The national Civics and Citizenship website: Part 2 of Effective Practice in CCE is a WebQuest focused on this site The Discovering Democracy project materials are resource kits with units of work and teacher reference books. Include 18 learning units built around four themes: * Who Rules? * Laws and Rights * The Australian Nation * Citizens and Public Life These are now available online

25 … and in addition Discovering Democracy also includes :
Australian Readers, which include speeches, songs, paintings, cartoons, poetry, and extracts from novels and plays interactive CD-ROMs, videos, posters and cards Australians All! A ‘big book’ for lower primary students Assessment resources A book: Discovering Democracy: A Guide to Government and Law in Australia by John Hirst. The website: was also developed as part of Discovering Democracy

26 CCE is a priority in Australia and internationally
An Australian Government report, Citizenship and Democracy: Students’ Knowledge and Beliefs, found that ‘91 per cent of teachers believed that civic education matters a great deal for Australia’ Source: Mellor, Kennedy & Greenwood, DETYA, 2001, p. 125 In the UK: CCE is a mandated part of the curriculum and has three strands: social and moral responsibility, community involvement and political literacy. In Scotland: The curriculum is expected to include: ‘Active global citizenship so all young people have the ability to understand and participate fully in society at local, national and international levels. In Hong Kong: It is argued that civic education should help students develop cognitive and participatory skills that will allow them to continue learning and participating for a lifetime. Liberal Studies, which includes CCE, is a compulsory subject. European Economic Community countries have designated CCE as a core priority. * Task: Conduct a Web search to find out more about CCE in these and other countries, including the USA, Canada and Singapore.

27 CCE provides young people with knowledge, skills and values for the future by ensuring they have the … Ability to look at and approach problems as a member of a global society Ability to work with others in a cooperative way and to take responsibility for one’s roles/duties within society Ability to understand, accept and tolerate cultural differences Capacity to think in a critical and systemic way Willingness to resolve conflict in a non-violent manner Willingness to change one’s lifestyle and consumption habits to protect the environment Ability to be sensitive towards and to defend human rights (for example rights of women and ethnic minorities) Willingness and ability to participate in politics at local, national and international levels. Source: Cogan, J & Derricott, R (eds) 2000, Citizenship for the 21st Century: an International Perspective on Education, Kogan Page, London. *Task: How can your work as teachers in schools lead to the achievement of these learning goals?

28 And finally - think about the fact that:
‘As members of the world community, educators have a responsibility to ensure that education contributes to the promotion of equity, peace, social justice and the universal realization of human rights … Curricular and instructional programs … should aim to develop in every person self-respect, social awareness and the capacity to participate at all levels of world society, from local to global’. Source: World Council for Curriculum and Instruction, 2003 Note: After you have worked through this program, you can further extend your understanding through Parts 2 and 3 of Effective Practice in Civics and Citizenship Education: a Guide for Pre-service Teachers, which examines the national CCE website and makes links between CCE and other curriculum areas and priorities.

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