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1 Quality Access in Japanese Higher Education and Its Challenges 8-9 December 2008 OECD/France International Conference Higher Education to 2030:What Futures.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Quality Access in Japanese Higher Education and Its Challenges 8-9 December 2008 OECD/France International Conference Higher Education to 2030:What Futures."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Quality Access in Japanese Higher Education and Its Challenges 8-9 December 2008 OECD/France International Conference Higher Education to 2030:What Futures for Quality Access in the Era of Globalisation? Paris, France Professor Tatsuya SAKAMOTO Vice-President for International Collaboration and Education Keio University, Japan

2 2 Outline of Presentation Introduction Current Status of Japanese HE Three Fundamental Challenges : Universalization Globalization Underfunding Future Scenarios for Quality Access in Japanese HE

3 3 Keio University : A Profile Founded in 1858 by Yukichi FUKUZAWA (1835-1901) Cf. U. of Tokyo (1877) Waseda U. (1882) Legal status as university granted in 1890 Oldest higher education in Japan 6 campuses in Japan, 1 in New York 10 faculties and 14 graduate schools President Yuichiro ANZAI (2001-) 28,000 undergrad., 4,000 grad. Students 2,000+ teaching and 2,700 administrative staff Annual budget of 1.3 billion US dollars Endowment of 3.5 billion US dollars

4 4 10 Undergraduate Faculties Letters Economics Law Business & Commerce School of Medicine Science & Technology Policy Management Environment & Information Studies Nursing & Medical Care Pharmacy 14 Graduate Schools Letters Economics Law Human Relations Business & Commerce Medicine Science & Technology Business Administration (KBS) Media & Governance Law School Health Management System Design & Management Media Design Pharmaceutical Sciences Keios Educational System

5 5 Yukichi FUKUZAWA: The Founder 1835-1901) Yukichi FUKUZAWA: The Founder 1835-1901) Fukuzawas Intellectual Background Modern Western learning (turning from Dutch to English studies) on the basis of traditional Chinese (Confucian) learning Systematic thinking on the origin and nature of Western Civilization Fukuzawas Experience of Western civilization Grand Tour over 7 major European Countries for 12 months in 1862 Visited USA twice in 1860 and 1867 A committed internationalist, a minority fighting against the nationalist majority of the time 1835- 1901)

6 6 Keio as Private U. and the National University Keio University as Private Institution National University As Public Institution Founder 1858 Yukichi Fukuzawa 1886~(Decree for Imperial University) 1947~(School Education Law) Institutional Mission Independence and Self-Respect Fostering Leaders of Liberal and Democratic Society Organ for Producing National Leaders and Elites 1886~ Rich Country, Strong Military 1947~ Democracy and Economic Development

7 7 Major Reforms in HE Policy after 1945 1947 Law of School Education 1956 Regulations for the Foundation of University (RFU) 1984 120,000 Foreign Students Initiative by PM Nakasone 1991 DEREGULATION OF THE RFU 2004 NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CORPORATIZATION 2006 New Fundamental Law of Education 2008 300,000 Foreign Students Initiative by PM Fukuda Problem = Non-Existence of Strategic Grand Plan for HE and Its Nature, Social Significance and Future Scenarios

8 8 National University Semi-Privatization in 2004

9 9 Japanese Higher Education (HE) at A Glance 86 National, 75 Public, 593 Private Universities (as of April 1, 2008) 3 million students (more than 50% of school leavers) are enrolled in the universities Over 70 % of school leavers go to post-secondary education Increase of HE enrolments as a result of deregulation of HE notwithstanding the declining number of 18 yrs olds. Over 70% university students enrolled in private universities

10 10 Governmental under-funding for HE 1,060 billion yen for National and 300 billion yen for private universities (= 50 % for national and 10% for private U. budget) 1% cut every year of National U. Budget Lowest public financing of HE in OECD countries (0.5% of GDP) 50 % private U. suffering from under-enrollment of students

11 11 Negative Impacts of the Recent HE Reforms Widening Disparities between: > Old Imperial University and Regional National University > National U. and Private U. > Stronger U. in general and Weaker U. in general Declining international status of Japanese HE

12 12 Globalization of HE in Japan Increase of foreign students: from 15, 000 (1991) to 120,000 (2005) Students from China, Korea and Taiwan occupies over 80% Students from US, France and Germany shares only 2.3 % Major issues: > Low quality and internationally less than competitive university teaching > Linguistic Barrier > Student housing and Scholarship

13 13 Best and Worst Scenarios for Japanese HE BestWorst Intl Students Highly motivated with a strong reason why they study in Japan Poorly motivated with no particular reason why they come to Japan TeachingHigh Quality Global standard National and Regional character Focused on professional orientation Low Quality Parochial Low awareness of national and regional culture Superficially universal GlobalizationEnglish courses sufficiently offered Open and global system of administration Heavily Japanese Way of teaching and administration Intl Status Rise More quality students recruited from all over the world Decline Low quality intl students covering student under- enrollment

14 14 Thank you for your attention


16 16 Fukuzawas ideals applied worldwide in all fields Keio strives to foster highly skilled and internationally competent and sympathetic leaders in all significant fields of human activity, including the political, economic, academic and cultural arenas Focused and balanced partnerships and alliances Keio collaborates with top universities worldwide without regional bias, while recognizing Asia, North America and Europe as the key strategic regions Strategic enhancement of international presence + Proactive use of overseas offices and satellites + Public relations with an international focus Keios Global Initiatives: Three Guiding Principles

17 17 University of Cambridge Cambridge, UK Japan Society New York, USA Tsinghua University Beijing, China Keio Academy of New York Yonsei University Seoul, Korea Seoul Office Stanford University California, USA San Francisco Studio California, USA BeijingOffice 6 Keio DMC Global Studios London Office Keios overseas offices and satellites: Bases Shanghai Office Office Keio Offices Singapore KEIO-NUS CUTE Center

18 18 Keios Global Alliances (1) APRU ( Association of Pacific-Rim Universities ) Consortium of 41 Research Universities in the Region Chairman: President Yuichiro ANZAI of Keio University Annual President Meeting and other Various Activities of International Education and Research

19 19 Keios Global Alliances (2) T.I.M.E. network T.I.M.E. is a network of 51 leading engineering schools, faculties and technical universities Austria (1) Belgium (5) Brazil (1) Czech Republic (1) Denmark (1) Finland (1) France (8) Germany (7) Greece (2) Hungary (1) Italy (4) Japan (2) -Keio and Tohoku Norway (1) Poland (1) Portugal (1) Russian Federation (3) Spain (5) Sweden (3) Switzerland (2) Turkey (1) United Kingdom (1)

20 20 Keios Global Alliances (3) CEMS network CEMS is a network of 26 world-class academic institutions and more than 50 corporate partners offering international postgraduate students a unique blend of high quality education and professional experience. CEMS member countries: (each country can be represented by only one institution) - Austria - Belgium - Czech Republic - Denmark - Finland - France - Germany - Hungary - Ireland - Australia - Brazil - Canada - China (Beijing) - China (Hong Kong) - Mexico - Russia - Singapore - U.S.A. - Italy - Norway - Poland - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - The Netherlands - United Kingdom

21 21 RegionMay 2001 January 2005 January 2006 January 2007 March 2008 Asia1627305070 Middle East11222 Africa00001 Oceania54677 North America3138454754 Latin America23344 Europe3158677379 Other23344 Total 88134156187221 +133 partners since 2001 +3 +22 +7 +9 +2 +1 +20 +31 +6 +1 +2 +11 +46 +7 +1 +27 Keios International Collaboration: 221 agreements with all parts of the world +20 +34 +6 +7 +1

22 22 Keios International Collaboration: 934 Students from all over the world Undergraduate students 314 Graduate students 419 Japanese Language and other short term students 201 Total934 International student enrollment by affiliation Country (Area) Number of Intl students Percen tage China276 29.6 Korea26027.8% Taiwan51 5.5 U.S.A.49 5.2 France38 4.1 Thailand29 3.1 Indonesia28 3.0 Germany18 1.9 International students by Source Country (As of May 1, 2008)

23 23 Encouraging Keio Students Outgoing: Study Abroad Expansion One-year exchange/ scholarship /self- paying ) Short- Term Study Abroad Program) Double Degree Program 2006 Total U.S.A.62(116) (178) France23(65)(4)(92) UK18(71) (89) China12(53) (65) Korea2(42) (44) Germany14(26) (40) Syria (20) (20) Canada10- (10) Australia7- (7) Sweden7- (7) Indonesia1(5) (6) Spain0(6) (6) Mexico0(5) (5) Netherlands3(1) (4) Norway4- (4) Singapore4- (4) Austria2(1) (3) Chinese Taipei 2(1) (3) Hong Kong3- (3) Italy3- (3) New Zealand2- (2) Other2- (2) Turkey2- (2) Argentina1- (1) Belgium1- (1) Denmark1- (1) Egypt1- (1) India1- (1) Ireland1- (1) Switzerland1- (1) Thailand1- (1) Total 191 (412) (4) (607)

24 24 250 million+ US dollar fundraising campaign now in progress Dramatic increase in scholarships & student housing Design the Future Award for International Students - 5 full scholarships awarded for non-Japanese MA students every year 600 and more rooms made available for intl students Keios Initiatives Celebrating the 150 th Anniversary: increasing international students

25 25 Keios Initiatives Celebrating the 150 th Anniversary: increasing international students Enhanced quality and service of Japanese language & cultural studies programs - Single most highly regarded program run by Japanese university since 1960s - Introducing new curricula to meet diversified demands of international students Constant expansion of international programs offered (5 degree & 4 double-degree) -104 undergraduate and 185 graduate courses now delivered in English

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