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Paris, OECD October 2007 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt OECD Working Party on Financial.

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Presentation on theme: "Paris, OECD October 2007 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt OECD Working Party on Financial."— Presentation transcript:

1 Paris, OECD October 2007 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt OECD Working Party on Financial Statistics Tour Europe – Salle des Nations October 2-3, 2007 Report on Data Quality Issues Regarding the Production of Information on Financial Derivatives Financial Derivative Instruments : Definitions, Structures and Evaluation.

2 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 2 Foreword on the Approach to Risk Management at Governments Level Governments tend to be risk averse; they have a low appetite or tolerance for risk. Accordingly, they generally seek to avoid making policy decisions, including financial ones, where unfavorable outcomes can have serious negative consequences. Governments preference for less risk is often revealed by their decisions to downsize their balance sheets, privatize state-owned entities, reduce their contingent liabilities and by their conservatism in analyzing private sector proposals for sharing risk. Taken from G. Wheeler, Sound Practice in Government Debt Management, The World Bank, 2004

3 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 3 Public sector units are not likely to be too skewed on the trading side. Some of the losses incurred by liability management portfolios in the public sector through the 80s and 90s, have been due either to poor monitoring procedures or to lack of understanding of the risks involved. More recently, the changes introduced to accounting of derivative operations (IAS) have created even more concern in the corporate and financial sectors. A pragmatic view could be adopted : ……If tactical trading is permitted, it should comprise only a small fraction of a governments portfolio management activities, and be executed under clearly defined portfolio guidelines covering position and loss limits, compliance procedures and performance reporting. G. Wheeler, Sound Practice in Government Debt Management, The World Bank, 2004 Foreword on the Approach to Risk Management at Governments Level (continued)

4 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 4 AGENDA DEFINITIONS ACCOUNTING GUIDELINES and EVALUATIONS

5 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 5DEFINITIONS A derivative instrument is one whose performance is based or derived on the behaviour of the price of an underlying asset. The underlying itself doesnt need to be bought or sold. A premium may be due. Since no movement of principal funds is required, they are known as off-balance sheet instruments Premiums are required only for option-based derivatives

6 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 6 DEFINITIONS (continued) DEFINITIONS Single Settlement Interest Rate Derivatives (continued) single settlement interest rate derivatives: only one settlement/fixing during the life of the contract - a financial future contract is a legally binding agreement to make or take delivery of a standard quantity of a specific financial instrument, at a future date and at a price agreed between the parties in an organized exchange; - a forward rate agreement is a legally binding agreement between two parties to determine the rate of interest that will be applied to a notional loan or deposit, of an agreed amount to be drawn or placed, on an agreed future date (the settlement date) for a specific term.

7 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 7 An interest rate option contract gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to fix the rate of interest on a notional loan or deposit for an agreed amount and for an agreed period on a specific future date. A premium is due. An option contract is the only derivative contract which allows the buyer (holder) to walk away from its obligation, this is why it doesnt come for free. DEFINITIONS continued) DEFINITIONS Single Settlement Interest Rate Derivatives (continued)

8 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 8 DEFINITIONS (continued) DEFINITIONS Multi Settlement Interest Rate and Currency Derivatives (continued) - an interest rate swap is an agreement to exchange interest- related payment in the same currency from fixed rate into floating rate (or vice versa), or from one type of floating rate to another (single currency IRS and single currency basis swap); - a currency swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange interest obligations/receipts, for an agreed period, between two different currencies and at the end of the period to re-exchange the corresponding principal amounts, at an exchange rate agreed at the beginning of the transaction. Currency swaps differ from interest rate swaps in that they involve an exchange of interest in two currencies and also involve an exchange of principal amounts.

9 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 9 ACCOUNTING GUIDELINES Accounting Manuals have marked a clear distinction between forward and option contracts …In a forward contract, which is unconditional, two counterparties agree to exchange a specified quantity of an underlying item (real or financial) at an agreed-upon price (the strike price) on a specified date. In an option contract, the purchaser acquires from the seller a right to buy or sell, (depending on whether the option is a call or a put) a specified underlying item at a strike price on or before a specified date Taken from the 2000 Supplement to the fifth edition of the Balance of Payments Manual (2000 Supplement).

10 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 10 ACCOUNTING GUIDELINES (continued) An option contract marks the acquisition of a financial asset for the buyer/holder and the incurrence of a liability in derivatives for the seller/writer. On the other hand The creation of a forward contract doesnt normally require the recording of a transaction in a financial derivative because risk exposures of equal value are usually being exchanged. That is there is zero exposure and zero value for both sides (2000 Supplement, FD18).

11 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 11 ACCOUNTING GUIDELINES (continued) Some slight nuances may be observed for cross currency swaps Indeed, according to SNA93, par and 2000 Supplement FD28, A cross currency interest-rate swap contract consists of an exchange of cash flows related to interest payments and, at the end of the contract, an exchange of principal amounts in specified currencies at a specified exchange rate. There may also be an exchange of principal at the beginning of the contract. In that case, subsequent repayments that comprise both interest and amortization of principal may be made over time and according to pre-arranged terms.

12 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 12 EVALUATIONS a Straightforward Scheme for a Cross Currency Swap Start During the life of the swap Maturity US$ LIBOR % fixed EUR interest

13 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 13 Variant on the Straightforward Scheme Variant on the Straightforward Scheme If the fixed rate to be paid increases to 4.64% a 4.8 million euro lump sum is extended at inception EVALUATIONS (continued) Swap Scheme where the Exchange of Nominal Amounts Shouldnt be Involved: Interest Rate Swap LIBOR linked original liability Institutional Unit, client Bank, counterparty in the swap Fixed rate at 4.52% 6 month LIBOR Straightforward scheme of a 500 million euro 10 year interest rate swap contract at market rate – null value swap rate

14 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 14 EVALUATIONS Swap Scheme where the Exchange of Nominal Amounts Shouldnt be Involved: Interest Rate Swap (continued) Position should be accounted for as: (a) at the money pay fixed, receive floating swap with fixed side of 4.52%; (b) a loan to the client of EUR 4.8 million repaid by fixed payments of Euro 500 ( ) million or EUR 0.60 million per year. The implied fixed rate on the amortising loan would be 4.28%.

15 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 15 EVALUATIONS Swap Scheme where the Exchange of Nominal Amounts Shouldnt be Involved: Interest Rate Swap (continued) Drawbacks Different institutions in charge of financial management and financial account compilation: any structural and likely – at this detailed stage – lack of coordination would compromise the homogeneity among countries reports Liability and risk management strategies may imply off market swap whereby the purpose is not that of contracting a shadow loan via a derivative instrument Possibility of other border line cases whereby, as a consequence, the accounting rule currently debated would be questionable

16 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 16 EVALUATIONS (continued) Final example will underpin the following points Mark to market monitoring of the positions versus volatility of the data Straightforward hedging policy versus trading target trading target

17 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 17 EVALUATIONS (continued) Contract details: US$ 1 billion seven year interest rate swap, trade date 30 June 2003 with fixed side of 3.35% - fair fixed coupon at the start being 3.33%. Consequence: a financial asset should be evidenced in the financial position

18 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt Management 18 EVALUATIONS (continued) Marking to market values the position on June 2004 would generate the following result Consequence: a financial liability should be evidenced in the financial position

19 Paris, OECD October 2007 Republic Of Italy Ministry of the Economy and Finance Department of the Treasury - Public Debt THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENT


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