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Presentation on theme: "COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES IN OECD COUNTRIES"— Presentation transcript:

MENA-OECD Investment Programme COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES IN OECD COUNTRIES Sustainable Capital Markets Development in the Gulf, Middle East and Northern Africa London. 24 July 2006 John K. Thompson Senior Financial Sector Expert, OECD MENA-OECD Investment Programme

2 Collective Investment Schemes (CIS): Background
Boom in Capital Markets Individuals increasingly prefer institutional investment to direct investment Pooling of savings by many small investors Small investors cannot afford diversified portfolios Small investors cannot make informed portfolio selection MENA-OECD Investment Programme

3 MENA-OECD Investment Programme
Collective Investment Schemes (CIS) Pooling of Savings by many small investors Many opportunities in capital markets Small investors cannot afford diversified portfolios Small investors cannot trade efficiently Access to professional management Selection of strategy MENA-OECD Investment Programme

4 Characteristics of CIS
Defined legal and governance structure Special laws Diversity of legal structure Regulatory systems Disclosure Professional management Investment policy Low cost execution Safeguards for investors MENA-OECD Investment Programme

5 MENA-OECD Investment Programme
Growth of CIS Products, OECD Europe United States Japan (right hand scale) Billions of US$ Sources: FEFSI, ICI and the Investment Trusts Association, Japan MENA-OECD Investment Programme

6 MENA-OECD Investment Programme
Worldwide Investment Fund Assets (Trillions of euros, end of quarter) MENA-OECD Investment Programme

7 MENA-OECD Investment Programme
Geographical Trends in Investment Fund Assets in (Billions of euro, end of period) MENA-OECD Investment Programme

8 MENA-OECD Investment Programme
Agency Dilemma in CIS Large pools of assets under control of financial institutions investors with limited ability to monitor Asymmetry of Power and Information Investors (small, often unsophisticated, dispersed) Investment Manager/Operator (control of information, sophisticated) Outright Abuse: fraud / theft / misrepresentation Conflict of Interest MENA-OECD Investment Programme

9 ‘First Generation’ Legislative Reforms
Outright abuses of agency relationship Theft Fraud Misrepresentation of portfolio Improper valuation Solution: National and international laws, regulation and standards Investment Company Act of 1940 (USA) OECD Principles 1971 EC/EU UCITS Directives 1985 IOSCO Principles 1994 Issues Covered: Funds segregation, Disclosure, Valuation, Investment Restrictions And Policies MENA-OECD Investment Programme

10 Typology of Conflicts of Interest
Investment Manager vs. Investor Affiliated Financial and Non-Financial Companies Non-Affiliated Financial Companies MENA-OECD Investment Programme

11 Abuses of Investor Confidence
Cross subsidization Allocation of costs Excessive trading (churning) Use of affiliated intermediaries Support of securities underwritten by affiliates Support of securities of companies with banking relationships Support of affiliated non-finance companies, i.e. ‘captive’ finance MENA-OECD Investment Programme

12 Use of Ownership Rights
CIS are increasingly important owners of equity Disinclined to be active investors Uncertain demand from final investors (performance not governance) Financial costs of activism Hesitant to oppose management Criticism: CIS represent final owners of capital but have not pushed hard enough for better corporate governance (‘Asleep at the wheel’) MENA-OECD Investment Programme

13 The Ultimate Weapon: Transparency and Disclosure
Investors can liquidate positions at will Investors now have access to a vast body of information to support informed decisions Disclosure: Mandatory Voluntary Information increasingly available on a comparable basis, standardized presentation, ratings for : Performance Fees and Expenses Governance MENA-OECD Investment Programme

14 Investor Access to Information
Popular press Specialized press (ex: Money magazine) Information service providers Lipper Morningstar S&P Use of information technology Recent innovation ratings of CIS governance (Morningstar) Database of companies accused of malfeasance MENA-OECD Investment Programme

15 MENA-OECD Investment Programme
Standards for CIS Issues Covered Under Standards Account segregation Valuation Investment restrictions and policies Periodic disclosure Prospectus Depositories MENA-OECD Investment Programme

16 MENA-OECD Investment Programme
Standards for CIS Domestic Standards In-house policies Industry standards Law and Regulation Market International Standards OECD Principles (1971) EC/EU UCITS Directives 1985, 2000, 2001, 2002 IOSCO Principles 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000 MENA-OECD Investment Programme

17 Case Study: Strengthening Governance in the USA
Internal firm reviews of practice Compensation Firewalls Compliance Enlarged role for independent directors (voluntary and mandatory) Stronger requirements for independent and adequacy of time and information Governance information and ratings by Morningstar Global settlement (SEC and state attorneys general) SEC Requirements for disclosure of voting practices Corporate governance policies on websites MENA-OECD Investment Programme

18 Strengthening Governance
Firm level initiatives Trust is an asset; firms must protect reputation Industry Associations Voluntary Codes and Best Practices Official Regulation Reviews of rules and practices New rules Sanctions International Standards IOSCO EU MENA-OECD Investment Programme

19 Relevance for MENA Countries
Rapidly Growing Savings Periodic Instability Need for Investor Safeguards/ Professional Management Adaptability to Islamic Finance Issues: Should there be international competition in CIS Is there a Need for International Coordination (EU UCITS Directives?) Which centers will become market leaders in the CIS sector? MENA-OECD Investment Programme


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