Presentation on theme: "Updates on international efforts for risk reduction of PFCs Kei Ohno Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention"— Presentation transcript:
Updates on international efforts for risk reduction of PFCs Kei Ohno Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention
Objective: To protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Stockholm Convention
Annex A (Elimination) Pesticides: Aldrin, alpha HCH, beta HCH, chlordane, chlordecone, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, lindane, mirex, toxaphene Industrial chemicals: hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, hexabromobiphenyl, hexa and hepta BDEs, tetra and penta BDEs, pentachlorobenzene, Annex B (Restriction) Pesticides: DDT Industrial chemicals: Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF) Annex C (Unintentional production) Dioxins and furans, PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene Listed 21 POPs
Implement control measures If no alternatives, register specific exemptions, acceptable purposes Develop and implement Action Plans for unintentional POPs Develop inventories of the stockpiles Review and update National Implementation Plan Conduct monitoring for effectiveness evaluation Obligations for listed POPs
Acceptable purposes for PFOS 1.Photo imaging 2.Photo resist and anti-reflective coatings for semi- conductors 3.Etching agent for compound semi-conductors and ceramic filters 4.Aviation hydraulic fluids 5.Metal plating only in closed-loop systems 6.Certain medical devices (e.g. ETFE layers, radio-opaque ETFE, in vitro diagnostic medical devices, CCD colour filters) 7.Fire fighting foam 8.Insect baits for control of leaf-cutting ants.
Specific exemptions for PFOS 1.Photo masks in the semiconductor and LCD industries 2.Metal plating (decorative and hard) 3.Electric and electronic parts for some colour printers and colour copy machines 4.Insecticides for control of red imported fire ants and termites 5.Chemically driven oil production 6.Carpets 7.Leather and apparel 8.Textiles and upholstery 9.Paper and packaging 10.Coatings and coating additives 11.Rubber and plastics
Risk management evaluation document for PFOS (2007 and 2008) UNEP/POPS/POPRC.3/20/Add.5 and UNEP/POPS/POPRC.4/15/Add.6 Efficacy and efficiency of possible control measures Alternatives (costs, risks, efficacy, accessibility) Positive/negative impacts of control measures on health, agriculture, biota, economic aspects, social costs Waste, disposal implications, stockpiles Access to information and public education Status of control and monitoring capacity Any national or regional control actions Information gathered in accordance with Annex F
General guidance on consideration for identification of alternatives (2009) UNEP/POPS/POPRC.5/10/Add.1 Collection of use and emission information on chemicals Consultation to define a chemicals use Description of the chemicals existing use and functionality Information on release into the environment Identification of alternatives Identification of potential alternatives Assessment of availability, technical feasibility, accessibility and efficacy of alternatives Assessment of risk related to alternatives POPs screening criteria Hazardous properties Non-chemical alternatives Verification of controls in other jurisdictions Social and economic assessment of alternatives Evaluation of alternatives
Guidance on alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate and its derivatives (2010) Objectives of the study: To summarize what is currently known about alternatives to PFOS, its salts, and PFOSF To enhance the capacity of developing countries and countries with economies in transition to phase-out PFOS To be published in UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/13/Add.3 (UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/INF/8 revised at POPRC6)
PFOS substances mentioned in Annex BCAS No: Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid Potassium perfluorooctane sulfonate Lithium perfluorooctane sulfonate Ammonium perfluorooctane sulfonate Diethanolammonium perfluorooctane sulfonate Perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride Tetraethylammonium perfluorooctane sulfonate Di(decyl)di(methyl)ammonium perfluorooctane sulfonate Section II. Characteristics of PFOS and its derivatives More complex PFOS precursors are often used. These derivatives are covered through the listing of PFOSF, the basic material for their manufacture.
Use areaUse of PFOS-related substancesAlternatives used Impregnation of textiles, leather and carpets PFOS-related substances have been phased out in most OECD countries. Other fluorinated compounds, like C 6 - fluorotelomers and PFBS, silicone-based products, stearamidomethyl pyridine chloride Impregnation of paper and cardboard PFOS-related substances have been phased out in most OECD countries. Fluorotelomer-based substances and phosphates, mechanical processes Cleaning agents, waxes/ polishes for cars and floors PFOS-related substances have been phased out in most OECD countries. Fluorotelomer-based substances, fluorinated polyethers, C 4 -perfluorinated compounds Surface coatings, paint and varnish PFOS-related substances have been phased out in most OECD countries. Telomer-based compounds, fluorinated polyethers, PFBS, propylated aromatics, silicone surfactants, sulfosuccinates, polypropylene glycol ethers Oil production and mining PFOS derivatives may occasionally be used as surfactants in the oil and mining industries. PFBS, telomer-based fluorosurfactants, perfluoroalkyl-substituted amines, acids, amino acids and thioether acids Section III. Alternatives to the use of PFOS (1)
Use areaUse of PFOS-related substancesAlternatives used Photographic industryA shift to digital techniques has reduced the use drastically. Telomer-based surfactants products, hydrocarbon surfactants, silicone products, C 3 -C 4 -fluorinated chemicals Electrical and electronic parts PFOS-based chemicals are or have been used in the manufacturing of digital cameras, mobile phones, printers, scanners, satellite communication and radar systems, etc. For most of these uses, alternatives are available or are under development. Semiconductor industryPFOS is still used but in lower concentrations. No substitutes with comparable effectiveness have been identified, and doing so may take up to 5 years, according to the industry. It should be possible to use PFBS, fluorinated polyethers or telomers. PesticidesSulfluramid is used in some countries as an active substance and surfactant in pesticide products for termites, cockroaches and other insects. Other fluorosurfactants may be used as inert surfactants in other pesticide products. Synthetic piperonyl compounds such as S Methoprene, Pyriproxyfen, Fipronil and Chlorpyrifos are alternative active substances, sometimes used in combination. Alternative surfactants may exist. (2) Section III. Alternatives to the use of PFOS
Use areaUse of PFOS-related substancesAlternatives used Aviation hydraulic oilsPFOS-related compounds may still be used. Other fluorinated substances and phosphate compounds could be used. Medical devicesOld video endoscopes at hospitals contain a CCD colour filter that contains a small amount of PFOS. PFOS is also used as an effective dispersant for contrast agents in radio-opaque catheters. Repairing such video endoscopes requires a CCD colour filter containing PFOS. New CCD filters are PFOS-free. For radio-opaque ethylene tetrafluoroethylene, PFBS can replace PFOS. Metal platingPFOS-compounds are still used in hard chrome plating. Cr-III has replaced Cr-VI in decorative chrome plating. Some non-fluorinated alternatives are marketed but they are not considered equally effective in hard chrome plating. A C 6 -fluortelomer is used as a substitute and may be effective. PFBS derivatives may also be used. Physical barriers may also apply. Fire-fighting foamsThe use of PFOS-related substances in new products has been phased out in most OECD countries. Stocks are still being used up. C 6 – fluorotelomers are used as substitutes in new products; fluorine-free alternatives are used for training exercises and possibly in other settings than offshore. (3) Section III. Alternatives to the use of PFOS
Section IV: Properties of alternative substances and hazard assessment 1.Shorter-chain perfluoroalkyl sulfonates 2.Shorter-chain perfluoroalkyl ketones and ethers 3.Polyfluorodialkyl ether sulfonates 4.Fluorotelomers and fluorophosphates 5.Fluorinated co-polymers 6.Fluorinated polyethers 7.Siloxanes and silicone polymers 8.Propylated aromatics 9.Sulfosuccinates 10.Stearamidomethyl pyridine chloride 11.Polypropylene glycol ether, amines, and sulfates Brief description of the environmental, safety and health properties of PFOS alternatives:
Section V: Comparative assessment of PFOS and possible alternatives ChemicalCAS No:Molecular weight Price in per 100 g Perfluorobutane sulfonyl fluoride (PFBSF) Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) ,800 Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) ,122 Perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF) Fluorotelomer 6:2 alcohol Fluorotelomer 8:2 alcohol Fluorotelomer 10:2 alcohol ,440 Methyl nonafluorobutyl ether Prices of selected basic polyfluorinated laboratory chemicals ABCR 2006–2007 catalogue: Fluorochemicals. Karlsruhe, Germany
Section VI: Conclusions, recommendations and future developments 1.Low surface tension is the key 2.Substitutes for PFOS are available 3.Need for better alternatives 4.Need for incentives 5.Complex assessment 6.Need for more public data and information on alternatives 7.Need for better communication in the value chain 8.Need for better communication in the value chain
Work programme on newly listed persistent organic pollutants (SC-4/19)
Collected information 1.Types and quantities of articles containing PFOS etc., concentrations in articles 2.Types of processes using PFOS etc., concentrations, options for the environmental management 3.Types of articles recycled, the extent of recycling, articles produced from recycling, options for the environmental management 4.Cost effectiveness of different management options 5.Sampling and analysis methods 6.Remediation methods for contaminated sites
Recommendations on risk reduction for PFOS, its salts, and PFOSF by the POPs Review Committee (POPRC6) To be published in UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/13 1.For industrial production, use, and releases and deposits 2.For use of PFOS 3.For PFOS in existing stocks 4.For recycling of PFOS containing articles 5.For PFOS in consumer products deposited on municipal landfills 6.For releases of PFOS from contaminated sites Recommendations are given in chronological order of the life cycle, provided in short, medium, and long term framework.
Short-term recommendations in summary: a)Identify disposal options in compliance with Stockholm Convention guidelines for the destruction of PFOS containing waste including sludge and prevent depositing in landfills; b)Establish safely storage for indicative PFOS-containing materials and articles as well as existing stocks; c)Conduct monitoring of PFOS contamination in the surrounding waters of landfills with deposits from PFOS producers/users; d)Assess occupational exposures of staff working in facilities where articles and wastes potentially containing PFOS are handled; e)Identify and introduce alternatives to PFOS in open applications and promote use in closed-loop systems and BAT/BEP in treatment; f)Gather information on the experiences of the use of PFOS alternatives including risk assessment of the alternatives; g)Raise awareness on environmental and human health effects of PFOS and provide training on appropriate handling of PFOS, including risks caused by misuse of PFOS containing carpets; h)Establish a strategy for identifying and monitoring of sites contaminated with PFOS in accordance with Article 6.
Whats next? COP April 2011 in Geneva
For more information: Contact: Kei Ohno Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention
Annex A with Specific exemptions Need to register (except for PCBs) Exemption open for 5 years from the date of entry into force When all registrations have expired, no new registrations possible Exemptions may be extended by the COP based on a report by the Party justifying the continuing need for the exemption. Annex B with Specific exemptions and Acceptable purposes Specific exemptions: same as Annex A Acceptable purpose: need to register, no expiration unless otherwise decided by the COP NOTE: Specific exemptions vs. acceptable purposes
NOTE: Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC) Subsidiary body to the Convention, mandated to review proposals submitted by Parties for listing new chemicals in Annex A, B, or C. 31 government-designated members Terms of reference, conflict of interest procedure: SC-1/7,SC-1/8, SC-4/20