Presentation on theme: "Updates on international efforts for risk reduction of PFCs"— Presentation transcript:
1Updates on international efforts for risk reduction of PFCs Kei OhnoSecretariat of the Stockholm Convention
2Stockholm Convention Objective: To protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
3Listed 21 POPs Annex A (Elimination) Annex B (Restriction) Pesticides: Aldrin, alpha HCH, beta HCH, chlordane, chlordecone, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, lindane, mirex, toxapheneIndustrial chemicals: hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, hexabromobiphenyl, hexa and hepta BDEs, tetra and penta BDEs, pentachlorobenzene,Annex B (Restriction)Pesticides: DDTIndustrial chemicals: Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF)Annex C (Unintentional production)Dioxins and furans, PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene
4Obligations for listed POPs Implement control measuresIf no alternatives, register specific exemptions, acceptable purposesDevelop and implement Action Plans for unintentional POPsDevelop inventories of the stockpilesReview and update National Implementation PlanConduct monitoring for effectiveness evaluation
5Acceptable purposes for PFOS Photo imagingPhoto resist and anti-reflective coatings for semi-conductorsEtching agent for compound semi-conductors and ceramic filtersAviation hydraulic fluidsMetal plating only in closed-loop systemsCertain medical devices (e.g. ETFE layers, radio-opaque ETFE, in vitro diagnostic medical devices, CCD colour filters)Fire fighting foamInsect baits for control of leaf-cutting ants.
6Specific exemptions for PFOS Photo masks in the semiconductor and LCD industriesMetal plating (decorative and hard)Electric and electronic parts for some colour printers and colour copy machinesInsecticides for control of red imported fire ants and termitesChemically driven oil productionCarpetsLeather and apparelTextiles and upholsteryPaper and packagingCoatings and coating additivesRubber and plastics
7Risk management evaluation document for PFOS (2007 and 2008) UNEP/POPS/POPRC.3/20/Add.5 and UNEP/POPS/POPRC.4/15/Add.6Information gathered in accordance with Annex FEfficacy and efficiency of possible control measuresAlternatives (costs, risks, efficacy, accessibility)Positive/negative impacts of control measures on health, agriculture, biota, economic aspects, social costsWaste, disposal implications, stockpilesAccess to information and public educationStatus of control and monitoring capacityAny national or regional control actions
8General guidance on consideration for identification of alternatives (2009) UNEP/POPS/POPRC.5/10/Add.1Collection of use and emission information on chemicalsConsultation to define a chemical’s useDescription of the chemical’s existing use and functionalityInformation on release into the environmentIdentification of alternativesIdentification of potential alternativesAssessment of availability, technical feasibility, accessibility and efficacy of alternativesAssessment of risk related to alternativesPOPs screening criteriaHazardous propertiesNon-chemical alternativesVerification of controls in other jurisdictionsSocial and economic assessment of alternativesEvaluation of alternatives
9Guidance on alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate and its derivatives (2010) To be published in UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/13/Add.3 (UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/INF/8 revised at POPRC6)Objectives of the study:To summarize what is currently known about alternatives to PFOS, its salts, and PFOSFTo enhance the capacity of developing countries and countries with economies in transition to phase-out PFOS
10Section II. Characteristics of PFOS and its derivatives PFOS substances mentioned in Annex BCAS No:Perfluorooctane sulfonic acidPotassium perfluorooctane sulfonateLithium perfluorooctane sulfonateAmmonium perfluorooctane sulfonateDiethanolammonium perfluorooctane sulfonatePerfluorooctane sulfonyl fluorideTetraethylammonium perfluorooctane sulfonateDi(decyl)di(methyl)ammonium perfluorooctane sulfonatePFOSF is an intermediate material for production of all C8-perfluorinated alkyl sulfo compounds. Production and use of PFOSF and consequently also of all other C8-perfluorinated alkyl sulfo compounds is restricted to acceptable purposes and specific exemptions.More complex PFOS precursors are often used.These derivatives are covered through the listing of PFOSF, the basic material for their manufacture.
11Use of PFOS-related substances Section III. Alternatives to the use of PFOS(1)Use areaUse of PFOS-related substancesAlternatives usedImpregnation of textiles, leather and carpetsPFOS-related substances have been phased out in most OECD countries.Other fluorinated compounds, like C6-fluorotelomers and PFBS, silicone-based products, stearamidomethyl pyridine chlorideImpregnation of paper and cardboardFluorotelomer-based substances and phosphates, mechanical processesCleaning agents, waxes/ polishes for cars and floorsFluorotelomer-based substances, fluorinated polyethers, C4-perfluorinated compoundsSurface coatings, paint and varnishTelomer-based compounds, fluorinated polyethers, PFBS, propylated aromatics, silicone surfactants, sulfosuccinates, polypropylene glycol ethersOil production and miningPFOS derivatives may occasionally be used as surfactants in the oil and mining industries.PFBS, telomer-based fluorosurfactants, perfluoroalkyl-substituted amines, acids, amino acids and thioether acids
12Use of PFOS-related substances Section III. Alternatives to the use of PFOS(2)Use areaUse of PFOS-related substancesAlternatives usedPhotographic industryA shift to digital techniques has reduced the use drastically.Telomer-based surfactants products, hydrocarbon surfactants, silicone products, C3-C4-fluorinated chemicalsElectrical and electronic partsPFOS-based chemicals are or have been used in the manufacturing of digital cameras, mobile phones, printers, scanners, satellite communication and radar systems, etc.For most of these uses, alternatives are available or are under development.Semiconductor industryPFOS is still used but in lower concentrations.No substitutes with comparable effectiveness have been identified, and doing so may take up to 5 years, according to the industry. It should be possible to use PFBS, fluorinated polyethers or telomers.PesticidesSulfluramid is used in some countries as an active substance and surfactant in pesticide products for termites, cockroaches and other insects. Other fluorosurfactants may be used as “inert” surfactants in other pesticide products.Synthetic piperonyl compounds such as S‑Methoprene, Pyriproxyfen, Fipronil and Chlorpyrifos are alternative active substances, sometimes used in combination.Alternative surfactants may exist.
13Use of PFOS-related substances Section III. Alternatives to the use of PFOS(3)Use areaUse of PFOS-related substancesAlternatives usedAviation hydraulic oilsPFOS-related compounds may still be used.Other fluorinated substances and phosphate compounds could be used.Medical devicesOld video endoscopes at hospitals contain a CCD colour filter that contains a small amount of PFOS.PFOS is also used as an effective dispersant for contrast agents in radio-opaque catheters.Repairing such video endoscopes requires a CCD colour filter containing PFOS. New CCD filters are PFOS-free. For radio-opaque ethylene tetrafluoroethylene, PFBS can replace PFOS.Metal platingPFOS-compounds are still used in hard chrome plating.Cr-III has replaced Cr-VI in decorative chrome plating.Some non-fluorinated alternatives are marketed but they are not considered equally effective in hard chrome plating. A C6-fluortelomer is used as a substitute and may be effective. PFBS derivatives may also be used. Physical barriers may also apply.Fire-fighting foamsThe use of PFOS-related substances in new products has been phased out in most OECD countries. Stocks are still being used up.C6– fluorotelomers are used as substitutes in new products; fluorine-free alternatives are used for training exercises and possibly in other settings than offshore.
14Section IV: Properties of alternative substances and hazard assessment Brief description of the environmental, safety and health properties of PFOS alternatives:Shorter-chain perfluoroalkyl sulfonatesShorter-chain perfluoroalkyl ketones and ethersPolyfluorodialkyl ether sulfonatesFluorotelomers and fluorophosphatesFluorinated co-polymersFluorinated polyethersSiloxanes and silicone polymersPropylated aromaticsSulfosuccinatesStearamidomethyl pyridine chloridePolypropylene glycol ether, amines, and sulfates
15Section V: Comparative assessment of PFOS and possible alternatives Prices of selected basic polyfluorinated laboratory chemicalsChemicalCAS No:Molecular weightPrice in €per 100 gPerfluorobutane sulfonyl fluoride (PFBSF)303.09136Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS)300.101,800Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)500.131,122Perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF)502.1292Fluorotelomer 6:2 alcohol364.10130Fluorotelomer 8:2 alcohol464.12187Fluorotelomer 10:2 alcohol564.141,440Methyl nonafluorobutyl ether250.06745ABCR 2006–2007 catalogue: Fluorochemicals. Karlsruhe, Germany
16Section VI: Conclusions, recommendations and future developments Low surface tension is the keySubstitutes for PFOS are availableNeed for better alternativesNeed for incentivesComplex assessmentNeed for more public data and information on alternativesNeed for better communication in the value chain
17Work programme on newly listed persistent organic pollutants (SC-4/19)
18Collected information Types and quantities of articles containing PFOS etc., concentrations in articlesTypes of processes using PFOS etc., concentrations, options for the environmental managementTypes of articles recycled, the extent of recycling, articles produced from recycling, options for the environmental managementCost effectiveness of different management optionsSampling and analysis methodsRemediation methods for contaminated sites
19Recommendations on risk reduction for PFOS, its salts, and PFOSF by the POPs Review Committee (POPRC6)To be published in UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/13Recommendations are given in chronological order of the life cycle, provided in short, medium, and long term framework.For industrial production, use, and releases and depositsFor use of PFOSFor PFOS in existing stocksFor recycling of PFOS containing articlesFor PFOS in consumer products deposited on municipal landfillsFor releases of PFOS from contaminated sitesGiven that PFOS precursors may contribute to the overall presence of PFOS in the environment, the recommendations below consider, as appropriate, the management of PFOS and PFOS-related chemicals.Countries in the position to do so, are encouraged to take up these recommendations as soon as possible and exchange their experiences and success stories with other countries. Transfer of knowledge and technology, including capacity strengthening to identify PFOS in articles/applications and monitor PFOS in the environment, should be promoted in support of full participation in the global effort to reduce risk from PFOS.
20Short-term recommendations in summary: Identify disposal options in compliance with Stockholm Convention guidelines for the destruction of PFOS containing waste including sludge and prevent depositing in landfills;Establish safely storage for indicative PFOS-containing materials and articles as well as existing stocks;Conduct monitoring of PFOS contamination in the surrounding waters of landfills with deposits from PFOS producers/users;Assess occupational exposures of staff working in facilities where articles and wastes potentially containing PFOS are handled;Identify and introduce alternatives to PFOS in open applications and promote use in closed-loop systems and BAT/BEP in treatment;Gather information on the experiences of the use of PFOS alternatives including risk assessment of the alternatives;Raise awareness on environmental and human health effects of PFOS and provide training on appropriate handling of PFOS, including risks caused by misuse of PFOS containing carpets;Establish a strategy for identifying and monitoring of sites contaminated with PFOS in accordance with Article 6.
22For more information: http://www.pops.int Contact: Kei Ohno Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention
23NOTE: Specific exemptions vs. acceptable purposes Annex A with Specific exemptionsNeed to register (except for PCBs)Exemption open for 5 years from the date of entry into forceWhen all registrations have expired, no new registrations possibleExemptions may be extended by the COP based on a report by the Party justifying the continuing need for the exemption.Annex B with Specific exemptions and Acceptable purposesSpecific exemptions: same as Annex AAcceptable purpose: need to register, no expiration unless otherwise decided by the COP
24NOTE: Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC) Subsidiary body to the Convention, mandated to review proposals submitted by Parties for listing new chemicals in Annex A, B, or C.31 government-designated membersTerms of reference, conflict of interest procedure: SC-1/7,SC-1/8, SC-4/20