Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Updates on international efforts for risk reduction of PFCs

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Updates on international efforts for risk reduction of PFCs"— Presentation transcript:

1 Updates on international efforts for risk reduction of PFCs
Kei Ohno Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention

2 Stockholm Convention Objective:
To protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

3 Listed 21 POPs Annex A (Elimination) Annex B (Restriction)
Pesticides: Aldrin, alpha HCH, beta HCH, chlordane, chlordecone, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, lindane, mirex, toxaphene Industrial chemicals: hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, hexabromobiphenyl, hexa and hepta BDEs, tetra and penta BDEs, pentachlorobenzene, Annex B (Restriction) Pesticides: DDT Industrial chemicals: Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF) Annex C (Unintentional production) Dioxins and furans, PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene

4 Obligations for listed POPs
Implement control measures If no alternatives, register specific exemptions, acceptable purposes Develop and implement Action Plans for unintentional POPs Develop inventories of the stockpiles Review and update National Implementation Plan Conduct monitoring for effectiveness evaluation

5 Acceptable purposes for PFOS
Photo imaging Photo resist and anti-reflective coatings for semi-conductors Etching agent for compound semi-conductors and ceramic filters Aviation hydraulic fluids Metal plating only in closed-loop systems Certain medical devices (e.g. ETFE layers, radio-opaque ETFE, in vitro diagnostic medical devices, CCD colour filters) Fire fighting foam Insect baits for control of leaf-cutting ants.

6 Specific exemptions for PFOS
Photo masks in the semiconductor and LCD industries Metal plating (decorative and hard) Electric and electronic parts for some colour printers and colour copy machines Insecticides for control of red imported fire ants and termites Chemically driven oil production Carpets Leather and apparel Textiles and upholstery Paper and packaging Coatings and coating additives Rubber and plastics

7 Risk management evaluation document for PFOS (2007 and 2008)
UNEP/POPS/POPRC.3/20/Add.5 and UNEP/POPS/POPRC.4/15/Add.6 Information gathered in accordance with Annex F Efficacy and efficiency of possible control measures Alternatives (costs, risks, efficacy, accessibility) Positive/negative impacts of control measures on health, agriculture, biota, economic aspects, social costs Waste, disposal implications, stockpiles Access to information and public education Status of control and monitoring capacity Any national or regional control actions

8 General guidance on consideration for identification of alternatives (2009)
UNEP/POPS/POPRC.5/10/Add.1 Collection of use and emission information on chemicals Consultation to define a chemical’s use Description of the chemical’s existing use and functionality Information on release into the environment Identification of alternatives Identification of potential alternatives Assessment of availability, technical feasibility, accessibility and efficacy of alternatives Assessment of risk related to alternatives POPs screening criteria Hazardous properties Non-chemical alternatives Verification of controls in other jurisdictions Social and economic assessment of alternatives Evaluation of alternatives

9 Guidance on alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate and its derivatives (2010)
To be published in UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/13/Add.3 (UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/INF/8 revised at POPRC6) Objectives of the study: To summarize what is currently known about alternatives to PFOS, its salts, and PFOSF To enhance the capacity of developing countries and countries with economies in transition to phase-out PFOS

10 Section II. Characteristics of PFOS and its derivatives
PFOS substances mentioned in Annex B CAS No: Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid Potassium perfluorooctane sulfonate Lithium perfluorooctane sulfonate Ammonium perfluorooctane sulfonate Diethanolammonium perfluorooctane sulfonate Perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride Tetraethylammonium perfluorooctane sulfonate Di(decyl)di(methyl)ammonium perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOSF is an intermediate material for production of all C8-perfluorinated alkyl sulfo compounds. Production and use of PFOSF and consequently also of all other C8-perfluorinated alkyl sulfo compounds is restricted to acceptable purposes and specific exemptions. More complex PFOS precursors are often used. These derivatives are covered through the listing of PFOSF, the basic material for their manufacture.

11 Use of PFOS-related substances
Section III. Alternatives to the use of PFOS (1) Use area Use of PFOS-related substances Alternatives used Impregnation of textiles, leather and carpets PFOS-related substances have been phased out in most OECD countries. Other fluorinated compounds, like C6-fluorotelomers and PFBS, silicone-based products, stearamidomethyl pyridine chloride Impregnation of paper and cardboard Fluorotelomer-based substances and phosphates, mechanical processes Cleaning agents, waxes/ polishes for cars and floors Fluorotelomer-based substances, fluorinated polyethers, C4-perfluorinated compounds Surface coatings, paint and varnish Telomer-based compounds, fluorinated polyethers, PFBS, propylated aromatics, silicone surfactants, sulfosuccinates, polypropylene glycol ethers Oil production and mining PFOS derivatives may occasionally be used as surfactants in the oil and mining industries. PFBS, telomer-based fluorosurfactants, perfluoroalkyl-substituted amines, acids, amino acids and thioether acids

12 Use of PFOS-related substances
Section III. Alternatives to the use of PFOS (2) Use area Use of PFOS-related substances Alternatives used Photographic industry A shift to digital techniques has reduced the use drastically. Telomer-based surfactants products, hydrocarbon surfactants, silicone products, C3-C4-fluorinated chemicals Electrical and electronic parts PFOS-based chemicals are or have been used in the manufacturing of digital cameras, mobile phones, printers, scanners, satellite communication and radar systems, etc. For most of these uses, alternatives are available or are under development. Semiconductor industry PFOS is still used but in lower concentrations. No substitutes with comparable effectiveness have been identified, and doing so may take up to 5 years, according to the industry. It should be possible to use PFBS, fluorinated polyethers or telomers. Pesticides Sulfluramid is used in some countries as an active substance and surfactant in pesticide products for termites, cockroaches and other insects. Other fluorosurfactants may be used as “inert” surfactants in other pesticide products. Synthetic piperonyl compounds such as S‑Methoprene, Pyriproxyfen, Fipronil and Chlorpyrifos are alternative active substances, sometimes used in combination. Alternative surfactants may exist.

13 Use of PFOS-related substances
Section III. Alternatives to the use of PFOS (3) Use area Use of PFOS-related substances Alternatives used Aviation hydraulic oils PFOS-related compounds may still be used. Other fluorinated substances and phosphate compounds could be used. Medical devices Old video endoscopes at hospitals contain a CCD colour filter that contains a small amount of PFOS. PFOS is also used as an effective dispersant for contrast agents in radio-opaque catheters. Repairing such video endoscopes requires a CCD colour filter containing PFOS. New CCD filters are PFOS-free. For radio-opaque ethylene tetrafluoroethylene, PFBS can replace PFOS. Metal plating PFOS-compounds are still used in hard chrome plating. Cr-III has replaced Cr-VI in decorative chrome plating. Some non-fluorinated alternatives are marketed but they are not considered equally effective in hard chrome plating. A C6-fluortelomer is used as a substitute and may be effective. PFBS derivatives may also be used. Physical barriers may also apply. Fire-fighting foams The use of PFOS-related substances in new products has been phased out in most OECD countries. Stocks are still being used up. C6– fluorotelomers are used as substitutes in new products; fluorine-free alternatives are used for training exercises and possibly in other settings than offshore.

14 Section IV: Properties of alternative substances and hazard assessment
Brief description of the environmental, safety and health properties of PFOS alternatives: Shorter-chain perfluoroalkyl sulfonates Shorter-chain perfluoroalkyl ketones and ethers Polyfluorodialkyl ether sulfonates Fluorotelomers and fluorophosphates Fluorinated co-polymers Fluorinated polyethers Siloxanes and silicone polymers Propylated aromatics Sulfosuccinates Stearamidomethyl pyridine chloride Polypropylene glycol ether, amines, and sulfates

15 Section V: Comparative assessment of PFOS and possible alternatives
Prices of selected basic polyfluorinated laboratory chemicals Chemical CAS No: Molecular weight Price in € per 100 g Perfluorobutane sulfonyl fluoride (PFBSF) 303.09 136 Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) 300.10 1,800 Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) 500.13 1,122 Perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF) 502.12 92 Fluorotelomer 6:2 alcohol 364.10 130 Fluorotelomer 8:2 alcohol 464.12 187 Fluorotelomer 10:2 alcohol 564.14 1,440 Methyl nonafluorobutyl ether 250.06 745 ABCR 2006–2007 catalogue: Fluorochemicals. Karlsruhe, Germany

16 Section VI: Conclusions, recommendations and future developments
Low surface tension is the key Substitutes for PFOS are available Need for better alternatives Need for incentives Complex assessment Need for more public data and information on alternatives Need for better communication in the value chain

17 Work programme on newly listed persistent organic pollutants (SC-4/19)

18 Collected information
Types and quantities of articles containing PFOS etc., concentrations in articles Types of processes using PFOS etc., concentrations, options for the environmental management Types of articles recycled, the extent of recycling, articles produced from recycling, options for the environmental management Cost effectiveness of different management options Sampling and analysis methods Remediation methods for contaminated sites

19 Recommendations on risk reduction for PFOS, its salts, and PFOSF by the POPs Review Committee (POPRC6) To be published in UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/13 Recommendations are given in chronological order of the life cycle, provided in short, medium, and long term framework. For industrial production, use, and releases and deposits For use of PFOS For PFOS in existing stocks For recycling of PFOS containing articles For PFOS in consumer products deposited on municipal landfills For releases of PFOS from contaminated sites Given that PFOS precursors may contribute to the overall presence of PFOS in the environment, the recommendations below consider, as appropriate, the management of PFOS and PFOS-related chemicals. Countries in the position to do so, are encouraged to take up these recommendations as soon as possible and exchange their experiences and success stories with other countries. Transfer of knowledge and technology, including capacity strengthening to identify PFOS in articles/applications and monitor PFOS in the environment, should be promoted in support of full participation in the global effort to reduce risk from PFOS.

20 Short-term recommendations in summary:
Identify disposal options in compliance with Stockholm Convention guidelines for the destruction of PFOS containing waste including sludge and prevent depositing in landfills; Establish safely storage for indicative PFOS-containing materials and articles as well as existing stocks; Conduct monitoring of PFOS contamination in the surrounding waters of landfills with deposits from PFOS producers/users; Assess occupational exposures of staff working in facilities where articles and wastes potentially containing PFOS are handled; Identify and introduce alternatives to PFOS in open applications and promote use in closed-loop systems and BAT/BEP in treatment; Gather information on the experiences of the use of PFOS alternatives including risk assessment of the alternatives; Raise awareness on environmental and human health effects of PFOS and provide training on appropriate handling of PFOS, including risks caused by misuse of PFOS containing carpets; Establish a strategy for identifying and monitoring of sites contaminated with PFOS in accordance with Article 6.

21 What’s next? COP 5 25-29 April 2011 in Geneva

22 For more information: Contact: Kei Ohno
Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention

23 NOTE: Specific exemptions vs. acceptable purposes
Annex A with Specific exemptions Need to register (except for PCBs) Exemption open for 5 years from the date of entry into force When all registrations have expired, no new registrations possible Exemptions may be extended by the COP based on a report by the Party justifying the continuing need for the exemption. Annex B with Specific exemptions and Acceptable purposes Specific exemptions: same as Annex A Acceptable purpose: need to register, no expiration unless otherwise decided by the COP

24 NOTE: Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC)
Subsidiary body to the Convention, mandated to review proposals submitted by Parties for listing new chemicals in Annex A, B, or C. 31 government-designated members Terms of reference, conflict of interest procedure: SC-1/7,SC-1/8, SC-4/20

Download ppt "Updates on international efforts for risk reduction of PFCs"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google