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Metacognition and Math Education in Innovation-Driven Societies: Whats New? Zemira R. Mevarech Bracha Kramarski Bar-Ilan University, Israel OECD, Paris, 2012

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Three Warm-up Questions 1. Why teach mathematics in innovation-driven societies? The answers are self-evident: - To develop quantitatively literate citizens - To enhance students ability to solve problems - To encourage logical thinking 2. Does the standard school mathematics curriculum advance these goals ? The answer is – Yes, to a partial extent: - basic skills are necessary, though not sufficient - It does not prepare students to solve complex, unfamiliar, non- routine problems - It is irrelevant for advancing math creativity, critical thinking, and communications - In no way does it train students to regulate problem-solving processes 3. What types of problem solving are useful for innovation-driven societies?

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Problem Solving for Innovation-Driven Societies: What Types of Problems are Useful? Standard, routine, textbook problems vs. Complex, Unfamiliar, Non-routine (CUN) problems Authentic problems Large variability in CUN problems: What is complex to one student, is simple to another, etc.

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What Skills are useful in Innovation-Driven Societies? Mathematical problem solving Mathematical reasoning Mathematical creativity and critical thinking Mathematical communications Meta-cognitive skills for regulating the solution of CUN problems

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Two Examples: Which is the Cheapest Supermarket? 1. Before Christmas, several supermarkets advertised that they were the cheapest supermarket in town. Your task is to decide which claim was correct. Please give your reasoning and findings. Please prepare a sixty-minute TV show to present your findings. 2. Before Christmas, two supermarkets advertised that they have sales. The prices in the two supermarkets were: Supermarket A – 1kg of meat for $10 and 1kg of turkey for $8. Supermarket B – 1kg of meat for $12 and 1kg of turkey for $6. The Vincent family decided to buy 3kg of meat and 2kg of turkey. Which supermarket is cheaper?

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Is the Supermarket Problem (#1) a CUN math problem? Is it authentic? Is it a mathematical task even though there are no numbers in the task? Is it a complex task? Is it an unfamiliar task? Is it a non-routine task or is it based on ready made algorithms? Can it advance mathematical reasoning, creativity, critical thinking, or communications? How (if at all) can it create quantitative literate citizens? The progress from traditional to CUN problems requires the application of meta-cognitive processes that regulate cognitive processes

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Meta-cognitive Processes for Regulating Cognition What is meta-cognition all about? The nature of meta The meta-cognitive engine Does MC develop naturally and without intervention? Teachers rarely emphasize the activation of MC: Why is that? Is meta-cognition teachable? How?

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Meta-cognitive Instruction: When, How, and for Whom? Research shows: Like cognitive strategies, MC needs to be explicitly taught and intensively practice. MC instruction must be embedded in subject content. Learners must be informed of the usefulness of MC activities. MC must be part of interactive learning environments, like: cooperative learning or ICT. MC instruction is necessary at all grade levels: K-12, HE, adults. Veenman (2006); Mevarech and Kramarski (2012)

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IMPROVE: MC Instructional Method Theoretical Basis Feedback- correctives Metacognitive Guidance Cooperative Learning IMPROVE

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I I ntroduce new concepts to whole class M eta-cognitive questioning practice in small groups P ractice using MCQ R eview use of MCQ O btain mastery over routine & CUN ps V erification E nrichment and remedial activities IMPROVE: MC Instructional Method

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IMPROVE: MC Self-Directed Questioning Comprehension: What is the problem about? Connection: How is the problem similar to, or different from problems I have already solved? Please explain your reasoning. Strategies: What kinds of strategies are appropriate for solving the problem and why? Please explain your reasoning. Reflection: Does the solution make sense? Can the problem be solved in a different way? Am I stuck? Why?

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Findings

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IMPROVE Effects Over One Year Math Achievement & Reasoning

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IMPROVE & Long Lasting Effects: Immediate & Delayed Post-tests

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W hich PIZZA is the best offer? Why ? Price for suppleme nts (NIS) Diameter Price per PIZZA (NIS) Type of PIZZA PIZZA BOOM Personal PIZZA Small Medium Large SUPPER PIZZA Small Medium Large MC PIZZA Small Large

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IMPROVE for solving Authentic Tasks & Transferring to Routine Tasks

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Online Mathematical Literacy Discourse Motivation and Attitudes towards Problem Solving, Reasoning, Communication Motivation: Online learning aroused my interest in mathematical problem solving Reasoning: Online problem solving encouraged me to explain my reasoning Communication: I look forward to my friends reactions to my online solutions

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Development of Scientific Literacy by Group and Time ALN+Meta > F2F+Meta = ALN > F2F Range 0-15

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Impact of IMPROVE at the College

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Research shows: IMPROVE advances students CUN problem solving without harming students abilities to solve standard problems. Positive effects were found for K-12, HE, and Professional Development, with or without ICT. Teaching strategies alone is not enough IMPROVE is suitable for all students: both lower and higher achievers. IMPROVE showed similar positive effects in science education. IMPROVE helps to increase motivation, self- confidence, judgment of learning.

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Challenges: What next? Evidence-Based Policy Making International cooperation – dont reinvent the wheel To be effective teach MC directly and practice it intensively – We know how to do this MC will be effective in the national curriculum Include CUN problems in textbooks, teacher guides, and professional development Pre- and in-service professional development followed by workshops and in-class mentoring

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Challenges: What next? Evidence-Based Policy Making (cont.) ICT: Students find it particularly difficult to apply MC in ICT environments. It is therefore essential to reconstruct these environments by embedding MC in them. Assessment and evaluation – You teach what you assess MC pedagogies in OECD countries Teaching for understanding can be achieved by implementing evidence-based MC pedagogies

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If you think education is expensive, try ignorance! Please contact us: Many Thanks!

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