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Child development, human development and the progress of societies Fiona Stanley Telethon Institute for Child Health Research and Stephen R Zubrick Curtin.

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Presentation on theme: "Child development, human development and the progress of societies Fiona Stanley Telethon Institute for Child Health Research and Stephen R Zubrick Curtin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child development, human development and the progress of societies Fiona Stanley Telethon Institute for Child Health Research and Stephen R Zubrick Curtin University of Technology Perth, Western Australia 28 June 2007

2 Overview The Australian population: whos growing old, whos growing young? Agency, governments and nations: different views of society and progress Pathways to participation as measures of progress

3 Part 1 The Australian population: whos growing old, whose growing young?

4 Australia: Growing old and growing young

5 Growing olderGrowing younger Australian populationAustralian Aboriginal population Population (fertility rate) 20,561,00 (1.8) 419,600 (2.15) Median age36.6 years20.5 years Adult-to child ratio Life expectancy78 years males 83 years females 59 years males 67 years females Infant mortality rate 5.3 per per Persons aged 18+ for every 0-17 year old

6 Growing olderGrowing younger Australian populationAustralian Aboriginal population Fetal growth restriction 11%20% Mental health morbidity for <18yo 17%24% Low academic competence 20%58% Retention to Year 12 school 75.7%39.5% 1 In Australia, 10 years of schooling has been compulsory

7 Australia and the global perspective: Low birth-weight Low birth-weight babies per 1000 live births

8 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX RANKING, 2003 HDI Rank Country HDI Score 1Norway.94430Republic of Korea.879 2Iceland.942Canadian Aboriginal Population.877 3Sweden.94132Czech Republic.861 4Australia.93934Argentina.849 5Netherlands.938U.S. Aborginal Population.847 6Belgium.937New Zealand Maori.842 7United States.93742Costa Rica.831 8Canada.93743Chile.831 9Japan.93252Cuba Switzerland.93253Belarus United Kingdom.930Canadian Registered Indian Austria.92954Trinidad and Tobago France.92555Mexico Spain Cape Verde New Zealand.917Australian Aboriginal Population Portugal China.721 Source: Cooke, Beavon and Guimond, 2004 Australia and the global perspective

9 Part 2 Agency, governments and nations: different views of society and progress

10 What the health sector sees (silos) Physical health outcomes (obesity, diabetes, cancer) (respiratory conditions) (cardiovascular disease) Mental health outcomes (depression/suicide) (ADHD) (aggression) What the education sector sees Academic outcomes (truancy) (early school leaving) (alienation)

11 What agencies collectively see: problems of human development

12 What the government sees: participation Participation Economic Civic Social

13 Measuring and fostering progress Measures of the pathways to participation are worthy candidates for measure of the progress of societies and provide modifiable means to for fostering progress

14 Part 3 Pathways to participation as measures of progress

15 Healthy beliefs and clear standards Reduced exposure to harmful drugs Sense of self- efficacy & self-worth Opportunities for achievement and recognition of accomplishments Sense of social connected- ness Optimal brain development in utero and early childhood Genetic factors Time Responsive Parenting (i.e. appropriate care stimulation and monitoring) Effective self regulation of emotion, attention & social interaction Effective learning, communication & problem solving skills Healthy pregnancy, reduced maternal smoking, alcohol & drug misuse Healthy nutrition in utero & throughout childhood & adolescence Social and economic environments supportive to child rearing – especially absence of poverty and exposure to violence Economic participation, civic participation, and social participation Positive interaction with peers Availability of +ve adult role models & engaging community activities Academic success & other achievements Positive interaction with adults Pathways to Participation

16 Demographic variables Indicators of developmental assets Descriptions of contexts EmploymentTime Hours in paid employment Hours for self Job/no job Time poor Income Total income Financial strain Cash poor Education Marital status Human capital Family structure Education Physical health Partner/no partner Kids/no kids Psychological capital Mental health Parenting skills Low control/high control Low stress/high stress Race Gender Age Ethnicity Social capital Social support Social exclusion Participation Social support/no social support High mobility/low mobility Participation/no participation Access/no access

17 Both 1 FT 1FT Both Both 1 Full 1 Pt 1 UE FT l PT 1 home PT UE time time Both 1 FT 1FT Both Both 1 Full 1 Pt 1 UE FT l PT 1 home PT UE time time (96) (67) (48) (23) (0) (42) (16) (0) (Work Hrs) (96) (67) (48) (23) (0) (42) (16) (0) (Work Hrs) 4% 4% 3% 36% 46% 33% 84% 91% (Lowest family income) 4% 4% 3% 36% 46% 33% 84% 91% (Lowest family income) 14% 7% 13% 12% 27% 9% 10% 25% (Low ed mother) 14% 7% 13% 12% 27% 9% 10% 25% (Low ed mother) 9% 11% 10% 17% 12% 19% 26% 20% (Poor parent mental h.) 9% 11% 10% 17% 12% 19% 26% 20% (Poor parent mental h.) 17% 17% 18% 10% 34% 16% 27% 26% (Family conflict) 17% 17% 18% 10% 34% 16% 27% 26% (Family conflict) 11% 12% 15% 33% 41% 27% 25% 35% (Life events > 2) 11% 12% 15% 33% 41% 27% 25% 35% (Life events > 2) 5% 5% 6% 3% 11% 1% 6% 8% (Coercive discipline) 5% 5% 6% 3% 11% 1% 6% 8% (Coercive discipline) 12% 25% 31% 39% 47% 22% 37% 49% (Disadvantaged school) 12% 25% 31% 39% 47% 22% 37% 49% (Disadvantaged school) Couple families One parent families Low academic competence Mental health problems 11% 34% 25% 4% 5% 2% 4% 7% (Population of children) Family work arrangement

18 Human development is about participation Participation is tied to the resource mix for development and support of specific social skills across the life course Better measures of the resource mix are available for populations Studies of the constituent parts of the social gradient offer opportunities for new descriptions of mechanisms that link these resources to significant health and developmental burdens and create opportunities for measuring and fostering the progress of societies Conclusion


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