Presentation on theme: "Name Five major characteristics of the Fungi Kingdom:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Name Five major characteristics of the Fungi Kingdom: Bell RingerSection 22-1Review of Unit ThreeName Five major characteristics of the Fungi Kingdom:Eukaryotes- Cells have a nucleus2. Have a cell wall made of chitin3. Mostly Multicellular (except for yeast which is unicellular4. Heterotrophs- AKA Consumers. Fungi are decomposers5. Some reproduce sexually and some reproduce asexuallyHow is this different than the Plant Kingdom?Go to Section:
2 Introduction to Plants What is a plant?A. Multicellular – composed of more than 1 cellB. Eukaryotic – cells contain a nucleusC. Autotrophic – most carry out photosynthesisD. Cell walls made of celluloseReproduce sexually and asexuallyIn Sexual Reproduction– plants create egg and sperm cellsAsexual reproduction - can reproduce by propagation (fragmentation) – cuttings taken from plant and allowed to root - identical to parent
3 Generalized Plant Life Cycle Section 22-1HaploidDiploidMEIOSISSpores (haploid)Gametophyte Plant (haploid)Sporophyte Plant (diploid)Sperm (haploid)Eggs (haploid)FERTILIZATIONGo to Section:
4 II. Why are plants important? A. Base of land food chainsB. Provide shade and shelter for animalsC. Produce oxygenD. Important sources of medications
5 III. What do plants need in order to survive? A. SunlightB. Water and MineralsC. Gas Exchange – take in CO2 and release O2D. Movement of water and minerals
6 IV. How did today’s plants evolve? A. Probably from organisms similar to today’s multicellular freshwater algaeB. Evidence for this: plants and algae share-1. Similar life cycles (alternation of generations)2. Cellulose in cell walls3. Similar pigments; like chlorophyll4. DNA evidence
7 V. What are the four major groups of plants that exist today? A. Bryophytes (nonvascular, seedless – Ex: mosses)B. Ferns (vascular, seedless – Ex. Ferns)C. Gymnosperms (vascular, cone-bearing plants – Ex: pine tree)D. Angiosperms (vascular, flowering plants – Ex: dogwood tree, rose)
12 Figure 22-7 The Diversity of Plants Section 22-1Cone-bearing plants 760 speciesFlowering plants 235,000 speciesFerns and their relatives 11,000 speciesMosses and their relatives 15,600 speciesGo to Section:
13 Why are plants classified into these groups? 2 main reasons. A. Based on 3 important physical featuresWhether or not they have vascular tissueA. Vascular Tissue: conducts water and minerals2. Whether or not they produce seeds or spores3. Whether or not they produce flowersB. Project Deep Green1. Since 1994, Biologists from 12 nations have been classifying plants by comparing DNA sequences
14 Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant Groups Section 22-1Flowering plantsCone-bearing plantsFerns and their relativesMosses and their relativesGreen algae ancestorFlowers; Seeds Enclosed in FruitSeedsWater-Conducting (Vascular) TissueGo to Section:
15 Bryophytes and Ferns I. What are the characteristics of Bryophytes? A. Seedless- reproduce using spores not seedsB. Non-vascular – do not have xylem and phloem - Rely on osmosis and diffusion to move water and nutrients / must live in wet habitats!C. Grow just a few centimeters off the groundD. Depend on water for reproduction – sperm swims to egg
16 II. What are the 3 major groups of bryophytes? MossesLiverwortsHornworts
30 The Structure of a Moss Sporophyte Stem Gametophyte Leaf Rhizoid Section 22-2CapsuleStalkSporophyteGametophyteStemLeafRhizoidGo to Section:
31 Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant Groups Section 22-1Flowering plantsCone-bearing plantsFerns and their relativesMosses and their relativesGreen algae ancestorFlowers; Seeds Enclosed in FruitSeedsWater-Conducting (Vascular) TissueGo to Section:
32 Ferns: Seedless Vascular Plants IV. What are the characteristics of ferns and their relatives?A. Seedless- reproduce using sporesB. True vascular tissue – have xylem and phloemC. Can grow tall because of lignin and vascular tissueD. Depend on water for reproduction – sperm swims to egg
33 VI. What are the major groups of seedless vascular plants? FernsClub mossesHorsetails
39 VII. How do seedless vascular plants reproduce? Fertilization occurs when sperm swims thru water to eggSporophyte is dominantSporophyte develops from the gametophyte
40 The Life Cycle of a Fern Section 22-3 Go to Section: MEIOSIS Sporangium (2N)Haploid gametophyte (N)Diploid sporophyte (2N)FrondYoung gametophyte (N)Spores (N)Mature sporophyte (2N)Developing sporophyte (2N)Mature gametophyte (N)maleSpermGametophyte (N)Eggembryo (2N)femaleFERTILIZATIONGo to Section:
42 Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant Groups Section 22-1Flowering plantsCone-bearing plantsFerns and their relativesMosses and their relativesGreen algae ancestorFlowers; Seeds Enclosed in FruitSeedsWater-Conducting (Vascular) TissueGo to Section:
43 Seed Plants Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Gymnosperms – do not produce flowers or fruits but do produce seeds and have vascular tissue.Largest group of gymnosperms are the conifers. Ex; pine treesConifers have 2 types of cones; male and femaleMale cones produce pollen that carries sperm cellsFemale cones produce eggs
44 Seed Plants Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Gymnosperms – do not produce flowers or fruits but do produce seeds.Largest group of gymnosperms are the conifers. Ex; pine treesConifers have 2 types of cones; male and femaleMale cones produce pollen that carries sperm cellsFemale cones produce eggsPollination occurs by the wind: not dependent on waterAfter pollination, the fertilized egg develops into a seed.
49 Figure 22–19 The Structure of a Seed Section 22-4Seed coatEmbryoStored food supplySeedWingBAGo to Section:
50 WelwitschiaIt only grows in a remote region of southwestern Africa in the Namib and Mossamedes Deserts. The leaves lie on the ground and as they flap about in the wind they become split and frayed. Welwitschias absorb moisture in the form of dense fog that flows over the Namib Desert.
53 B. Conifers are an important source for building materials and paper products
54 II. Angiosperms – produce flowers, fruits, and seeds and are the most abundant plants on Earth. A. Two main types of angiosperms: Monocots and Dicots
55 Figure 22–25 Comparison of Monocots and Dicots Section 22-5MonocotsDicots1 seed leafParallel veinsFloral parts in multiples of 3Vascular bundles scatteredFibrous rootsTwoBranched veinsFloral parts in multiples of 4 or 5Vascular bundles in a ringTaprootSeedsLeavesFlowersStemsRootsGo to Section:
56 B. Pollination occurs mostly by animals (best adaptation!) Many angiosperms have mutual relationships with animals like insects, bats, or birds. As animals gather nectar from flowers, they also transfer pollen from flower to flower. Many species are flower specific- only gather nectar from one type of flower. After pollination and fertilization, seeds develop inside protective fruits.
58 C. Angiosperms are the main source of food for all animals on earth including humans. Rice, wheat, barley, grasses – all are angiosperms. They are also used in medicines, clothing and other products.
59 Figure 24–5 The Structure of a Flower Section 24-1FilamentAntherStigmaStyleOvaryCarpelPetalSepalOvuleStamenI. Carpel – femalea. Stigma – traps pollemb. Style supports stigma; forms apollen tubec. Ovary – becomes fruitd. Ovule- becomes seedsII. Stamen – malea. Anther- produces pollenb. Filament- supports antherIII. Petals – attract pollinatorsIV. Sepals – protect flower bud while it is developing
61 III. Why are seed plants more successful that spore producing plants?
62 A. Gametophyte generation is very tiny (only a few cells) A. Gametophyte generation is very tiny (only a few cells). In gymnosperms and angiosperms it is protected inside seeds and fruits so the young of seed plants tend to survive better. The spores of ferns and mosses must land in a wet habitat. If they do not, they will die.B. Sperm does not have to swim thru water- it is carried by wind or animals during pollination. This enables seed plants to live in dryer habitats. It also increases reproductive success.
63 Figure 24–1 Evolution of the Gametophyte and the Sporophyte Section 24-1Gametophyte (N)Sporophyte (2N)BryophytesFernsSeed plants
64 Basic Structures in Plants Seed – embryo of a plant that is protected by a covering and surrounded by a food supplyCan remain dormant for many yearsEnvironmental factors (temperature and moisture) end dormancy
65 3. Many modified for easy dispersal a. Light weight - can float in water and in the airb. Textured seed coats that stick to animal furc.“Winged” seeds – can “fly” long distances away from parent plantd. Angiosperm seeds are surrounded by fleshy fruits that are eaten by animals allowing seeds to be dispersede. Seeds of Gymnosperms develop inside of protective cones
67 Figure 22–19 The Structure of a Seed Section 22-4Seed coatEmbryoStored food supplySeedWingBAGo to Section:
68 B. Vascular Tissues- system of “tubes” throughout a plant; two types – xylem and phloem Xylem - transports water from the roots to the rest of the plantPhloem - transports the products of photosynthesis (sugars) from the leaves to the rest of the plant
69 C. Roots – absorb water and nutrients, anchor the plant, store food D. Stems – supports plant, contains vascular tissue to transport water and nutrients between the roots and leaves
70 Figure 23–7 The Structure of a Root Section 23-2Pg. 585EpidermisRoot hairsPhloemXylemApical meristemRoot capZone of maturationZone of elongationGround tissue (cortex)Vascular Cylinder
72 Two types of growth occur in stems and roots Primary – growth from the tips of the roots and the shoots at areas called apical meristemSecondary – growth in the width of the plant. (tree rings)
73 Figure 23–15 Layers of a Tree Trunk Section 23-3WoodBarkCorkContains old, nonfunctioning xylem that helps support the treeContains active xylem that transports water and mineralsProduces new xylem and phloem, which increase the width of the stemTransports sugars produced by photosynthesisProduces protective layer of corkContains old, nonfunctioning phloem that protects the treeXylem: HeartwoodCork CambiumPhloemVascular CambiumXylem: Sapwood
74 E. Leaves carry out photosynthesis and transpiration Epidermis - outer layer that covers the leaf. “skin”Cuticle – waxy covering over the epidermis that prevents the plant from drying outMesophyll - middle layer of cells that carry out photosynthesis and exchange of the gases CO2 and O2Stomata – openings on the bottom of the leaf that allow gases to enter and leaveGuard cells – cells around the stomata that open and close the stomata
75 When the guard cells are full of water, the stomata is open When the guard cells are full of water, the stomata is open. When they do not have water the stomata is closed. (This helps the plant conserve water when it is dry.Stomata are usually closed at night. (no sun = no photosynthesis)
76 Figure 23–18 The Internal Structure of a Leaf Section 23-4CuticleVeinsEpidermismesophyllXylemVeinPhloemmesophyllEpidermisStomataGuard cells
77 Transpiration A B Evaporation of water molecules out of leaves. Section 23-5ABEvaporation of water molecules out of leaves.Pull of water molecules upward from the roots.
81 Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant Groups Section 22-1Flowering plantsCone-bearing plantsFerns and their relativesMosses and their relativesGreen algae ancestorFlowers; Seeds Enclosed in FruitSeedsWater-Conducting (Vascular) TissueGo to Section:
82 Flowering plantsCone-bearing plantsFerns and their relativesMosses and their relativesGreen algae ancestorFlowers; Seeds Enclosed in FruitSeedsWater-Conducting (Vascular) TissueThe Seed????????????What characteristic evolved at this point to bring fourth cone-bearing plants?
83 This plant belongs in what group of plants? Bryophyte
84 Fill in the BlankIn bryophytes…..Fertilization occurs when ______________ swims thru water to egg – gametophyte formsSperm
85 How does pollination usually occur in angiosperms? Animals
86 Dicot b/c of the branched veins in the leaf Monocot or Dicot?Dicot b/c of the branched veins in the leaf
87 What group of plants does this organism belong? Angiosperms
88 Name the two parts of a plant’s life cycle Gametophyte stage and Sporophyte stage
89 How does pollination occur usually in gymnosperms? By Wind
90 Group of plants that is Seedless but has vascular tissues Ferns
91 Group of Plants that Have Vascular Tissue and Seeds enclosed in a fruit Angiosperms