Presentation on theme: "OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development Financing Water and Environmental Infrastructure for All Opening Speech by Jamal Saghir Director, Energy."— Presentation transcript:
OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development Financing Water and Environmental Infrastructure for All Opening Speech by Jamal Saghir Director, Energy and Water, The World Bank OECD Headquarters, Paris, 18 December 2003
TO KEEP IN MIND Over 1 billion people without safe water, 2 b without sanitation Pervasive under-pricing and mismanagement of WSS services 10% of the world's food is grown with water from aquifers which are being depleted faster than the rate of recharge. What does this mean for ordinary people in the developing world? A farmer in Kenya: "Water is life and because we have no water, life is miserable." A young man in Russia: "How can we sow anything without water? What will my cow drink? Water is our life." An old woman in Ethiopia: "We live hour to hour, wondering whether it will rain." In many parts of the world, access to water distinguishes the poor from the non-poor.
In the next 15 minutes about 90 children in developing countries - six children per minute - will have died from disease caused by unsafe water and inadequate sanitation. In 1990, 3 million deaths worldwide were attributed to diarrhea but there were over 4 billion episodes, or more than a thousand times as many. Children under five are the most vulnerable, accounting for 55% of all episodes but for 85% of the deaths from diarrhoeal diseases. Mortality is high but morbidity is higher still. AND
Overview of Presentation The Water Financing Challenge Towards Realistic Solutions Innovative IFI Financial Instruments: Follow-up of Camdessus/G8- June 2003 Evian meeting What More Needs to be Done
The costs of not investing in water are very large Correlation between GDP and Rainfall in Zimbabwe Governments must raise the priority of water investments (including through the PRSP)
The MDGs – A Startling Reminder of the Financing Challenge Ahead Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation Translates into a doubling of investment needs from $15 billion to $30 billion per year for water supply & sanitation alone (as part of 180B a year for all water) Investment needs per annum (B USD) ? ?
The finance challenge - an uphill battle for developing world and infant sectors 35% 50% 75% 100% Current Coverage Years to Full Coverage at Annual Growth Rates 5% 10%15% 30 years 20 years 8 years 4 years 2 years 6 years9 years 13 years8 years Less Than One Year Assumes 1.3 population growth rate.
The WSS market poses special challenges Limited number of developers/operators Generally low margins Complexity and risks in the contractual and regulatory framework Sub-sovereign risk Limited pool of bankable projects (size, condition, readiness) high potential for private financing medium potential for private financing low potential for private financing Household µ-financing Need for public investment
Word Development Report 2004 Main Messages Services are failing poor people They can work, the question is how? By empowering poor people to Monitor and discipline service providers Raise their voice in policymaking By strengthening incentives for service providers to serve the poor
How are services failing poor people? Public spending benefits rich more than poor Money fails to reach frontline service providers Uganda: only 13 percent of non-wage recurrent spending on primary education reached primary schools Service quality is low for poor people Bangladesh: absenteeism rates for doctors in primary health care centers: 74 percent Zimbabwe: 13 percent of respondents gave as a reason for not delivering babies in public facilities that nurses hit mothers during delivery Guinea: 70 percent of government drugs disappeared
Overview of presentation The water financing challenge Towards Realistic Solutions Innovative IFI financial instruments: follow-up of Camdessus/G8 What more needs to be done
Are we Realistic? Investment needs are enormous Public funding stable or even decreasing International Aid is (and probably will remain) small percentage of WSS financing Thus how to fill the gap? The private sector? Taxpayers? Tariff? A combination? LETS DISCUSS THOSE ISSUES
Domestic public finance remains the dominant source for water & sanitation Financing flows into water in 2000 Billion USD Estimates from GWP Framework for Action Domestic is dominant ~ 85% Public is dominant ~85%
Recent collapse of private flows to infrastructure Annual Private Investment in Infrastructure in 1990-2002, in US$ billion 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 1990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002
Private investment in water supply and sanitation has been low Total (interternational) private investment in infrastructure in 1990-2002 by sector and region, US$ billion
Degree of cost recovery Reasons NOT to invest in the water business… TelecomGasPowerWater 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% Financial autonomy
The financing paradox must be resolved Consumers Taxpayers Who Pays How Financed User Tariffs Govt. Subsidies Public or Private Debt
Overview of presentation The water financing challenge Towards realistic solutions Innovative IFI financial Instruments: Follow-up of Camdessus/G8 What more needs to be done
Risk mitigation instruments Partial risk guarantees Partial credit guarantees Political risk insurance Breach of contract coverage Currency risk –Dollar debt and local currency earnings Regulatory risk –Regulatory framework not implemented or untested Payment/performance risk –Government fails to pay amounts due Sub-sovereign risk –Water investments are often at the sub- sovereign level
IFI risk mitigation instruments 2001 - 03 Number of Guarantees Issued Value of Guarantees Issued
Risk Mitigation Instruments Could Be Effective Adequately Creditworthy – Do Not Require Risk Mitigation Near Creditworthiness Marginally Creditworthy, but Reforming Non Creditworthy and Low Performing Where risk mitigation can make a difference
Guarantees and subsovereign financing:Application in the WSS sector: How to increase effective demand? Lithuania 1 Project Russia 4 Projects Romania 3 Projects Croatia 1 Project Mexico 1 Project Ecuador 1 Project Colombia 1 Project Poland 3 Projects Risk mitigation instruments Direct subsov lending
Overview of presentation The water financing challenge Towards realistic solutions Innovative IFI financial instruments: follow-up of Camdessus/G8 What More Needs to be Done
1. Going Forward: Long-Term Sustainability: A Must Improve Sector Performance – Closing the Revenue Gap is Key With Decentralization, There is a Need to Bring in Local Governments as Key Stakeholders in the Financing of Water Investments – (ie. contributors of equity, guarantors, or direct borrowers) Cost Recovery Critical: But At A Realistic Pace The Use of Subsidies Should be Transparent and Primarily Aimed at Serving Poor Communities. Make Use of All Sources of Financing – Public or Private and Create Framework Where Risks Are Properly Allocated and Bound By Enforceable Contracts.
Only if sustainable cashflows, investments for expanding services can be attracted Only few choices to finance investments Tariffs (consumers) Taxes (tax payers) Bilateral and multilateral aid – limited extend So Move to cost-recovery: but at a realistic pace 3.Closing the Revenue Gap Predictable cash flow secure debt service investment loan better services
4.Effectively demand international funding The needs are obvious, but how to translate needs into effective demand Lobby to get water into your PRSP Develop bankable projects Develop creditworthy utilities Engage with public, private, communities and stakeholders Nobody has A or THE solution. Look at various ways and learn by doing
5.Redirect funds to the poor Stop subsidizing the rich, they can pay for themselves Target subsidies better (subsidize connections rather than consumption) Invest in differentiated service levels, giving consumers a choice Decentralize funds (not only responsibilities) to local governments
5.Improve Creditworthiness Agreed programme of tariff increases, taking into account social considerations Clear / predictable allocation from central/local tax revenues Improved operational management/collections Increase data availability to make informed decisions
Management Finance PublicPrivate Public Private 6.Unbundle Finance And Management -Looking at Sustainable Hybrid Solutions Leases/Affermage Concessions Divestitures BOTs Municipal Department Mgnt. Contracts Corporatized Muni. Service Mixed Company Operating Company plc Public & Private sector roles in the WSS sector:
An World Bank evolving model for Water Service Delivery Targeted Subsidies OK For Connections For Usage Charges Cost Recovery Critical But At A Realistic Pace World Bank Group Combine Instruments IBRD/IDA Loans, Credits and Guarantees IFC Loans and Investments MIGA Guarantees Engagement Anywhere Along the Spectrum PrivatePublic
7.Increase sustainability of Infrastructure (and thus Investments) Before building new infrastructure, make sure that you have $$s for both construction and O&M Lagos State Water Corporation in 1999: 96% unaccounted-for-water
8.The Instruments: Needed, Available ? Used? Issue of Effective Demand? Do not require risk mitigation, Adequately credit worthy Risk mitigation instruments will be ineffective: Non-creditworthy and low performing or instruments too expensive Risk mitigation instruments could be effective: Nearly/marginally creditworthy & reforming Expand Application of Risk Instruments The instruments in greatest need may be least available Contractual/regulatory instruments Foreign exchange risk instruments The instruments available may be tailored for the wrong kind of current investment Limited current capital investments Increase in management, lease and service contracts
Recapping (1) The Water Sector is Facing an Uphill Battle to Expand Coverage. The Debate is Not Between Public or Private, But Improving Sector Performance and efficient quality service delivery to the poor at lowest cost There is No Magic Solution! Cost Recovery is critical and Should Be the Foundation to A Sustainable Tariff Policy but At Realistic Pace Targeted Subsidies OK For Connections For Usage Charges If Utilized Prudently targeted subsidies and Long-Term Financing Can Contribute Significantly Towards Expanding Investments and service delivery Public funding to shift from input based to output based financing
Recapping (2) Mobilizing balanced mix of public and private funding sources – more innovative use of public funds and subsidies Powered by sustained cashflows instead of taxes Private funding to increasingly comprise local currency alternatives Make PPI contracts "pro-poor". A Fund Channeling and Governance Framework Based on the Appropriate Allocation of Risks and Third Party Agreements is the Mechanism Needed to Align Incentives and Improve Governance Partial Risk and Partial Credit Guarantees, IFC loan and Guarantees and MIGA instruments Hybrid Models Mixing Public - Private Finance and Management Options Offers a Pragmatic Approach in An Environment of Increased Perceived Risks.
And.... grow the economy Source: UN Millennium Project Access to water and GDP
Water high on the agenda: CSD 12 Selected thematic cluster: water, sanitation and human settlements No more assessment and problem identifications and more promises The political and substantive outcomes of CSD 12 need to be transformed into specific Actions Provide Realistic Guidance and Actions on the Ground to improve efficiency and coherence of policies Focus on implementation, including identifying constraints and obstacles at the country level and possible approaches for implementation and scaling up Review and forward looking session; not a negotiating session ~ government and other stakeholders New York City, 19-30 April