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China: stylized facts PRESENTATION By Richard Herd Head Asian non-members Unit OECD Economics Department March 2006 OECD Development Centre Conference.

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Presentation on theme: "China: stylized facts PRESENTATION By Richard Herd Head Asian non-members Unit OECD Economics Department March 2006 OECD Development Centre Conference."— Presentation transcript:

1 China: stylized facts PRESENTATION By Richard Herd Head Asian non-members Unit OECD Economics Department March 2006 OECD Development Centre Conference China, India and Africa

2 Growth has been very rapid GDP growth at constant prices

3 Three factors have boosted growth: Reform of the economic environment Capital formation Structural change

4 Major reforms are very recent

5 Prices are now market determined Share of price regulated transactions for industrial products

6 The economy has opened to foreign trade Average of exports and imports as % of GDP

7 Chinese imports a growing source of demand % of regions GDP China

8 The number of state firms has fallen rapidly Share of Industrial sector Firms

9 The private sector output skyrockets …. Constant prices gross output

10 …… and is more productive … Excess productivity of firm types relative to direct state ownership

11 ….. dominating exports … Note: These industries represent 75% of export value in Source: NBS industrial microdata

12 … and is now bigger than public sector Private sector value added as per cent of sector GDP

13 Rapid growth of capital Fixed capital formation has accounted for half of growth Human capital expanding rapidly

14 The capital stock has grown fast Annual Per cent change in estimated capital stock

15 Financed by high private sector saving Per Cent of GDP

16 Fiscal policy has been prudent Budget balance % of GDP Per cent of GDP

17 With little recourse to public debt Budget balance as Per Cent of GDP

18 Factors behind the growth in real income Share of growth attributable to each factor

19 Educational output has surged Primary education almost complete Junior high very good University intake tripled

20 And is likely to continue growing Source: Ministry of Education Proportion of age group receiving given education level

21 Third factor: structural change Move from agriculture Source of productivity growth

22 Significant growth from sectoral change Productivity growth from structural change, five year average Per Cent per year % per year

23 Important micro-economic structural reforms needed Financial markets Basic economic laws need improvement Labour markets need to be freer

24 Better basic laws for the private sector needed A new company law is needed A new bankruptcy law A better anti-monopoly law also required Laws to implement Constitutional Amendments

25 Enforcement of commercial laws needs improving Difficult to obtain and enforce IPR judgements Evidence of local prejudice in judgements Creates barriers to innovation and expansion Move to more central funding of judiciary Separate courts for commercial law

26 Reducing regional inequalities Urbanisation is a positive factor for development Migration has been restricted Boosts spatial income inequality Complex group of policies needs changing

27 Contact details


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