Three elements present when an individual engages in corrupt conduct The individual needs to have the motivation to act – based on their individual traits, or the way that they have adapted to the organisational culture The organisation needs to have the systems (or gaps in the systems, policies and procedures, education and resources for staff) which create opportunities for the act of corruption to occur There is a low threat (perceived and/or actual) of detection
Change management and corruption prevention In order to properly implement a comprehensive corruption prevention program it may be necessary to address culture, policy and the issues and perhaps institute cultural and organisational change of some kind. There are some acknowledged theoretical and practical frameworks for analysing and formulating policy and for managing issues in a way that will affect the successful implementation of managed change.
Corruption Resistance The resistance framework indicates that individual measures tend to be more effective when: - they are consistent with established values - senior leaders support the values - senior leaders lead by example - other mechanisms encourage their use (for example, an internal reporting system is accompanied by awareness programs for all staff, training for its administrators and possibly by designating officers who can provide assistance to would-be reporters)
Governance – What Does It Mean? "By Governance, we mean the processes and institutions, both formal and informal, that guide and restrain the collective activities of a group. Government is the subset that acts with authority and creates formal obligations. Governance need not necessarily be conducted exclusively by governments and the (international) organizations to which they delegate authority. Private firms, associations of firms, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and associations of NGOs all engage in it, often in association with governmental bodies, to create governance; sometimes without governmental authority." (Joseph S. Nye. & John D. Donahue Governance in a Globalizing World. 2000)
Policy as a decision about a course of action designed to achieve stated outcomes or with specific objectives Policy as a series of decisions over time towards the attainment of a goal or objective which initially can be discerned but not defined with clarity Policy as an interactive, continuing process of experimentation and learning What is Policy?
(Continued) Policy as a complex bundle of problems, plans, ideas, interests, opportunities, threats, challenges and constraints which need to be processed, managed and translated into a response to meet the political needs of the government of the day, and the medium term interests of the community.
The Nature of Policy Work Policy work is an ongoing activity encompassing monitoring, research, information gathering, analysis, consultation and advice. Policy work requires: An appreciation of the governments priorities and goals; An understanding of the elements of the public interest; Knowledge of the issues;
(Continued) A good understanding of the way government operates An awareness of the interests of stakeholders; A capacity to manage, analyse, communicate and negotiate; Skill in the presentation of information and recommendations to facilitate fully informed decisions by those responsible for decision making The Nature of Policy Work
Policy advice is an important (and costly) output and is identified and costed in each agencys Portfolio Budget Statement. Policy advice (along with other functions) is being market tested and benchmarked across the APS Contestability and other sources of advice. Policy Advice Function
Policy Advice Not just an output as advice is directed at influencing and contributing to policy outcomes as well as specifying the methods and resources required to achieve those outcomes Involves professional judgement about both the underlying situation, the considerations to be taken into account, how they should be balanced and the appropriate policy response. Ensure that decision making is as fully informed as possible.
Policy makers are not faced with a given problem. Instead they have to identify and formulate their problem. (Charles Lindblom)
Outcomes & Outputs Outcomes are the results, impacts and consequences of actions by the Commonwealth on the Australian Community: Planned outcomes are the results or impacts that Government wants to achieve for the Australian community Outcomes give public service a unique purpose Actual outcomes are the results or impacts which are, in fact achieve. External factors can intervene either positively or negatively on the achievement of outcomes Agencies deliver outputs or a combination of outputs and administered items to contribute to planned outcomes.
Outcomes & Outputs Outputs are the goods and services produced by agencies on behalf of Government for organisations or individuals. Agencies deliver outputs to contribute to planned outcomes Agencies also administer items - on behalf of Government - which contribute to outcomes These administered items may be used by third parties, rather than agencies, to produce outputs
Outcomes & Outputs Outcomes are thus the prime focus for policy, and appropriate linkages between these elements of the policy process need to be established. Rather than linear, compartmentalised series of steps, the policy process is in most instances an ongoing process. Although the Policy Lifecycle chart is overly simplistic, it captures the essentially dynamic nature of the policy process. (see Mapping Policy for the lifecycle)
Steps in the Policy Process Problem identification Policy formulation Adoption/decision making Implementation evaluation
Whats this about? What do we need to do? Whats this about? What do we need to do? What issues/links need consideration What issues/links need consideration DEPARTMENTAL Who else in my division/department needs to be involved? Who else in my division/department needs to be involved? Do we have prime carriage? Do we have prime carriage? What information data needs analysis What information data needs analysis Whats the context?
Is a whole of government response required? Is a whole of government response required? What interdepartmental communication/ consultation/negotiation issues need consideration? What interdepartmental communication/ consultation/negotiation issues need consideration? GOVERNMENTAL What other agencies or non-government groups have an interest? What other agencies or non-government groups have an interest? Who needs to decide? (Minister? Cabinet?)
If legislation is involved what issues arise in thinking about getting this through Parliament How can the policy case be presented effectively to the Public and other audiences? What are the timing issues? How does this fit with the governments views/ preferences/ commitments? What does the Minister want/think? Does this impact on other Ministers. Are they likely to be supportive or opposed?
What outcomes are we seeking? What are the pitfalls? Does this address the real problem(s)? Will this be seen to be an appropriate response? Whats the experience here and overseas? Who are the stakeholders? Who wins/loses? How do we manage? What needs to be done To turn policy intentions Into action?
Australia and the Solomon Islands Is the policy problem clearly defined? What are the policy objectives? Are they outcome focused? Is there alignment with ADF actions? What stakeholders have been consulted? How? What are the performance measures?
Credibility of RAMSI on line The RAMSI contingent had, it was widely thought, made good headway in rooting out the worst of corruption, but its lack of real progress on the political front has been cruelly exposed. First, there was the election last month of Snyder Rini by his parliamentary colleagues as prime minister (despite accusations he used Taiwan money to buy support) and the subsequent riots the appointment provoked in the capital, Honiara The Canberra Times (Editorial) May 9, 2006 p.10
Public Affairs is the function within organisations responsible for issues management. Public Affairs is moving from an adolescent to a more mature, more professional function.
Issues management is an attempt to manage the future. Issues: shape the future because issues create a gap between what an organisation or government is doing (its action/ inaction) and what the expectations of others (stakeholders and other publics) are about what the organisation or government is doing. Issues Management: is about managing the future by shaping what the future should be. It is a systematic process of identifying and evaluating issues then energising management toward integrating this knowledge into the organisations strategic management system so as to resolve the issues.
Principle/ Agency Theory Actors Defined not as individuals or collectives but as agents. Corporate political activity proceeds through the creation and use of agents in and around democratic processes to achieve certain ends. The Key The key dynamic is the concept of political contestability. Different levels - firms and systems. Contest is a term implying fair outcomes based on competition and co-operation. It is in everyones interest to play on a contestable field. Mobilisation In a contestable field the choice of agents is broad. The key is to know how strike strategic alliances with suitable effective agents Structure Not relevant. Centralisation vs. decentralisation is not an issue. Requirements of Success In a contestable field entry is crucial. If the field is no contestable and entry not possible the initial task is structural change to make the field more democratic. Principal/ Agency gives us a strategic framework we can use to manage an issue. It is a different way of thinking, not in a routine manner as a public servant does but in a creative, contestable manner. (Source: Mitnick 1993) In a contestable field, a principal has friends or allies and enemies or opponents.
Public Choice Actors. are of two types :Market and non market. Market actors are buyers and seller. Non-market actors are regulators, legislators etc The Key. There are two key dynamics for the different systems, both are based on rights. In the market these rights are property rights. In the none market there are granted rights and claimed rights. Mobilisation. Usually based on competition between individuals in markets systems. However individuals actions can be detrimental in non-markets. Structure. It depends. Usually decentralised in markets. Frequently centralised in non markets (granted rights favour centralisation of non- markets). Requirements of Success. To know which dynamics is relevant to which issue. But also, to remember that the different dynamics influence each other.
Media and Policy Development Media is an important player Media and government are in a symbiotic relationship Agencies can use the media proactively to push agendas, promote issues, test ideas etc. Agencies must also react to media Media cant be ignored Public Affairs staff understand media - you understand policy issues - must work together Managing the Media
Relationships With the Media Agencies should: build relationships with subject specialists - health reporters, social affairs commentators provide facts sheets with simple and essential up to date facts offer exclusive stories consider media attitudes early in policy process - consult public affairs staff
Dos Be clear if it is off the record or providing background briefing - not for quoting Understand the medias deadlines - press releases issued at 4pm are too late!! Keep it simple Be accurate and remember that the media usually know less than the agency Ensure clearance of media material at appropriate level within department Involve the public affairs staff Dos of Dealing with the Media
Donts Never assume what is said is off the record or background briefing Dont assume they have understanding of the issue Dont answer their questions on their first call - hang up, get your facts, ring them back If you dont know, dont answer the question Don'ts of Dealing with the Media
Understand the outcome you want to achieve with the media and use appropriate strategies: positive - proactive defensive - reactive back grounding Seek advice from your public affairs staff Interactions With The Media