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14th OECD/Japan Seminar Kan SUZUKI Senior Vice Minister of MEXT June 28, 2011 Construction of an Evidence-Based Improvement Cycle Construction of an Evidence-Based.

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Presentation on theme: "14th OECD/Japan Seminar Kan SUZUKI Senior Vice Minister of MEXT June 28, 2011 Construction of an Evidence-Based Improvement Cycle Construction of an Evidence-Based."— Presentation transcript:

1 14th OECD/Japan Seminar Kan SUZUKI Senior Vice Minister of MEXT June 28, 2011 Construction of an Evidence-Based Improvement Cycle Construction of an Evidence-Based Improvement Cycle

2 Formulation of a model for each agency, setting of national standards, development of the Courses of Study, textbook screening, financial guarantees to support the installation of facilities and equipment and payment of teachers salaries (one-third), etc. Educational System of Japan Appropriate division of roles and mutual cooperation between the national government and the local authorities Establishment and management of upper secondary schools and special needs schools, payment of teachers salaries (two-thirds), personnel matters, etc. Establishment and operation of elementary and lower secondary schools, selection of textbooks, supervision of teachers duties Organization of the curriculum and implementation of education Role of the national government Role of the schools Role of the municipalities Role of the prefectures

3 1. Characteristics and Issues of Japanese Education as Seen from the PISA Survey

4 1 Comparison of the results of common regions of 2000 and 2003 Top group Score of 550 (2nd of 32 countries) Scientific literacy Top group Score of 557 (1st of 32 countries) Top group led by Finland Score of 522 (8th of 32 countries) Top group Score of 534 (6th of 41 countries) Mathematical literacy Reading literacy Top group Score of 548 (2nd of 41 countries) Level comparable to the OECD average Score of 498 (14th of 41 countries) PISA 2003 Survey PISA 2000 Survey PISA 2003 survey showed significant decline in reading literacy Japanese Situation in Survey PISA Shock

5 Main Efforts by Japan in Response to PISA Shock Clarify efforts by schools, the government, and BOEs for the cultivation of PISA-style reading comprehension through the enhancement of activities related to reading/literacy, etc. Efforts by schools: promotion of reading/literacy through morning reading sessions, etc., providing more opportunities for students to express their thoughts in writing, etc. Efforts by the government/BOEs: implementation of workshops to boost Japanese language ability; production/distribution of teaching materials; enhancement of school libraries Program to Boost Reading Comprehension Establishment of verification/improvement cycle through efforts that reflect survey outcomes, etc., by schools, the government, and BOEs Implementation of Surveys on the State of Learning/Scholastic Ability Nationwide

6 1 Comparison of the results of common regions of 2000 and Owing to a change in the framework of the questions, comparison of the results of common questions allowing comparison Top group Score of 550 (2nd of 32 countries ) Scientific literacy Top group Score of 557 (1st of 32 countries) Top group led by Finland Score of 522 (8th of 32 countries) Top group Score of 534 (6th of 41 countries ) Mathematical literacy Reading literacy Top group Score of 548 (2nd of 41 countries) Level comparable to the OECD average Score of 498 (14th of 41 countries) PISA 2003 Survey PISA 2000 Survey Level comparable to the OECD average Score of 498 (15th of 57 countries) Higher scoring group than OECD average Score of 523 (10th of 57 countries) Top group Score of 531 (6th of 57 countries) PISA 2006 Survey Higher scoring group than OECD average Score of 529 (9th of 65 countries) Top group Score of 520 (8th of 65 countries) Top group Score of 539 (5th of 65 countries) PISA 2009 Survey Improvement in the academic skills of Japanese students mainly in the field of reading literacy

7 Within the top ten in all competence fields out of 65 participating countries and regions Results of the PISA 2009 Survey Top 15 countries and regions for each competence field shown out of 65 participating countries and regions) Reading literacyScoreMathematical literacyScoreScientific literacyScore 1Shanghai-China556Shanghai-China600Shanghai-China575 2South Korea539Singapore562Finland554 3Finland536Hong Kong, China555Hong Kong-China549 4Hong Kong-China533South Korea546Singapore542 5Singapore526Chinese Taipei543Japan539 6Canada524Finland541South Korea538 7New Zealand521Liechtenstein536New Zealand532 8Japan520Switzerland534Canada529 9Australia515Japan529Estonia528 10Netherlands508Canada527Australia527 11Belgium506Netherlands526Netherlands522 12Norway503Macao-China525Chinese Taipei520 13Estonia501New Zealand519Germany520 14Switzerland501Belgium515Liechtenstein520 15Poland500Australia514Switzerland517 OECD average493OECD average496OECD average501

8 Reading literacyMathematical literacyScientific literacy Level Lower than TotalLevelLower than level 1LevelLower than level 1 Japan Japan4.0Japan3.2 Shanghai-China Shanghai-China1.4Shanghai-China0.4 South Korea South Korea1.9South Korea1.1 Finland Finland1.7Finland1.1 Hong Kong- China Hong Kong- China 2.6 Hong Kong- China 1.4 Canada Canada3.1Canada2.0 OECD average OECD average8.0OECD average5.0 Lower then level 1 (1b in reading literacy) deemed to be in the lower ranks Percentage of being in the lower ranks quite high when compared to the top countries Issues as Seen from the PISA 2009 Results Unit

9 Comparatively large percentage of students in the top proficiency level Skilled at finding and retrieving necessary information but slightly weak at understanding and interpreting its relevance and connecting this to their own knowledge and experience High percentage of unanswered questions for the free writing questions Higher than the OECD average but quite a difference when compared to the top countries Reading literacy Mathematical literacy Comparatively large percentage of students in the top proficiency level In particular with regards to scientific ability, higher than the OECD average in all areas Ever since the survey commenced in 2000, Japan has maintained its position in the top international group Scientific literacy Overall reading performance Access and retrieveIntegrate and interpretReflect and evaluate 8th4th7th9th

10 Looking at the time spent on lessons in one week, less time spent on science compared to the OECD average Small percentage of students answering that they have time to spend on reading for enjoyment Small percentage of students answering that they look forward to mathematics lessons Small percentage of students answering that they are interested in learning about science Interest and attitude towards learning Time spent on lessons Test language Japan: 211 min. OECD average: 217 min.Finland: 150 min.Singapore: 283min. Mathematics Japan: 235 min. OECD average: 214 min.Finland: 172 min.Singapore: 344 min. Science Japan: 148 min. OECD average: 202 min.Finland: 194 min.Singapore: 345 min. Time spent on reading for enjoyment (PISA 2009)Japan: 55.8%OECD average: 62.6% Look forward to the mathematics lessons (PISA 2003)Japan: 26.0%OECD average: 31.5% Interest in learning about science (PISA 2006)Japan: 50.0%OECD average: 63.0% Small percentage of students who answered that teachers help them when they need help Educational system Teachers help when students need helpJapan: 63.5%OECD average:78.2%

11 National Academic Ability Survey Complete survey implemented since 2007, from 2010 onwards approximately 30% in the form of a random sampling survey and surveys on request Subjects are 6th grade elementary school students (11 and 12 years old) and 3rd grade lower secondary school students (14 and 15 years old) Implementation of a survey on questions concerning knowledge and utilization for the test language and arithmetic (mathematics) National Academic Ability Survey Clearly writing ones own thoughts and impressions based on materials and information Understanding sentence construction and properly writing what one wishes to communicate as well as follow-through Devising ways of oral speaking such as for speeches Writing appropriate sentences such as for announcements geared towards elementary school students Examples of questions on the test language Mapping out ones thoughts on routine events and expressing them in mathematical terms Understanding the relationship between two figures such as for percentages and ratios Calculating the volume of a cylinder Expressing the width (y) of a rectangle made with a 16 cm piece of string in terms of the length (x) Examples of questions on arithmetic (mathematics)

12 Knowledge Gleaned from the Survey on the State of Learning/Scholastic Ability Nationwide High incidence of three-generations-under-one-roof living conditions Low percentage of students who watch TV, etc., for long periods (4 hrs+/day) High percentage of students who review their school lessons at home Have a long track record of implementing small classes High percentage of schools that conduct daily concerted reading activities such as morning reading times High percentage of schools that boost their overall scholastic level through supplementary instruction High percentage of schools that make a overall team-oriented approach with faculty in establishing the schools educational objectives and methods therefor Characteristics shown by prefectures that continuously scored highly Percentage of students who strove to give complete answers to essay questions Percentage of students with stable daily habits such as eating breakfast Percentage of schools that teach study skills (taking good notes, reviewing past mistakes, etc.) Percentage of schools that actively advance home learning such as homework Percentage of schools that rigorously maintain discipline (no talking, look at the person youre speaking to, etc.) Questions that were answered differently between prefectures that scored highly/low respectively

13 Issues of Japanese Education as Seen from the Survey High percentage of being in the lower ranks when compared to the top countries Lack of a guidance system for students requiring support and guidance Lack of interest and hesitant attitude towards learning Overall logic problems Poor at reading and interpreting materials and information and connecting them to one s own knowledge and experiences Poor at clearly writing what one wishes to express Poor ability to connect and utilize knowledge in various situations Sectoral problems Improvement of the Educational System Improvement of Learning Content

14 2. Educational Reform to Resolve the Issues

15 Emphasis on attainment of basic and fundamental knowledge and skills Repetition learning in order to effectively internalize perplexing points Emphasis on cultivating a thinking capacity/ decisiveness/ expressiveness Enhancement of learning activities in order to utilize knowledge and skills such as observation, experiment, and writing of reports in each subject. Enhancement of problem-solving learning and exploratory activities across subjects. Improvement of Learning Content Revision and steady implementation of the Courses of Study Cultivation of the zest for life based on the principles of education clarified in the amendment of the Basic Act on Education Emphasis on balancing the attainment of knowledge and skills with a thinking capacity/decisiveness/expressiveness Cultivation of a rich and wholesome heart and body through solid moral and physical education Basic ideas behind the 2011 and 2012 Revision Formulation of national standards for educational content by MEXT in order to ensure uniform national standards of education Purpose and contents of each subject, preparation of a guidance plan and handling of contents, specification of the number of class hours Revision of the contents approximately every 10 years in order to respond to social changes and the demands of the times Books prepared by private textbook publishers based on the Courses of Study to become textbooks after undergoing government screening Courses of Study Physical health KnowledgeMorals Solid academic prowess Health and fitness To be rich in humanity Zest for life Well-balanced improvement of academic ability

16 Enhancement of learning activities such as review and discussion in Japanese and other subjects with the aim of fostering childrens thinking ability/ decisiveness/ expressiveness through utilizing language. Enhancement of verbal activities Enhancement of teaching contents corresponding to new scientific knowledge as well as to international-standard curriculum. Enhancement of repetition learning and utilization of the attainment from learning in real life in Arithmetic/mathematics. Enhancement of observation and experiments in Science Enhancement of math and science education Japanese (by 6% in elementary schools and 10% in lower secondary schools) Arithmetic/mathematics (by 16% in elementary schools and 22% in lower secondary schools) Science (by 16% in elementary schools and 33% in lower secondary schools) Boost the number of classes Enhancement of verbal activities Enhancement of math and science education Enhancement of cultural/traditional education Enhancement of moral education Enhancement of experiential learning activities Enhancement of foreign languages Main points of revision in educational content

17 Improvement of the Educational System Aimed at university graduates to have them become new members of the teaching profession equipped with enhanced practical guidance and developmental skills Aimed at current members of the teaching profession for the purpose of cultivating school leaders equipped with both solid teaching theory and superior practical and applied skills Periodically upgrading knowledge and skills in order to maintain the qualifications necessary as a teacher Certificates made valid for 10 years and attendance of university lectures for the renewal of certification every 10 years Increasing the number of teachers and enhancement of teaching qualifications Establishment of graduate schools with teacher-training programs System for teacher certification renewal Revision of the standard number of students in one class, reduction of the number of first-year students in one class in public elementary schools from 40 students to 35 students Construction by the municipalities of a framework for flexible numbers in response to the circumstances of the particular region and schools Actualization of more thorough teaching through smaller classes Realization of small-class teaching

18 Promotion of a framework to support the learning of children by the community as a whole such as by having local residents involved in learning supplementation for lessons, support of school events and development of the school environment (2,540 places as of 2010) Establishment of activity areas (a place to go) utilizing spare classrooms after school and on weekends, provision of opportunities for various experiential and exchange activities with the cooperation of the community (9,280 places as of 2010) Promotion of the creation of schools together with the community by having local residents involved in the process of school management - investing them with certain responsibilities and authority (789 schools as of 2010) Reinforcement of coordination and cooperation between schools, families and communities, education by society as a whole Community schools (councils of school management) Local headquarters for school support Use of classrooms by children after school Establishment of school management Expansion of the discretion of the school principal, implementation of school-staff assessments, reduction of the burden on teachers, etc.

19 Implementation of the national academic ability survey (including science in the survey topics) Feedback on the results Responses to nationwide issues Construction of a check and improve cycle Creation of an action plan to tackle improvement of educational activities through coordination between the boards of education and schools in order to resolve the issues which schools in the region have in common, and promotion of the action plan in the region Measures of the boards of education Construction of a check and improve cycle based on the results of the national academic ability survey Action plan, improvement of educational guidance and learning in line with the academic ability and learning of each and every child School measures Measures of the national government Assessment of school educational activities Involvement in and support of school management Parents and local residents Effective and superior action plan and collection and promotion of practical examples


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