2 I. Basic Photosynthesis A. Photosynthesis – the process by which autotrophs use light energy to turn carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygenB. The basic equation for photosynthesis is as follows:6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2Sunlight
3 II. Photosynthesis Equation A. USES: (reactants)1. 6 Carbon Dioxide molecules(thanks to us) 2. 6 Water moleculesB. IN THE PRESENCE OF1. SunlightB. TO MAKE: (products)1. 1 Glucose (for cell) molecule2. 6 Oxygen molecules (given off as waste) lucky us
4 III. Chloroplasts 1. Traps the E from sunlight. A. Organelle where PS takes place in autotrophsB. Contains chlorophyll (pigment that “traps” light)1. Traps the E from sunlight.2. Transfers the E to the electrons (e-) in chlorophyll.3. They are then called “high energy” electrons
6 Components of Chloroplast Thylakoid – Saclike photosynthetic membranesLight-dependent reactions occur hereGranum –single stack of thylakoidsGrana- All of the Granum in one ChloroplastStroma – Region outside the thylakoid membraneReactions of the Calvin Cycle occur here
7 C. LIGHT DEPENDENT: reactions take. place in the thylakoid membranes C. LIGHT DEPENDENT: reactions take place in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplast.D. LIGHT INDEPENDENT (dark/Calvin): reactions take place in the stroma of chloroplast.
9 IV. Light Dependent Reactions A. Requires light and waterB. Takes place in the Thylakoid
10 C. Uses energy from sun to form: 1. ATP- ( recharged ADP + P from Calvin cycle) used in the Calvin cycle.2. Create NADPH- from NADP+:NADP+ comes from the Calvin cycle and it’s job is to carry the high energy electrons and the H (from water splitting) to form NADPH-3. Oxygen gas : waste given off to environment (remember it came from the water splitting)
11 D. Water is split to produce: 1. Oxygenwaste2. Hydrogenused to convert NADP+ to form NADPH- which is used in the e- transport chain.
12 III. Light Independent (dark) Reactions A. also called Calvin CycleB. Produces high energy sugars (glucose)C. Uses ATP and NADPH- (from light reactions) to convert CO2 (from air) intoglucose.D. Does not require light-uses E from ATP
13 IV. Factors that Affect rate of PS A. No water = No NADPHIf no NADPH = No GlucoseB. Temperature- enzymes sensitive to extreme temperaturesC. Light Intensity:in light = in PS (to a certain point)
14 Summary Light Dependent Reaction Uses: Water + LightTo Make: ATP + NADPH- + (O2 as waste)Light Independent Reaction (Calvin Cycle)Uses: CO2 + ATP + NADPH-To Make: glucose***GLUCOSE IS MADE DURING DARK REACTIONS NOT LIGHT!!!!