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Lecture 5 Microbe Metabolism.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 5 Microbe Metabolism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 5 Microbe Metabolism

2 Metabolism Metabolism: Metabolic Pathway: -

3 Two types of metabolic reactions
Catabolism or catabolic reactions: chemical reactions that break down large molecules into smaller ones Anabolism or anabolic reactions (also called biosynthesis): chemical reactions that involve the synthesis of large molecules from smaller ones -

4 Catabolic Reaction: Cell Respiration
C6H O2  6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP Anabolic Reaction: Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP  C6H12O6 +6O2


6 The use of ATP in Metabolism
ADP + Pi Energy for cellular work (Anabolism) Energy from Catabolism

7 ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Energy currency of the cell
Releases free energy when it’s phosphate bonds are broken Allows cells to do work It takes work to stay alive Therefore, without ATP, there is no life Goal of this unit: to investigate how cells make ATP from compounds such as glucose

8 Using ATP for energy -

9 Oxidation- Reduction Reactions
The production of ATP occurs by oxidation-reduction reactions Oxidation-reduction reactions: when one or more electrons are transferred from one substance to another

10 Oxidation-Reduction reactions
Oxidation: the loss of electrons Reduction: the gain of electrons Redox reactions: when both occur at the same time When electrons removed from a compound protons often follow (H+) Oxidation: loss of a hydrogen atom Reduction: gain of a hydrogen atom

11 Figure 5.9

12 The role of electron carriers
Cells use ATP as carrier of energy Cells use certain molecules as carriers of electrons 3 different electron carriers : -

13 Central Metabolic Pathways
What do they do? Modify organic molecules in a step-wise fashion to form Intermediates with high energy bonds that can be used to synthesize ATP Intermediates that can be oxidized to generate reducing power Intermediates and end products that function as precursor metabolites -

14 Aerobic Respiration

15 Formula for Aerobic Respiration
C6H12O6 +6O CO2 + 6H2O +38 ATP

16 Steps of Aerobic Respiration
Glycolysis Transition Step Krebs Cycle Electron Transport

17 Glycolysis Primary pathway used by nearly all organisms to convert glucose to pyruvate 10 step pathway- can occur in presence or absence of oxygen 1 molecule of glucose split into 2 molecules of pyruvate Generates 2 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of NADH Glucose(6C) + 2NAD+ + 2ADP +2Pi  2 pyruvate(3C) + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2ATP


19 Glycolysis Net Yield of glycolysis: 2 ATP 2 NADH 2 pyruvate

20 Transition Step Links Glycolysis to Krebs Cycle
Pyruvate converted to acetyl Co-A NADH generated Net Yield of Transition Step: 2 NADH

21 Krebs Cycle 8 steps of Krebs cycle complete the oxidation of glucose
Incorporates the acetyl groups from transition step, releasing CO2 Does not directly use oxygen



24 Krebs Cycle Net Yield of Krebs Cycle: 2 ATP 6 NADH 2 FADH2

25 Oxidative Phosphorylation
Uses NADH and FADH2 generated in glycolysis, the transition step, and the TCA cycle to synthesize ATP Occurs through a combination of two mechanisms

26 Electron Transport Chain

27 Electron Transport Chain
As electrons fall from carrier to carrier, energy is used to form ATP This is done by pumping protons out of the cell as electrons move along This creates a proton gradient (proton motive force) Energy represented in this gradient used to synthesize ATP (ATP synthase is enzyme used)

28 Figure 5.16 (2 of 2)

29 Electron Transport Chain
Oxidative phosphorylation in electron transport chain yields: Each NADH generates 3 ATPs Each FADH2 generates 2 ATPs

30 Net ATP yield from Aerobic Respiration:
Glycolysis: 2 ATP, 2 NADH Transition Step: 2 NADH TCA cycle: 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP Electron Transport Chain: Add all NADH: 10 X 3= 30 Add all FADH2: 2 X 2=  38 ATP Add ATP from above = 4

31 Anaerobic Respiration
The same as aerobic respiration, generating ATP by phosphorylation, but uses inorganic molecule other than O2 , such as nitrate, as terminal electron acceptor Anaerobic respiration produces less ATP than aerobic respiration

32 Fermentation Fermentation Produces ATP Using an Organic Electron Donors and Acceptors Fermentation is used when oxygen and other alternative electron acceptors are unavailable Generates 2 ATP by substrate level phosphorylation Also generates 2 NADH- must be recycled to NAD+ Different end products based on which microorganism

33 Lactic Acid Fermentation

34 Eukaryotes also perform fermentation, such as the yeast used in alcoholic fermentation to create alcoholic beverages

35 Photosynthesis Starting substances: carbon dioxide, water
Ending substances: glucose and oxygen Two types of organisms: Oxygenic Photosynthesis: produces oxygen and glucose Uses light energy from the sun Anoxygenic Photosynthesis: Do not produce oxygen Water not starting substance, instead hydrogen sulfide -

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