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Environmental Evolution of the Petroleum Industry Lee C. Gerhard Principal Geologist Kansas Geological Survey.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Evolution of the Petroleum Industry Lee C. Gerhard Principal Geologist Kansas Geological Survey."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Evolution of the Petroleum Industry Lee C. Gerhard Principal Geologist Kansas Geological Survey

2

3 Oklahoma City Gusher

4 Regulatory Premises Prevention of waste Conservation of the resource Protection of corollary rights Environmental protection

5 Produced Fluids Oil Gas Water (saline or fresh) Nitrogen Other gases (H 2 S, He) (characteristics controlled by geologic settings)

6 Regulatory Oversight on Petroleum E & P State regulations and permitting(primary, direct) Clean Water Act(operations) Clean Air Act(operations) NEPA(access, operations) ESA(access) Antiquities Act(access) OSHA(operations) Federal and state land managers policies(secondary, indirect)

7 Environmental Issues EXPLORATION Site access Seismic PRODUCTION Produced water Hydrogen sulfide Casinghead gas venting Oil spills Migratory birds DRILLING AND COMPLETION Area of land use Drilling fluids NORM Blowouts Protection of ground water Protection of aqueous environments POST-PRODUCTION Plugging depleted wells Salt dissolution Reclamation

8 Issues and Answers EXPLORATION SeismicNoneInvasiveNon-Invasive Endangered speciesNoneModified operatingInternational Land withdrawalNonePrivate mineralsInternational AntiquitiesNoneMitigationInternational DRILLING Land useExtreme impactMod. ImpactSmall footprint (multiple bores) Groundwater protectionNoneSurface casingCement off Reserve pit fluidsSeeped, evap.InjectedRe-used CuttingsLeft in pitLeft in pitGrind & inject NORMUnrecognizedSafe disposal BlowoutsLived with Blowout preventers Drilling technologyCable toolRotary, horiz.Three-D coiled tubing Aqueous env.No noticeMinimal dischargeZero discharge (diapers) OLDSTANDARD ADVANCED

9 The Old: 1920s El Dorado Field, KS

10 EXPLORATION HAS CHANGED

11 For Sensitive Areas, Helicopter Operations

12 Even the Drillers Wear Suits

13 Small Impacts on Ranchland

14 Tarr Farm, PA, 1862

15 But Nature Heals: Tarr Farm, 1991, same view

16 Drilling has changed, from the turn of the century,

17 To the 1970s,

18 To Fully Diapered Rigs,

19 To Advanced Drilling Systems...

20 Issues and Answers PRODUCTION Produced waterSurface flowedInjectedRe-used Oil spillsNaturalSoil removalMicrobial H 2 SVentedVapor & sulfur recovery Casinghead gasVentedFlaredRe-injected Migratory birdsNoneNetsEliminate pits OLDSTANDARD ADVANCED POST-PRODUCTION PluggingNon, dump stuffSet plugs Reduce verticals Salt dissolutionNot a problemBetter designM.I. test Site reclamationNoneModerateTotal

21 This Was The Old, and it Met the Standards of its Time…...

22 Modern Production Facilities Meet the Standards of Their Time...

23 Whether in the Rockies or the Great Plains…..

24 Or Arctic North Slope

25 ENERGY PRODUCTION MEETS ENVIRONMENTAL NEEDS

26 Issues and Answers EXPLORATION SeismicNoneInvasiveNon-Invasive Endangered speciesNoneModified operatingInternational Land withdrawalNonePrivate mineralsInternational AntiquitiesNoneMitigationInternational DRILLING Land useExtreme impactMod. ImpactSmall footprint (multiple bores) Groundwater protectionNoneSurface casingCement off Reserve pit fluidsSeeped, evap.InjectedRe-used CuttingsLeft in pitLeft in pitGrind & inject NORMUnrecognizedSafe disposal BlowoutsLived with Blowout preventers Drilling technologyCable toolRotary, horiz.Three-D coiled tubing Aqueous env.No noticeMinimal dischargeZero discharge (diapers)s PRODUCTION Produced waterSurface flowedInjectedRe-used Oil spillsNaturalSoil removalMicrobial H 2 SVentedVapor & sulfur recovery Casinghead gas VentedFlaredRe-injected Migratory birdsNoneNetsEliminate pits POST-PRODUCTION PluggingNon, dump stuffSet plugsReduce verticals Salt dissolutionNot a problemBetter designM.I. Test Site reclamationNoneModerateTotal OLDSTANDARDADVANCED

27 And Nature is a Willing Helper for Solving Old Problems Pioneer & Funkville,PA

28 Energy Sustains Human Society, with Respect for the Environment Eastern Montana, 1978


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