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2 Psychosocial Health: Being Mentally, Emotionally, Socially, and Spiritually Well.

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Presentation on theme: "2 Psychosocial Health: Being Mentally, Emotionally, Socially, and Spiritually Well."— Presentation transcript:

1 2 Psychosocial Health: Being Mentally, Emotionally, Socially, and Spiritually Well

2 Defining Psychosocial Health
Being Mentally, Emotionally, Socially, and Spiritually Well

3 Psychosocial Health Figure 2.1

4 Elements Shared by Psychosocially Healthy People
They feel good about themselves They feel comfortable with other people They control tension and anxiety They are able to meet the demands of life

5 Elements Shared by Psychosocially Healthy People (continued)
They curb hate and guilt They maintain a positive outlook They enrich the lives of others They cherish the things that make them smile They value diversity They appreciate and respect nature How do you view psychosocially healthy people?

6 Characteristics of Psychosocially Healthy and Unhealthy People
Figure 2.2

7 Defining Psychosocial Health
Mental Health: The Thinking You The “thinking” part of psychosocial health Mentally healthy people tend to respond in positive ways Irrational thinking may indicate poor mental health

8 Defining Psychosocial Health
Emotional Health: The Feeling You The “feeling you” Emotions are complex feelings Examples include: love, hate, frustration

9 Defining Psychosocial Health
Emotional Health: The Feeling You (Continued) Richard Lazarus notes 4 types: 1) Emotions from harm, loss, threat 2) Emotions from benefits 3) Borderline emotions (hope/compassion) 4) Complex emotion (grief/disappointment) Can you think of some examples of emotional health?

10 Defining Psychosocial Health
Importance of social interactions Social bonds Social supports Prejudices may indicate poor social health

11 Defining Psychosocial Health
Spiritual Health: An Inner Quest for Well-Being A belief in a unifying force that gives purpose or meaning to life Four main themes of spirituality: 1) A feeling of interconnectedness 2) Mindfulness 3) Spirituality as a part of daily life 4) Living in harmony with the community

12 Spirituality: A Key to Health and Wellness
Four basic needs satisfied for spiritual health: 1) The need for having 2) The need for relating 3) The need for being 4) The need for transcendence or purpose in life

13 Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health
External Factors That Influence Psychosocial Health Family The wider environment Social bonds

14 Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health
Internal Factors That Influence Psychosocial Health Heredity Hormonal function Physical fitness

15 Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health
Self-efficacy, Self-esteem Belief in one’s ability Sense of self-respect Learned Helplessness vs. Optimism Learned helplessness (Seligman) Learned optimism

16 Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health
Personality Unique mix of characteristics Influences: Heredity Culture Environment Healthy personality traits: Extroversion Agreeableness Openness to experience Emotional stability Conscientiousness

17 Enhancing Psychosocial Health
Developing and Maintaining Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy Finding a support group Complete required tasks Form realistic expectations Make time for yourself Examine problems and seek help Maintain physical health Can you think of ways to enhance psychosocial health?

18 Enhancing Psychosocial Health
Sleep: The Great Restorer Conservation of energy Restoration Circadian rhythms Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep

19 Mind-Body Connection Happiness: A Key to Well-being
Three components of subjective well-being (SWB) Satisfaction with present life Relative presence of positive emotions Relative absence of negative emotions What are the things that make you happy?

20 Mind-Body Connection Several Myths about Happiness
Only people in their fifties are happy Happiness belongs only to women Only white Americans are happy Money can buy happiness

21 Mind-Body Connection Does Laughter Enhance Health?
Studies have shown the following results: Stressed people become less depressed with humor Students who use humor as a coping mechanism experience positive mood Senior citizens with a sense of humor often recover from depression Jokes, especially shared, increase social cohesion

22 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Mental Illnesses – Disorders that disrupt thinking, feeling, moods and behaviors

23 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Depression: The Full-Scale Tumble The “common cold” of psychological disturbances 15 million Americans experience depression People with major depressive disorders experience the following: Chronic mood disorder Extreme and persistent sadness Feelings of despair They feel discouraged by life 15% attempt and or succeed in suicide

24 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Depression and Gender 8-11% of men experience 19-23% of women experience Adolescent and adult females twice the rate of males Hormonal factors may contribute to increase in women Equal rates for males and females in college

25 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Depression in Selected Populations Among Jews, males are equally likely as females to have major depressive episodes Increase in depression in children, the elderly and in Native American and homosexual young people Older adults may be misdiagnosed as depressed: may be attributable to drug interactions, or as a normal part of aging

26 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Risks for Depression Interaction of biology, learned behaviors, and cognitive factors. Chemical and genetic processes may be predisposing factors

27 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Facts and Fallacies About Depression True depression is not a natural response to crisis and loss People will not snap out of depression by using a little willpower Frequent crying is not a hallmark of depression Depression is not all in the mind but is chemical in nature Only in-depth psychotherapy can cure long-term clinical depression

28 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Treatment Cognitive therapy Interpersonal therapy Drug therapy Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

29 Table 2.1

30 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Bipolar Disorder (aka: Manic-Depressive Ilness) Alternating episodes of mania (highs) and depression (lows) More than 2 million adult Americans, or 1% of the population Biologic, genetic, and environmental factors may be causative with 60% of cases showing a family history

31 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Anxiety Disorders Generalized anxiety disorder Panic disorders Phobias (object, activity, or situation) Social phobia Sources of Anxiety Disorders Environment Biology Social and cultural role

32 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Seasonal Affective Disorder 6% of Americans suffer from S.A.D. 14% of Americans report mild winter blues Caused by a malfunction of the hypothalamus and possibly stress

33 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Schizophrenia 1% of U.S. population suffers from schizophrenia People with schizophrenia experience alterations of the senses including auditory and visual hallucinations They experience an inability to sort out incoming stimuli and make appropriate responses

34 When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates
Schizophrenia (continued) They have an altered sense of self They experience radical changes in emotions, movements, and behaviors

35 Gender Issues in Psychosocial Health
Gender Bias Practitioners diagnosed differently based on gender alone Women thought to have more “hysterical personality” Men thought to have more “antisocial personality” PMS Premenstrual syndrome warrants further study into hormonal connection

36 Suicide: Giving Up on Life
Facts 35,000 suicides are reported in the U.S. each year Experts estimate 100,000 may be a more accurate number College students are more likely to attempt suicide than the general population Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death in year olds

37 Suicide: Giving Up on Life
Warning Signs of Suicide Recent loss and inability to let go of grief Change in personality Change in behavior Diminished sexual drive Change in sleep Expressions of self-hatred What are some other signs that you have heard of or experienced?

38 Suicide: Giving Up on Life
Taking Action to Prevent Suicide Monitor the warning signs Take any threats seriously Let the person know you care Listen Ask directly, “Are you thinking of hurting yourself?” Don’t belittle the person’s feelings Help think of alternatives Tell the persons friends, family, and counselor

39 Seeking Professional Help
Fact 1 in 5 people seek help An exam should include three parts Physical checkup Psychiatric history Mental status exam Why do you think more people don’t seek professional help?

40 Table 2.2

41 Seeking Professional Help
What to expect from therapy Expect a mental and verbal sizing If the therapist is not right for you, do not hesitate to find another

42 Mental Health Professionals
Psychiatrist Psychologist Psychoanalyst Clinical/psychiatric social worker Counselor Psychiatric nurse specialist

43 What to Expect in Therapy
Individual counseling Group therapy

44 Table 2.3

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