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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture prepared by Jan Campbell T H E B A S I C S SIXTH EDITION.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture prepared by Jan Campbell T H E B A S I C S SIXTH EDITION."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture prepared by Jan Campbell T H E B A S I C S SIXTH EDITION Psychosocial Health: Being Mentally, Emotionally, Socially, and Spiritually Well 2 2

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Defining Psychosocial Health Being Mentally, Emotionally, Socially, and Spiritually Well

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Psychosocial Health Figure 2.1

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Elements Shared by Psychosocially Healthy People They feel good about themselves They feel comfortable with other people They control tension and anxiety They are able to meet the demands of life

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Elements Shared by Psychosocially Healthy People (continued) They curb hate and guilt They maintain a positive outlook They enrich the lives of others They cherish the things that make them smile They value diversity They appreciate and respect nature How do you view psychosocially healthy people?

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Characteristics of Psychosocially Healthy and Unhealthy People Figure 2.2

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Defining Psychosocial Health Mental Health: The Thinking You The thinking part of psychosocial health Mentally healthy people tend to respond in positive ways Irrational thinking may indicate poor mental health

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Defining Psychosocial Health Emotional Health: The Feeling You The feeling you Emotions are complex feelings Examples include: love, hate, frustration

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Defining Psychosocial Health Emotional Health: The Feeling You (Continued) Richard Lazarus notes 4 types: 1) Emotions from harm, loss, threat 2) Emotions from benefits 3) Borderline emotions (hope/compassion) 4) Complex emotion (grief/disappointment) Can you think of some examples of emotional health?

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Defining Psychosocial Health Social Health Importance of social interactions Social bonds Social supports Prejudices may indicate poor social health

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Defining Psychosocial Health Spiritual Health: An Inner Quest for Well-Being A belief in a unifying force that gives purpose or meaning to life Four main themes of spirituality: 1) A feeling of interconnectedness 2) Mindfulness 3) Spirituality as a part of daily life 4) Living in harmony with the community

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Four basic needs satisfied for spiritual health: 1) The need for having 2) The need for relating 3) The need for being 4) The need for transcendence or purpose in life Spirituality: A Key to Health and Wellness

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings External Factors That Influence Psychosocial Health Family The wider environment Social bonds Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Internal Factors That Influence Psychosocial Health Heredity Hormonal function Physical fitness Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Self-efficacy, Self-esteem Belief in ones ability Sense of self-respect Learned Helplessness vs. Optimism Learned helplessness (Seligman) Learned optimism Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Personality Unique mix of characteristics Influences: Heredity Culture Environment Healthy personality traits: Extroversion Agreeableness Openness to experience Emotional stability Conscientiousness Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Developing and Maintaining Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy Finding a support group Complete required tasks Form realistic expectations Make time for yourself Examine problems and seek help Maintain physical health Can you think of ways to enhance psychosocial health? Enhancing Psychosocial Health

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sleep: The Great Restorer Conservation of energy Restoration Circadian rhythms Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Enhancing Psychosocial Health

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Happiness: A Key to Well-being Three components of subjective well-being (SWB) Satisfaction with present life Relative presence of positive emotions Relative absence of negative emotions What are the things that make you happy? Mind-Body Connection

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Several Myths about Happiness Only people in their fifties are happy Happiness belongs only to women Only white Americans are happy Money can buy happiness Mind-Body Connection

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Does Laughter Enhance Health? Studies have shown the following results: Stressed people become less depressed with humor Students who use humor as a coping mechanism experience positive mood Senior citizens with a sense of humor often recover from depression Jokes, especially shared, increase social cohesion Mind-Body Connection

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mental Illnesses – Disorders that disrupt thinking, feeling, moods and behaviors When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Depression: The Full-Scale Tumble The common cold of psychological disturbances 15 million Americans experience depression People with major depressive disorders experience the following: Chronic mood disorder Extreme and persistent sadness Feelings of despair They feel discouraged by life 15% attempt and or succeed in suicide When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Depression and Gender 8-11% of men experience 19-23% of women experience Adolescent and adult females twice the rate of males Hormonal factors may contribute to increase in women Equal rates for males and females in college When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Depression in Selected Populations Among Jews, males are equally likely as females to have major depressive episodes Increase in depression in children, the elderly and in Native American and homosexual young people Older adults may be misdiagnosed as depressed: may be attributable to drug interactions, or as a normal part of aging When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Risks for Depression Interaction of biology, learned behaviors, and cognitive factors. Chemical and genetic processes may be predisposing factors When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Facts and Fallacies About Depression True depression is not a natural response to crisis and loss People will not snap out of depression by using a little willpower Frequent crying is not a hallmark of depression Depression is not all in the mind but is chemical in nature Only in-depth psychotherapy can cure long-term clinical depression When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Treatment Cognitive therapy Interpersonal therapy Drug therapy Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 2.1

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bipolar Disorder (aka: Manic-Depressive Ilness) Alternating episodes of mania (highs) and depression (lows) More than 2 million adult Americans, or 1% of the population Biologic, genetic, and environmental factors may be causative with 60% of cases showing a family history When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anxiety Disorders Generalized anxiety disorder Panic disorders Phobias (object, activity, or situation) Social phobia Sources of Anxiety Disorders Environment Biology Social and cultural role When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seasonal Affective Disorder 6% of Americans suffer from S.A.D. 14% of Americans report mild winter blues Caused by a malfunction of the hypothalamus and possibly stress When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Schizophrenia 1% of U.S. population suffers from schizophrenia People with schizophrenia experience alterations of the senses including auditory and visual hallucinations They experience an inability to sort out incoming stimuli and make appropriate responses When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Schizophrenia (continued) They have an altered sense of self They experience radical changes in emotions, movements, and behaviors When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates

35 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gender Bias Practitioners diagnosed differently based on gender alone Women thought to have more hysterical personality Men thought to have more antisocial personality PMS Premenstrual syndrome warrants further study into hormonal connection Gender Issues in Psychosocial Health

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Facts 35,000 suicides are reported in the U.S. each year Experts estimate 100,000 may be a more accurate number College students are more likely to attempt suicide than the general population Suicide is the 3 rd leading cause of death in year olds Suicide: Giving Up on Life

37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Warning Signs of Suicide Recent loss and inability to let go of grief Change in personality Change in behavior Diminished sexual drive Change in sleep Expressions of self-hatred What are some other signs that you have heard of or experienced? Suicide: Giving Up on Life

38 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Taking Action to Prevent Suicide Monitor the warning signs Take any threats seriously Let the person know you care Listen Ask directly, Are you thinking of hurting yourself? Dont belittle the persons feelings Help think of alternatives Tell the persons friends, family, and counselor Suicide: Giving Up on Life

39 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fact 1 in 5 people seek help An exam should include three parts Physical checkup Psychiatric history Mental status exam Why do you think more people dont seek professional help? Seeking Professional Help

40 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 2.2

41 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings What to expect from therapy Expect a mental and verbal sizing If the therapist is not right for you, do not hesitate to find another Seeking Professional Help

42 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Psychiatrist Psychologist Psychoanalyst Clinical/psychiatric social worker Counselor Psychiatric nurse specialist Mental Health Professionals

43 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Individual counseling Group therapy What to Expect in Therapy

44 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 2.3


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