4Elements Shared by Psychosocially Healthy People They feel good about themselvesThey feel comfortable with other peopleThey control tension and anxietyThey are able to meet the demands of life
5Elements Shared by Psychosocially Healthy People (continued) They curb hate and guiltThey maintain a positive outlookThey enrich the lives of othersThey cherish the things that make them smileThey value diversityThey appreciate and respect natureHow do you view psychosocially healthy people?
6Characteristics of Psychosocially Healthy and Unhealthy People Figure 2.2
7Defining Psychosocial Health Mental Health: The Thinking YouThe “thinking” part of psychosocial healthMentally healthy people tend to respond in positive waysIrrational thinking may indicate poor mental health
8Defining Psychosocial Health Emotional Health: The Feeling YouThe “feeling you”Emotions are complex feelingsExamples include: love, hate, frustration
9Defining Psychosocial Health Emotional Health: The Feeling You (Continued)Richard Lazarus notes 4 types:1) Emotions from harm, loss, threat2) Emotions from benefits3) Borderline emotions (hope/compassion)4) Complex emotion (grief/disappointment)Can you think of some examples of emotional health?
10Defining Psychosocial Health Importance of social interactionsSocial bondsSocial supportsPrejudices may indicate poor social health
11Defining Psychosocial Health Spiritual Health: An Inner Quest for Well-BeingA belief in a unifying force that gives purpose or meaning to lifeFour main themes of spirituality:1) A feeling of interconnectedness2) Mindfulness3) Spirituality as a part of daily life4) Living in harmony with the community
12Spirituality: A Key to Health and Wellness Four basic needs satisfied for spiritual health:1) The need for having2) The need for relating3) The need for being4) The need for transcendence or purpose in life
13Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health External Factors That Influence Psychosocial HealthFamilyThe wider environmentSocial bonds
14Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health Internal Factors That Influence Psychosocial HealthHeredityHormonal functionPhysical fitness
15Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health Self-efficacy, Self-esteemBelief in one’s abilitySense of self-respectLearned Helplessness vs. OptimismLearned helplessness (Seligman)Learned optimism
16Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health PersonalityUnique mix of characteristicsInfluences:HeredityCultureEnvironmentHealthy personality traits:ExtroversionAgreeablenessOpenness to experienceEmotional stabilityConscientiousness
17Enhancing Psychosocial Health Developing and Maintaining Self-Esteem and Self-EfficacyFinding a support groupComplete required tasksForm realistic expectationsMake time for yourselfExamine problems and seek helpMaintain physical healthCan you think of ways to enhance psychosocial health?
18Enhancing Psychosocial Health Sleep: The Great RestorerConservation of energyRestorationCircadian rhythmsRapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep
19Mind-Body Connection Happiness: A Key to Well-being Three components of subjective well-being (SWB)Satisfaction with present lifeRelative presence of positive emotionsRelative absence of negative emotionsWhat are the things that make you happy?
20Mind-Body Connection Several Myths about Happiness Only people in their fifties are happyHappiness belongs only to womenOnly white Americans are happyMoney can buy happiness
21Mind-Body Connection Does Laughter Enhance Health? Studies have shown the following results:Stressed people become less depressed with humorStudents who use humor as a coping mechanism experience positive moodSenior citizens with a sense of humor often recover from depressionJokes, especially shared, increase social cohesion
22When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates Mental Illnesses – Disorders that disrupt thinking, feeling, moods and behaviors
23When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates Depression: The Full-Scale TumbleThe “common cold” of psychological disturbances15 million Americans experience depressionPeople with major depressive disorders experience the following:Chronic mood disorderExtreme and persistent sadnessFeelings of despairThey feel discouraged by life15% attempt and or succeed in suicide
24When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates Depression and Gender8-11% of men experience19-23% of women experienceAdolescent and adult females twice the rate of malesHormonal factors may contribute to increase in womenEqual rates for males and females in college
25When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates Depression in Selected PopulationsAmong Jews, males are equally likely as females to have major depressive episodesIncrease in depression in children, the elderly and in Native American and homosexual young peopleOlder adults may be misdiagnosed as depressed: may be attributable to drug interactions, or as a normal part of aging
26When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates Risks for DepressionInteraction of biology, learned behaviors, and cognitive factors.Chemical and genetic processes may be predisposing factors
27When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates Facts and Fallacies About DepressionTrue depression is not a natural response to crisis and lossPeople will not snap out of depression by using a little willpowerFrequent crying is not a hallmark of depressionDepression is not all in the mind but is chemical in natureOnly in-depth psychotherapy can cure long-term clinical depression
28When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates TreatmentCognitive therapyInterpersonal therapyDrug therapyElectroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
30When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates Bipolar Disorder (aka: Manic-Depressive Ilness)Alternating episodes of mania (highs) and depression (lows)More than 2 million adult Americans, or 1% of the populationBiologic, genetic, and environmental factors may be causative with 60% of cases showing a family history
31When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates Anxiety DisordersGeneralized anxiety disorderPanic disordersPhobias (object, activity, or situation)Social phobiaSources of Anxiety DisordersEnvironmentBiologySocial and cultural role
32When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates Seasonal Affective Disorder6% of Americans suffer from S.A.D.14% of Americans report mild winter bluesCaused by a malfunction of the hypothalamus and possibly stress
33When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates Schizophrenia1% of U.S. population suffers from schizophreniaPeople with schizophrenia experience alterations of the senses including auditory and visual hallucinationsThey experience an inability to sort out incoming stimuli and make appropriate responses
34When Psychosocial Health Deteriorates Schizophrenia (continued)They have an altered sense of selfThey experience radical changes in emotions, movements, and behaviors
35Gender Issues in Psychosocial Health Gender BiasPractitioners diagnosed differently based on gender aloneWomen thought to have more “hysterical personality”Men thought to have more “antisocial personality”PMSPremenstrual syndrome warrants further study into hormonal connection
36Suicide: Giving Up on Life Facts35,000 suicides are reported in the U.S. each yearExperts estimate 100,000 may be a more accurate numberCollege students are more likely to attempt suicide than the general populationSuicide is the 3rd leading cause of death in year olds
37Suicide: Giving Up on Life Warning Signs of SuicideRecent loss and inability to let go of griefChange in personalityChange in behaviorDiminished sexual driveChange in sleepExpressions of self-hatredWhat are some other signs that you have heard of or experienced?
38Suicide: Giving Up on Life Taking Action to Prevent SuicideMonitor the warning signsTake any threats seriouslyLet the person know you careListenAsk directly, “Are you thinking of hurting yourself?”Don’t belittle the person’s feelingsHelp think of alternativesTell the persons friends, family, and counselor
39Seeking Professional Help Fact1 in 5 people seek helpAn exam should include three partsPhysical checkupPsychiatric historyMental status examWhy do you think more people don’t seek professional help?