2 Links Intersex on 20/20: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xv1yk2Va9qc Pregnant man:David Reimer:Killing us softlyYoutube 6min version5 min versionfull versionDreamworlds:
3 Gender MythsWe tend to associate stereotypically female characteristics with weakness and typically male characteristics with strength.He’s firm, but she’s stubborn.He’s careful about details, but she’s picky.He’s honest, but she’s opinionated.He’s raising good points, but she’s “bitchy.”We tend to see men as strong, not emotional and women as emotional and not strong, although we have seen those stereotypes change through the years and we are seeing them change even more.
5 Sex Biological distinction between females and males. Factors used to determine biological sex:Chromosomes: XX for female; XY for maleGonads: Ovaries for female; testes for maleHormonesInternal sex organsExternal genitalsWhat does it mean if an individual is born intersexed?
6 GenderGender is more fluid—refers to the social and psychological characteristics associated with being male or femaleit represents learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize people as men or women.The nature-nurture debate?The story of David Reimer
8 Gender and Socialization The process through which we learn attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors appropriate to the social positions we occupyGender roles: The social norms that dictate what is socially regarded as appropriate female and male behaviorWhen does gender role socialization begin?
9 Gender Roles in the United States Gender-Role SocializationBoys must be masculineActiveAggressiveToughDaringDominantGirls must be feminineSoftEmotionalSweetSubmissive
11 Gender IdentityGender identity is the psychological state of viewing oneself as a girl or boy, man or woman.Gender dysphoriaTransexualsThe pregnant man?
12 Gender Role IdeologyRefers to beliefs about the proper roel relationships between women and men in a given societyWhat is traditional American gender role ideology?
13 Theories of Gender Development Biosocial Theory (sociobiology)Parental investmentcontroversialSocial learning theoryReward and punishmentmodeling
14 Theories of Gender Development Identification theory Identification, observation, and modelingCognitive-development theoryBlends biological and social learning viewsBiological readiness influences how the child interacts with the environment
15 Gender and Socialization Agents If sociology takes the stance that gender roles are learned through interaction with the environment, what influences the individual to behave as a man or woman?
16 Gender and Socialization Agents FamilyRace/EthnicityPeersReligionEducationEconomyMass media
17 Gender Stereotypes are expectations about how people will look, act, think, and feel based on their sex.Such expectations can have negative physical and psychological consequences for males and females
18 How do forms of media portray gender norms and stereotypes? What forms of media?
19 What are the advantages and disadvantages of being male and female? What are the primary cultural messages that the media tells us about what it is to be male or female?VideoWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of being male and female?
20 Traditional View and Gender Roles Instrumental roles tend to be occupied by men in our society. They must be the provider and protector of the family.Expressive roles in our society tend to be played by women—they provide emotional support to the family, nurturing, etc.Should the man be the boss of the family?Why do traditional roles continue?
21 Consequences of traditional female gender roles PositiveNegativeLonger lifeStronger relationships focusKeeps relationships on trackBonding with childrenIdentity not tied to jobLess education/incomeFeminization of povertyHigher STD infection riskNegative body imageLess marital satisfaction
22 Consequences of traditional male role socialization PositiveNegativeHigher income/occupational statusMore positive self conceptLess job discriminationHappier marriageIdentity tied to work roleLimited emotionalityFear of intimacyShorter life
23 Do you think that gender roles are changing? Are men becoming more feminine? Are women becoming more masculine?What is Androgyny?
24 Sexism and Sex Discrimination Women suffer from sexism: attitude, action, or institutional structure that subordinates or discriminates against individuals or groups because of their biological sex.U.S. society has traditionally been run by male-dominated institutions:Which institutions are still dominated by men?
25 Male Domination Does male domination exist in: Politics? Religion? Media?Family?Economy?
26 Emergence of a Collective Consciousness Feminism: belief in social, economic, and political equality for womenEarly 19th century feminists won many victories, including 19th Amendment2nd feminism wave emerged in U.S. in 1960sAs women became aware of sexist attitudes and practices, began to challenge male dominance and continue to