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23-Nov-09 Embedded Systems Development Andy Mehta November 23, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "23-Nov-09 Embedded Systems Development Andy Mehta November 23, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 23-Nov-09 Embedded Systems Development Andy Mehta November 23, 2009

2 23-Nov-09 What are Embedded Systems They are Embedded in They are not desktops Not mainframes or minis Automotive- engine, doors, mirrors A heating furnace controller- Thermostat A mobile phone Medical device DSP based systems Avionics

3 23-Nov-09 Why Use Embedded Systems User functionality – portability User convenience, comfort - HVAC, Auto, Appliances, GPS, TV remote, DVR, iPod Low power and safety – iron, coffee maker, LED Lighting Commercial/industrial applications Complex features to be simplified Replace electro-mechanical systems Cost reduction Quality improvement

4 23-Nov-09 An Embedded System Microcontroller (uC) OutputsInputs

5 23-Nov-09 An Embedded Control System Microcontroller (uC) Outputs Inputs Feedback

6 23-Nov-09 Microcontroller Manufacturers ARM – Advanced RISC Machines Atmel Cypress- programmable blocks Freescale Semiconductor- uC, DSP Intel- 8051/8052 cores Microchip NEC Renasas Sharp ST Microelectronics Texas Instruments- uC, DSP Many others

7 23-Nov-09 Microcontrollers Spectrum $0.15 - $0.20 Far Eastern parts A 4-bit 4-pin $0.35 ST part Musical gift card uC 8-bit 8K flash,1K RAM, 16-I/O 8-Bit, 256K flash, 32K RAM, 64-I/O 32-Bit, 2M Flash, 64K RAM, TPU A high end $50 Marvell processor – GbE, USB HS DSPs

8 23-Nov-09 A Low End Microcontroller Microchip PIC10F200 I/O (3) RAM 16 Bytes Flash 256 x 12 Clock Watch Dog Input (1) Reset

9 23-Nov-09 PIC10F200 Microcontroller 33 12-bit wide instructions 2-level deep stack 4MHz precision internal clock Sleep mode – 100nA Internal pull-ups 3 Input/Output – direct LED drive 8-bit Timer – programmable prescaler Options – Comparator, memory $0.34/3K, $0.59/1

10 23-Nov-09 Microcontroller Functionality Core processor - Voltages Memory – Flash, RAM, EEPROM, FRAM, DDR2 Input/Output – interface voltage Timers Interrupts Serial Communication- SPI, I2C, UART USB, CAN-BUS, IR, SD-Cards Analog – A/D, DAC, Comparator, Op-amp

11 23-Nov-09 A Typical Microcontroller Core I/O RAMFlash EEPROM Clock Power Timers AnalogComm Reset

12 23-Nov-09 Power-On Reset Modules Internal reset Internal and/or external reset Programmable threshold voltage Programmable duration Programmable Osc startup time Brown-out condition - programmable Hysteresis Watchdog timer

13 23-Nov-09 Battery Powered Applications Sleep mode Currents down to 20nA All kinds of modes available Reduced clock frequencies Core options Selective peripherals sleep mode Wake up modes – clocks, timers, interrupts Watchdog timer

14 23-Nov-09 A Typical Microcontroller Core I/O RAMFlash EEPROM Clock Power Timers AnalogComm Reset

15 23-Nov-09 A High End Microcontroller Freescale 32-Bit MPC5554 64-Ch I/O 32-Bit External Bus 2MB Flash A/D 40-Ch CAN Bus (3) MMU 32-Ch TPU (2) 32K Cache DSP 64-Ch DMA PLL 64KB SRAM JTAGNEXUS

16 23-Nov-09 Freescale MPC5554 uC 132MHz, 416-Pin Plastic BGA ECC Flash, SRAM Interrupt controller – 286 prioritized leves PLL – frequency modulated for EMI Applications Engine control Avionics Turbine control

17 23-Nov-09 Microcontroller Selection Criterion Speed of operation, complexity – 8/16/32 Bits Cost – HW/SW tradeoffs Power consumption - TI, Microchip, Freescale Memory Size – Flash, RAM, EEPROM # of I/O Analog – A/D, DAC, Comparator, Op-amp Serial Communication- SPI, I2C, USB, IR, GbE Product Family Development tools Timers – input capture, output compare Environmental conditions

18 23-Nov-09 Marvell 88F6281 Sheeva Core 1.2 GHz PCI-E DDR2 Ctlr Flash Ctlr MPEG Audio 2xTDM 2xSATA 2xGbE MAC USB 2.0 HS

19 23-Nov-09 Embedded Systems Development

20 23-Nov-09 Embedded Systems Development System development Electronics PCB Layout Software Mechanical Product qualification DFM – design for manufacturability

21 23-Nov-09 System Development Architecture Complexity- MIPS required Sub-systems interface - Master/slave Communication - Networking protocols Power budget HW/SW tradeoffs uC selection System tests – regulatory agencies

22 23-Nov-09 Electronics Development Design specs Design for testability uC and components selection Worst case analyses Schematics – CAD tools, Design rule checks Simulations Proof of concept, Prototyping Design validation Product qualification

23 23-Nov-09 Electronics Development Tools Schematic capture- Orcad, PADS, Cadence, Mentor Analog simulation- pSpice, LTSpice Logic Simulation- Orcad, Cadence, Mentor VHDL, Verilog Worst case analyses- simulations Proof of concept, Prototyping- PALs, FPGAs DFMEA- UL, agencies approval Reliability predictions - MTBF

24 23-Nov-09 ASICs & Programmable Logic Application Specific ICs PAL, PLD, FPGA- uCs with PLDs Gate Arrays Standard Cells Custom ICs Languages- VHDL, Verilog Functional simulation Timing simulations Floor planning Back-annotation

25 23-Nov-09 PCB Layout CAD tools- Orcad, Protel, PADS, Allegro, Mentor Netlist # of layers Mechanical outline 3D fit Noise considerations- diff-pair, impedance-matching Thermal considerations DRC Gerber output Fabrication

26 23-Nov-09 Real Time Software Development

27 23-Nov-09 Software Development Specs Architecture SW Design Languages – C, C++, Assembly OS Simulations Tools – compilers, assemblers, programmers, emulators Real time aspects - ISRs SW/HW tradeoffs System integration

28 23-Nov-09 Real Time Software Development Timers Interrupts Tasks Priorities

29 23-Nov-09 Real Time Software Micro- Controller Core SW Timer 1 Prioritized Interrupts Task 1 Timer n Task 2 Task n External Event External Event Inputs I/O

30 23-Nov-09 Real Time Software Development Interrupts – ISRs C v/s Assembly Timers – input capture and output compare Tasks and priorities RTOS Worst case analysis

31 23-Nov-09 Software Development - Tools Programmers- development, in-circuit, field Emulators- JTAG Simulators Assemblers Compilers Linkers Loaders CASE tools Version control

32 23-Nov-09 Case Studies

33 23-Nov-09 Mobile Phone User Interface Freescale Dragonball 68328 LCD Driver Keypad Inputs Freescale 68HC05 Micro- Phone Speaker Touch Screen Graphics LCD Power Battery Radio

34 23-Nov-09 Mobile Phone Development 3.5 Months total development time Development involved – HW – SW- menus, address book – GUI – electronic ink capture – Plastics industrial design, proto tooling – Fonts – Phone made and received calls Project successfully completed

35 23-Nov-09 Postal Mail Sorting Device Freescale 68HCxx Postal Mail Pieces Optical Encoder Power Supply RS232 Flash RAM PLD PC Application Optical Isolation

36 23-Nov-09 Mail Sorter Development 6 Months total development time Industrial robustness Development involved – HW – SW- timers Project successfully completed Product went to production

37 23-Nov-09 eBook PC/104 Pentium Processor PCMCIA Graphics LCD Rechargeable Battery Video Xilinx FPGA Touch Screen

38 23-Nov-09 eBook 6 Months total development time Proof of concept Development involved – HW – FPGA for orthogonal rotation of image – SW- PC Application – Industrial design- leather bound covers Project successfully completed Idea was discarded by the customer

39 23-Nov-09 1GHz Fibre Channel PCI Card 3 Months total HW development time SAN Storage Area Networking 1GHz Fibre Channel Bus LSI Logic FC controller Technician did the Orcad PCB Layout Windows Driver development

40 23-Nov-09 1GHz Fibre Channel PCI Card LSI Logic Controller FC Transceiver PCI Bus Fibre Channel Bus

41 23-Nov-09 Q&A Session

42 23-Nov-09 The End.

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