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Embedded Systems Development

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Presentation on theme: "Embedded Systems Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Embedded Systems Development
Andy Mehta November 23, 2009 - Stop me anytime for questions 23-Nov-09

2 What are Embedded Systems
They are Embedded ‘in’ They are not desktops Not mainframes or mini’s Automotive- engine, doors, mirrors A heating furnace controller- Thermostat A mobile phone Medical device DSP based systems Avionics Just a note 23-Nov-09

3 Why Use Embedded Systems
User functionality – portability User convenience, comfort - HVAC, Auto, Appliances, GPS, TV remote, DVR, iPod Low power and safety – iron, coffee maker, LED Lighting Commercial/industrial applications Complex features to be simplified Replace electro-mechanical systems Cost reduction Quality improvement Functionality- light-weight, low power, flexibility, toaster, iron, LED flashlight, LED lights, mobile internet, auto- remote starting, heated seats Distributed embedded systems Phrase ‘omnipresent’ complex features- pacemaker, avionics Electro-mech- appliances cost- mobility, 3rd world, quality- appliances- better washing/drying, better cooking 23-Nov-09

4 An Embedded System Inputs Microcontroller (uC) Outputs 23-Nov-09

5 An Embedded Control System
Inputs Microcontroller (uC) Outputs Feedback 23-Nov-09

6 Microcontroller Manufacturers
ARM – Advanced RISC Machines Atmel Cypress- programmable blocks Freescale Semiconductor- uC, DSP Intel- 8051/8052 cores Microchip NEC Renasas Sharp ST Microelectronics Texas Instruments- uC, DSP Many others ARM probably the largest uC licenses. UK based co. amr7, arm9, arm11, cortex-m3 atmel- ee. Flash company, touch sense solutions and uC prog logic co., micros and other semis freescale one of the biggest intel grand daddy of uC 4004, 8008, 8016, 8051 microchip a power house. Most focused japanese mfr’s not big in US. renasas- hitachi, mitsubishi ST has few uC’s but good pricing and selection TI had very few uC MSP430 exteremly low power leader, medical. Couple of acquisitions others like zilog, infineon and many in far east RBM - holtek for music, caller-ID, LCD 4 Billion microcontrollers sold in 2006 A typical home in developed country has 36 micros A midsize car has 30 micros 23-Nov-09

7 Microcontrollers Spectrum
$ $0.20 Far Eastern parts A 4-bit 4-pin $0.35 ST part Musical gift card uC 8-bit 8K flash,1K RAM, 16-I/O 8-Bit, 256K flash, 32K RAM, 64-I/O 32-Bit, 2M Flash, 64K RAM, TPU A high end $50 Marvell processor – GbE, USB HS DSPs Microchip has an 8-bit part for $0.58/qty 1, $0.34/3k, SOT-23 (6) airliner project- usb hs running at 480 mbits/sec product families built around groupings 23-Nov-09

8 A Low End Microcontroller
Flash 256 x 12 I/O (3) Microchip PIC10F200 Clock Reset Watch Dog Input (1) very very low cost applications Onboard precision 4mhz osc ECOs or add-on functionality, after-market fixes/features debugging options protocol additions RAM 16 Bytes 23-Nov-09

9 PIC10F200 Microcontroller 33 12-bit wide instructions
2-level deep stack 4MHz precision internal clock Sleep mode – 100nA Internal pull-ups 3 Input/Output – direct LED drive 8-bit Timer – programmable prescaler Options – Comparator, memory $0.34/3K, $0.59/1 Low cost RC oscillator For further cost reduction parts in die form 23-Nov-09

10 Microcontroller Functionality
Core processor - Voltages Memory – Flash, RAM, EEPROM, FRAM, DDR2 Input/Output – interface voltage Timers Interrupts Serial Communication- SPI, I2C, UART USB, CAN-BUS, IR, SD-Cards Analog – A/D, DAC, Comparator, Op-amp Core onboard voltage regulators ferro-electric ram- TI Inputs 3.3V/5V tolerant interrupts from 0 to 286 I2C master/slave SPI synchronous bus CAN bus, LIN bus 12-bit ADC but so-so performance. No audio DACs 23-Nov-09

11 A Typical Microcontroller
RAM Flash EEPROM I/O Core Clock Reset Timers Power Comm Analog 23-Nov-09

12 Power-On Reset Modules
Internal reset Internal and/or external reset Programmable threshold voltage Programmable duration Programmable Osc startup time Brown-out condition - programmable Hysteresis Watchdog timer 23-Nov-09

13 Battery Powered Applications
Sleep mode Currents down to 20nA All kinds of modes available Reduced clock frequencies Core options Selective peripherals sleep mode Wake up modes – clocks, timers, interrupts Watchdog timer 23-Nov-09

14 A Typical Microcontroller
RAM Flash EEPROM I/O Core Clock Reset Timers Power Comm Analog 23-Nov-09

15 A High End Microcontroller
JTAG NEXUS 2MB Flash 64KB SRAM 64-Ch DMA DSP 32K Cache Freescale 32-Bit MPC5554 MMU 32-Ch TPU (2) CAN Bus (3) A/D 40-Ch PLL 64-Ch I/O 32-Bit External Bus 23-Nov-09

16 Freescale MPC5554 uC 132MHz, 416-Pin Plastic BGA ECC Flash, SRAM
Interrupt controller – 286 prioritized leves PLL – frequency modulated for EMI Applications Engine control Avionics Turbine control 23-Nov-09

17 Microcontroller Selection Criterion
Speed of operation, complexity – 8/16/32 Bits Cost – HW/SW tradeoffs Power consumption - TI, Microchip, Freescale Memory Size – Flash, RAM, EEPROM # of I/O Analog – A/D, DAC, Comparator, Op-amp Serial Communication- SPI, I2C, USB, IR, GbE Product Family Development tools Timers – input capture, output compare Environmental conditions - complexity- MIPS required Several of these parameters are intertwined cost appliance industry. Bids in 5/10 cents if for music DAC won’t suffice as you need 24-bit resolution a unique peripheral - USB HS, GbE (avionics) 2 CAN controllers OS – skinny Linux kernel needs MMU Timers- TPU engine control or turbine, injection control temp- miltary system with -55C/60C physical space – OMAP processor with piggyback memory 23-Nov-09

18 Marvell 88F6281 DDR2 Ctlr Flash Ctlr USB 2.0 HS Sheeva Core 1.2 GHz
PCI-E 2xTDM MPEG Audio 2xGbE MAC 2xSATA 23-Nov-09

19 Embedded Systems Development

20 Embedded Systems Development
System development Electronics PCB Layout Software Mechanical Product qualification DFM – design for manufacturability 23-Nov-09

21 Complexity- MIPS required Sub-systems interface - Master/slave
System Development Architecture Complexity- MIPS required Sub-systems interface - Master/slave Communication - Networking protocols Power budget HW/SW tradeoffs uC selection System tests – regulatory agencies 23-Nov-09

22 Electronics Development
Design specs Design for testability uC and components selection Worst case analyses Schematics – CAD tools, Design rule checks Simulations Proof of concept, Prototyping Design validation Product qualification - Simulations NASA or IC/ASIC development 23-Nov-09

23 Electronics Development Tools
Schematic capture- Orcad, PADS, Cadence, Mentor Analog simulation- pSpice, LTSpice Logic Simulation- Orcad, Cadence, Mentor VHDL, Verilog Worst case analyses- simulations Proof of concept, Prototyping- PALs, FPGAs DFMEA- UL, agencies approval Reliability predictions - MTBF 23-Nov-09

24 ASICs & Programmable Logic
Application Specific ICs PAL, PLD, FPGA- uCs with PLDs Gate Arrays Standard Cells Custom ICs Languages- VHDL, Verilog Functional simulation Timing simulations Floor planning Back-annotation uC cores, 8051 very popular Cypress uC with analog PLAs 23-Nov-09

25 CAD tools- Orcad, Protel, PADS, Allegro, Mentor
PCB Layout CAD tools- Orcad, Protel, PADS, Allegro, Mentor Netlist # of layers Mechanical outline 3D fit Noise considerations- diff-pair, impedance-matching Thermal considerations DRC Gerber output Fabrication 23-Nov-09

26 Real Time Software Development

27 Software Development Specs Architecture SW Design
Languages – ‘C’, C++, Assembly OS’ Simulations Tools – compilers, assemblers, programmers, emulators Real time aspects - ISRs SW/HW tradeoffs System integration closeness to HW resource limitations Concurrent events complex debugging specs- hp study design- engineers with perfect quality 23-Nov-09

28 Real Time Software Development
Timers Interrupts Tasks Priorities 23-Nov-09

29 Real Time Software External Event External Event Timer 1 Timer n
Micro- Controller Core SW Prioritized Interrupts I/O Inputs Task 1 Task 2 Task n 23-Nov-09

30 Real Time Software Development
Interrupts – ISRs ‘C’ v/s Assembly Timers – input capture and output compare Tasks and priorities RTOS’ Worst case analysis 23-Nov-09

31 Software Development - Tools
Programmers- development, in-circuit, field Emulators- JTAG Simulators Assemblers Compilers Linkers Loaders CASE tools Version control 23-Nov-09

32 Case Studies 23-Nov-09

33 Mobile Phone User Interface
Touch Screen Freescale 68HC05 Radio Power Battery Freescale Dragonball 68328 LCD Driver Graphics LCD Keypad Inputs Micro- Phone Speaker 23-Nov-09

34 Mobile Phone Development
3.5 Months total development time Development involved HW SW- menus, address book GUI – electronic ink capture Plastics industrial design, proto tooling Fonts Phone made and received calls Project successfully completed 23-Nov-09

35 Postal Mail Sorting Device
Power Supply Postal Mail Pieces Freescale 68HCxx Flash RAM PLD Optical Encoder Optical Isolation RS232 PC Application 23-Nov-09

36 Mail Sorter Development
6 Months total development time Industrial robustness Development involved HW SW- timers Project successfully completed Product went to production 23-Nov-09

37 eBook PCMCIA PC/104 Pentium Processor Xilinx FPGA Graphics LCD Video
Rechargeable Battery PCMCIA PC/104 Pentium Processor Xilinx FPGA Graphics LCD Video Touch Screen 23-Nov-09

38 6 Months total development time
eBook 6 Months total development time Proof of concept Development involved HW FPGA for orthogonal rotation of image SW- PC Application Industrial design- leather bound covers Project successfully completed Idea was discarded by the customer 23-Nov-09

39 1GHz Fibre Channel PCI Card
3 Months total HW development time SAN Storage Area Networking 1GHz Fibre Channel Bus LSI Logic FC controller Technician did the Orcad PCB Layout Windows Driver development 23-Nov-09

40 1GHz Fibre Channel PCI Card
LSI Logic Controller FC Transceiver Fibre Channel Bus PCI Bus 23-Nov-09

41 Q&A Session 23-Nov-09

42 The End. 23-Nov-09

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