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Atoms and the Periodic Table

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1 Atoms and the Periodic Table
Chapter 4

2 What are Atoms? 4th Century B.C.  Democritus suggested that the universe was made of invisible units called atoms Atom  Derived from Greek word meaning unable to be divided He thought that movements of atoms caused the changes in matter that he observed

3 John Dalton’s Atomic Theory
Dalton also believed that atoms could not be divided Today, we know that atoms are made up of much smaller particles Dalton’s theory: stated that all atoms of a given element were exactly alike Stated that atoms of different elements could join to form compounds ** His theory is considered the foundation for the modern atomic theory

4 Atoms: The Building Blocks of Molecules
An atom is the smallest part of an element that still has the element’s properties (chemical and physical)

5 What’s in an Atom? Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The center of each atom is a small, dense NUCLEUS with a positive charge. Made of PROTONS and NEUTRONS Protons and neutrons are very similar in size and mass They differ because protons have a positive charge and neutrons have no electric charge.

6 What’s in an Atom? ELECTRONS move around the outside of the nucleus.
These subatomic particles have a negative electric charge and have a very small mass.

7 What’s in an Atom? Unreacted atoms have no overall charge
Atoms are not charged even though they are made up of charged subatomic particles. Due to equal number of protons and electrons

8 Models of the Atom Bohr’s Model
He thought that electrons moved in set paths around the nucleus. Each electron has a certain energy that is determined by its path around the nucleus Electrons must gain energy to move to higher levels or lose energy to move to lower levels.

9 Models of the Atom A new model of the atom was proposed
Stated that electrons behave like waves on a vibrating string An electron’s exact location cannot be determined Impossible to determine both the exact location of an electron in an atom and the electron’s speed and location

10 Calculating Subatomic Particles
Atomic number = 50 Tells you how many protons are in an atom Mass number = 118.7 Sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

11 Calculating Subatomic Particles
How do you determine the number of electrons? The number of protons = the number of electrons  the atomic number How do you determine the number of neutrons in an atom? The mass number – the atomic number = the number of neutrons. Remember: mass number = # of protons and neutrons atomic number = # of protons

12 Electrons Exist in Energy Levels
The number of filled energy levels an atom has depends on the number of electrons.

13 Electrons: Found in Orbitals Within Energy Levels
Orbital: A region in the atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons. Within each energy level, electrons occupy orbitals that have the lowest energy levels. There are four different kinds of orbitals Orbitals s,p,d, and f


15 Orbitals S orbital P orbital
Simplest and lowest energy level: hold 2 electrons Spherical shape P orbital Holds 6 electrons Dumbbell shape Three different orientations

16 Orbitals D orbital F orbital More complex 5 possible orbitals
Has the greatest energy 7 possible orbitals

17 Every atom has between 1 and 8 valence electrons
A valence electron is the outermost energy level of an atom. Determine an atom’s chemical properties and ability to form bonds

18 Organization of the Periodic Table
Periodic table groups similar elements together. The order of elements is based on the number of protons in the atom of elements Elements are arranged this way due to the periodic law States that when elements are arranged in this manner, similarities in their properties will occur in a regular pattern

19 Periodic Table Helps Determine Electron Arrangement
Horizontal  rows in the periodic table are called periods. The number of protons and electrons increase as you move across the periodic table from left to right

20 Elements In The Same Group Have Similar Properties
Valence electrons determine the chemical properties of atoms Elements in the same group or vertical column (up and down) have the same number of valence electrons

21 Some Atoms form Ions Atoms that do not have a filled s or p orbital may undergo ionization. They may gain or lose valence electrons in order to have a full outermost s and/or p ortbital. Atoms that gain or lose electrons no longer have an equal number of protons and electrons the ion forms a net electric charge

22 IONS Removing an electron from an atom forms a positive ion, or a cation. Adding an electron to an atom forms a negative ion, or an anion.

23 How Do The Structure of Atoms Differ?
Atomic number: Tells you how many protons are in an atom Remember that atoms have a neutral charge What does this mean? Protons are equal to electrons Mass Number: Equals the number of protons plus the number of neutrons Atoms of an element always have the same atomic number, but they can have different mass numbers

24 Isotopes An isotope is an atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of the same element but has a different number of neutrons. Some elements can have different versions of their atom Each atom has the same number of protons and electrons

25 The Mass of an Atom Atomic units are extremely small.
Expressed in atomic mass units (amu). Atomic mass unit: A unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule. It is exactly one-twelfth of the mass of a carbon 12 atom.

26 The Mass of an Atom Average atomic mass: the weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element. This is the number on the periodic table. More commonly found isotopes have a greater effect on the average than rare isotopes.

27 How Are Elements Classified?
Classified into three groups: Metals Nonmetals Semiconductors/Metalloids

28 Metals Characteristics
Shiny Can be stretched and shaped Good conductors of heat and electricity Similar metals are grouped together: there are different kinds of metals.

29 Metals Alkali Metals Found in Group 1 of the periodic table
Highly reactive: only has one valence electron Not found in nature as elements they combine to form compounds Soft Shiny Reacts violently with water

30 Metals Alkaline-earth metals Found in Group 2
Have two valence electrons Calcium: form hard shells of many sea animals, bones, and teeth Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra

31 Metals Transition metals: one of the elements in groups 3-12 on the periodic table Much less reactive than elements in groups 1 and 2. Can lose electrons to form cations (positive ions) Conduct heat and electricity Shiny Can be stretched ** Mercury (Hg) is the only metal that is a liquid at room temperature.

32 Synthetic Elements Technetium and promethium are man-made elements
All elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 are man-made.

33 Nonmetals Except for hydrogen, nonmetals are found on the right side of the periodic table. Include some elements in groups and all elements in groups

34 Nonmetals Carbon Found in three forms
Graphite (pencil lead) Diamond Fullerenes Carbon is found in both living and non-living things Examples: Glucose, chlorophyll, gasoline, and rubber tires

35 Nonmetals Many nonmetals gain electrons in order to have a full valence shell. Examples: Oxygen  O2- Nitrogen  N3- The most abundant gases in the air are the nonmetals nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O)

36 Halogens Halogens are located in group 17 of the periodic table.
These elements are very reactive they need one electron to fill their valence shell. Just like the elements found in group one, these elements are not commonly found in nature. They are normally found in compounds. Elements: F, Cl, Br, I, At

37 Noble Gases Noble gases make up group 18.
Elements in this group are different because they exist as a single atom instead of as molecules. These elements are inert or unreactive because the s and p orbitals are full of electrons. These elements do not gain or lose electrons to form ions. Elements: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn

38 Semiconductors Also called metalloids Only 6 elements: Boron Silicon
Germanium Arsenic Antimony Tellurium

39 Semiconductors Silicon atoms account for 28% of the mass of Earth’s crust

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