Presentation on theme: "An Overview of Emerging Alternative Energy Technologies and its Impact on the Demand for Engineers and Consultants Stafford Cuffe, Ph.D. Member: AMA, IEEE,"— Presentation transcript:
1An Overview of Emerging Alternative Energy Technologies and its Impact on the Demand for Engineers and ConsultantsStafford Cuffe, Ph.D. Member: AMA, IEEE, SAEIEEE Consultant’s Network MeetingChicago/Rockford SectionMarch 30, 2009
2Introduction – Global Drivers Environmental forces of change has fueled the demand for alternative energy sources for the new economy.Examples: globalization, high energy costs, climate change issues, labor factors, competitive factors, emerging technologies, socio-economic factors, geo-political factors, global financial meltdown, new government regulations, federal stimulus funds, and new business best practices.Demand for oil will rise at about the rate of % a year through 2012, primarily driven by the developing world's consumption, which is rising three times as fast as in the OECD Transportation fuels will be the largest source of demand, by far.Source: Neider, 2007
3Alternative Energy Sources There are several popular alternative energy sources such as: bio-fuel, wind, solar cell, fuel cell, and hydropower.Scholars and subject matter experts agree that wind, solar cell and fuel cell have a higher rate-of-return and are attracting new “players” in the energy sector.Some states (e.g., CA,CO, FL, MI, NM, OH, & TX) have turned to alternative energy (i.e., wind, & solar) to reinvent their stagnant economy fueled by the new stimulus energy funds.
4Bio-ethanol and other Bio-Fuels Energy In 2003, world ethanol production was 20 billion liters and Brazil (sugar cane) and the US (corn) were the main players at that time. Other countries are considering entering the ethanol fuel market with diverse raw materials base and could increase the world production to 80 billion liters by 2020 (Gielen & Unander, 2005).Biofuels are mass transportation fuels produced by processing vegetable oils such as soy, and palm. Also, bio-fuels are renewable that can reduce green houses gas and emissions compared to the standard petroleum based fuels.bioethanolSource:
5Wind EnergyThe Department of Energy is assisting universities and the private sector to develop clean, domestic and emerging technologies to reduce America’s dependence on imported oil. In 2006, wind power generated MW, a 26% increase and was the second largest contributor to US national power grid over the last two years.Source:
6Grid-Connected Wind Applications Small wind turbines (SWT) is used in grid-connected applications for residential, industrial or even, lately, urban environments. The so-called distributed wind applications are poised for rapid market growth in response to continuing energy price increases and increased demand for on-site power generation. Presently, the major share of development of this market is in the US, Canada and Australia, in parallel with new trends in the development of distributed generation systems. This emerging market provides a new impulse to the development of Small Wind Turbine (SWT) technology.Wind power can also be used to generate electricity in an urban environment. This trend has mainly been seen in Europe, where the integration of SWTs in the built environment is being actively discussed.Source:
7Hydropower EnergyEmerging water power technologies such as marine and hydrokinetic devices can transform energy from waves, tides, ocean currents and the natural flow of rivers into clean energy. Hydropower accounted for 7% of America’s electric power and was 73% renewable in It is one of the oldest forms of energy sources and was used thousands of years ago to process grain into flour.Sources: (1) (2)
8Fuel Cells EnergyThere many types of fuel cells on the market and trying to decide the best type to match specific applications can be very challenge for those individual who may not be familiar with the emerging technology.Most subject mater experts agree to be successfully commercializing fuel cells products; suppliers should consider the correct type of fuel cells to match the specific application and market conditions.
9Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Solid electrolyte and porous carbon electrodes embedded with a noble metal catalyst (i.e., platinum) are used in the construction of PEMFCs.Low temperature PEMFCs operate at 60-80°C and have quick start up times.High temperature PEMFCs operate at °C and have a longer start up time before they can generate electricity.Source: (1) Eisemann & Willis, 2004 (2) Anonymous2, n.d.
10Honda FCX Clarity Fuel Cell Car V Flow Fuel Cell Stack Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC).Standard Power: Output 100 kW Size (liters)57 Weight (lbs) 148.Electric Power Storage Lithium-Ion Battery Standard Output (Volts) 288.Electric Motor AC Synchronous Permanent-Magnet.Electric Motor Standard Horsepower (SAE net)134, Torque ,056 Power Output 100 kW.Honda FCX ClaritySource: (1)(2)
11Other Types of Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)DMFC is similar to PEMFC because its electrolyte is polymer based. It is in the early stages of development operating at 80 °C with a low efficiency of less than 40%. However, it is not a good candidate for commercialization because of its immature characteristics.The electrochemical hurdles for DMFC include concerns about methanol electro-catalysis and anode poisoningSolid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) operate at 600 to 1000°C making it the highest in the family of fuel SOFC are suitable for high powered industrial applications such as power suppliers and generators with an efficiency of 45%. Automotive and hotel load applications (e.g., tank silent watch, vehicle idling).Source: Anonymous1, n.d.
12Solar Cells EnergyEmerging solar cells technologies offers the best opportunity for long term rate of return on investment and sustainability compared to the other types of alternate energy sources.Concerns about the environment can be a powerful driver for selecting solar cells products for applications.Research data had reported that an average coal-fired power plant emits 225 pounds of arsenic, 500 tons of particulates, four pounds of cadmium, 5,000 tons of sulfur oxides, 114 pounds of lead, one million tons of carbon and 10,000 tons of nitrogen oxides annually.20,000 US citizens die annually due to airborne particulates generated by power plants.Source: Solar Energy Fact Sheets, 2002
13Popular Thin Solar Cell Films Amorphous silicon technologyCadmium TellurideCopper Indium diselenideAmorphous silicon technology is most often seen in small solar panels. They are made by depositing a thin film of silicon onto a sheet of another material (e.g., glass, plastic)Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). First Solar, an Ohio based company, uses CdTe solar cells.Emerging Dye-sensitized, inorganic/nano-materials solar cellsNANOSOLAR Ink Jet Printing process uses Nano-particles ink that eliminates the need for expensive high-vacuum chamber.Copper Indium diselenide (CIS) is used in the solar cell industry as prototype modules.Sources: (1)(2)(3)(4) Bradford, 2007; Malenson, 2008
14Solar Cells Applications Utility grid connected solar cell applicationsGrid interactive systems Remote solar cell applicationsConsumer products applicationsUtility grid connected applicationsGrid interactive systemsRemote solar cell applicationsSources: (1)(2)
15American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009 (stimulus funding) $50 billion for energy programs$32 billion to modernize the US power grid$20 billion tax cut for alternative energy projects$18.5 energy efficiency and renewable energy$11 billion for smart electricity grid (manage variability of very high levels of wind and solar power generation)$6.3 billion in state energy agency efficiencies$4.5 billion to make Federal Buildings more efficient$2 billion in grants for advanced batteries for electric carsWill create 148,000 more jobs for IllinoisSource: illinoishomepage.net
16Drivers for the Demand for Energy Engineers and Consultants Wave of retirements in the public and private sectorThe Federal Stimulus Spending Bill (ARRA)US Recession and loss of traditional high paying jobsIncrease demand for energyClimate change (global warming)Increase in disposable or old economy skills setsThe end of the old economy and start of the newIncrease demand for data savvy professionalsIncrease demand in power for data center computersIncrease demand for professionals with multiple or cross functional skills and/or degrees (i.e., BSEE, BSCS, MBA)
18ReferencesAnonymous1, (n.d.). Development of Early Fuel Cell.Anonymous2, (n.d.). History of Fuel Cell. Retrieved from June 1, 2008.Bradford, T; Grama, S; Wesoff, E & Bhargava, A. (2007, August). The Future of Thin Film Solar; Executive Summary.Eisenmann, & Willis, M. (2004, March 30). Fuel Cells: The Hydrogen Revolution. Harvard Business School, Product no:Gielen, D & Unanader, F (2005, March). Alternate Fuels: An Energy Technology Perspective. Report Number EET/2005/01. Paris, FranceMalanson (2008). Nanosolar inkjet [solar cells] film rolls off the press at 100 feet per minute.Neider (2007). Medium-Term Supply/Demand Growth of Oil.Solar Energy Fact Sheets (2002).