3During the first three years, crew is on the surface 3650 total days(robot on surface)1140 days(robots on surface)87 days(crew on surface)During the first three years, crew is on the surface8% of the time
4Lunar Surface Robotics Un-crewed MissionsCharacterize environmentPrepare for crewBuild infrastructureShort-stay MissionsEVA support: expand range and capability of sortiesOff-load repetitive and time consuming tasksOutpost MissionsRoutine tasks: maintenance, ops support, survey, etc.Heavy duty: large payload transport, construction, etc.
5NASA Human-Robotic Systems Project Research areasSurface mobilityHumansPayloadsUtility robotsHandlingCargoMaterialHuman-robot interaction (HRI)Primary ObjectivesAddress key technical challenges for lunar surface operationsDevelop requirements & mature surface systemsPerform trade studies in relevant and analog environments2006 Meteor Crater Field TestNASA Centers: ARC, GRC, GSFC, JPL, JSC, KSC, LaRC
6Human-Robotic Systems Project ChariotK10’sScarabATHLETECentaur
7HRS Analog Field Testing ObjectivesTest and validate technologies, systems, & proceduresConduct integrated simulationsAnalogs are never perfectNo place on Earth is exactly like the MoonNo single site covers all needsLevel of fidelity is keyEvery analog offers different levels of fidelityChoice of analog depends on what level of fidelity is neededHRS emphasis = operational + compositional analogsscale of sitescope of activitieslogistically reasonableflats, slopes & cratersdusty to boulderedgeology
82006 Meteor Crater Field Test 3-16 September 2006Coordinated human-robot operationsARC, JSC, JPL, & LaRCCo-located with Desert RATS (shared infrastructure)
9Lunar Short Stay Mission Simulation ATHLETE positions Pressurized Rover Compartment (PRC)Crew drive unpressurized rover to worksiteCrew dismount and walk to PRC to recharge suitsCentaur removes sample box (time-delayed teleop via satellite from Houston)K10 performs autonomous “walkaround” (for remote visual inspection)1122334455
10Visual Inspection Rover-based imaging Autonomous approach & circumnavigationHDR gigapixel panoramaCrew (IVA or ground) analyzes images for problemsK10 inspection of SCOUTMeteor Crater Field Test, Sept. 2006M. Bualat et al “Autonomous Robotic Inspection for Lunar Surface Operations”, FSR ’07
132007 Haughton Crater Field Test 10 July – 3 August 2007Systematic site survey with two K10 robots3D scanning lidar for topographic mappingGround-penetrating radar for resource prospectingMultiple lunar analog sites at Haughton CraterRemote (habitat and ground control) robot operationsHaughton Crater(Devon Island, Canada)K10This field test is designed to examine: (1) multi-robot site survey, (2) IVA operations from a simulated habitat (Haughton-Mars Project base camp), (3) simulated ground operations (JSC Code ER “cockpit”) that is fundamentally different from MER (command-cycle based goal-directed traverses).Note: We are studying SURVEY OPERATIONS and ROBOTIC SOFTWARE. We are NOT testing robot mechatronics, nor locomotion performance. We use K10 robots (MER-class) because they are mature research systems that are well suited for terrestrial analog environments. Robotic site survey on the moon will LIKELY be performed with larger vehicles (e.g., a human-sized rover teleoperated from ground), but COULD be performed with MER-class robots (for more difficult terrain, permanently shadowed areas, far away from outpost).
14Remote Operations “Pressurized Rover” ARC JSC “Lunar Outpost” NASA ARCNASA JSCDuring the test, two types of remote operations were conducted: (1) “Hab Ops”: shirtsleeved IVA from a lunar outpost (Haughton-Mars Project base camp) and a mobile habitat (a HMMWV) with no delay, high-bandwidth (54 Mb/sec) data networking, and (2) “Ground Control” at ARC and JSC (data carried by CSA satellite from Haughton to Toronto ground station, and then by Internet to ARC and JSC) with variable delay and lower (1 Mb/sec) bandwidth.“Pressurized Rover”ARCJSC“Lunar Outpost”Ground OpsIVA Ops
15“Drill Hill” Survey 700 m Survey plan K10 robot on-site for 3 days One survey is of the “Drill Hill” region (location of previous ASTEP funded Mars drilling work), which is approximately 5km from base camp and requires a communications relay (provided by a HMMWV acting as a simulated pressurized rover). The surveyed region measures 700x700.This survey simulates lunar resource prospecting operations. GPR is one of two sensors (neutron spectrometer is the other) that is necessary for ground-truthing of buried water ice lateral and vertical distribution.Survey planK10 robot on-site for 3 daysHMMWV simulates pressurized rover (temporary habitat)Resource prospecting: subsurface ground-penetrating radar scans (parallel transects with 50 m spacing)
16Parallel line transects (50 m spacing, E-W, N-S) “Drill Hill” SurveySurvey plan(green)Survey boundary(blue)K10 path(black)Parallel line transects (50 m spacing, E-W, N-S)20.5 km total traverse
193D Terrain Modeling130 mValley mapping(1 m polar grid)
203D Terrain Modeling HMP base camp (1 m polar grid) Full triangular mesh containing approximately two million points without resampling. The first model shows the area near Haughton-Mars Project base camp, including the HMP greenhouse and solar panels (shown on right).HMP base camp(1 m polar grid)
21K10 GPR SurveyK10 black crossing run-off from snow melt.
24GPR Survey Display GPR data (vertical) transect lines 1x1 meter grid Robot state (health, task execution, terrain/obstacle assessment) and survey data is displayed in real-time.During K10 Black operations, data acquired by the GPR was visualized as a geolocated “strip-chart” (appears as ribbon draped behind the robot).transect lines1x1 meter grid
252008 Moses Lake Sand Dunes Field Test 1-13 June 2008Examine early lunar mission tasks (not precursor) (deploy infrastructure, site surveys, install beacons)Multi-robot & coordinated human-robot activitiesExperiment with different ops scenarios (shared & traded control, ground & surface)K10ChariotATHLETE
26Moses Lake Sand Dunes 3,000 acre sand dune site Soft soil with mixed gravelRolling terrain, varied slopesLightly vegetatedLunar operations analogNot lunar science analog
28K10 Activities Utility robotics Systematic science survey: ground penetrating radarRobotic recon: “high grade” science targets for traverse planningTopographic survey: 3D scanning lidarComm network mapping: predicted vs. actual coverageMobile camera (videographer)PredictedGround ops (JSC)DEM(1m polar grid)Actual
29Systematic Site Survey Local Area MappingMaps for engineering, science, & ISRUDense coverage + repetitive measurements (e.g., parallel-line transects)Lidar, comm signal, GPR, penetrometer, etcK10 Black at Moses Lake Sand DunesrobotFunctionPolar volatiles searchModeMappingPathSystematic coverageScience InstrumentsVisible imager(s) Ground-penetrating radar Microscopic terrain imagerScience ObjectivesMap subsurface structure Identify particle distribution Assess site stratigraphy Identify water table depth
30Robotic Recon Advance science scout K10 Red at Moses Lake Sand Dunes Site & traverse recon before crew activity (“high grading” by science backroom)Increase crew productivity (traverse planning)Multi-modal sensing (not just visible imagery)K10 Red at Moses Lake Sand DunesrobotcrewFunctionGeologic scoutingModeExplorationPathCircuitousScience InstrumentsVisible imager(s) on pan/tilt 3D scanning lidar Microscopic terrain imagerScience ObjectivesTriage sample locations Identify particle distribution Assess surface composition Evaluate depositional history
31EVA Traverse PlanningRobotic recon identifies & priorities sites of interestPlan EVA traverse to maximize utilityTraverse assessmentSuited subjects (limited geology training)Unsuited subject: identify what missed while in suitField geologist: ground truth
32Ground Control Structure Tactical Minutes to HoursFlight Control TeamJSCB9Flight Director“RoboCom”Systems LiaisonScience LiaisonJSCB9MosesLakeJSCB9Systems LeadScience PIRobotCmdrRobot DriverHardware Eng.K10 Red PIK10 Black PIPower Eng.Robot Ops TeamMI PELGPR PELControl Eng.Lidar PELImager PELExecutionSecs to HoursTelemetry Eng.K10RobotData CurationSystems Support TeamScience Operations TeamStrategicMinutes to Days
33Functional Flow Strategic Tactical Execution Robot Data Voice Systems KeyFunctional FlowDataVoiceSystemsSupportTeamScienceOpsTeamStrategicSystemsLeadScience PIFlightControlTeamSys LiaisonSci LiaisonTacticalFlight DirectorRoboComRobotOperationsTeamExecutionRobotCmdrRobotDriverRobotK10Robot