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Stored Fuel Maintenance Standards as Defined by NFPA Gregory Hagopian President FUEL TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL LLC PO BOX 6368, Santa Maria, CA 93456.

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Presentation on theme: "Stored Fuel Maintenance Standards as Defined by NFPA Gregory Hagopian President FUEL TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL LLC PO BOX 6368, Santa Maria, CA 93456."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stored Fuel Maintenance Standards as Defined by NFPA Gregory Hagopian President FUEL TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL LLC PO BOX 6368, Santa Maria, CA (805) When the lights go out, its too late to clean your fuel When the lights go out, its too late to clean your fuel

2 Has been in the fuel business for 12 years Vice President of Operations at Fuel Technologies, Inc. for nine years Currently President of Fuel Technologies International LLC Has been a featured speaker for Has been in the fuel business for 12 years Vice President of Operations at Fuel Technologies, Inc. for nine years Currently President of Fuel Technologies International LLC Has been a featured speaker for SPEAKER BIO 7x24 Exchange National Fire Protection Association American Society of Healthcare Engineers California Fire Prevention Institute California Fire Prevention Officers (Nor Cal and So Cal) Association of Facility Engineers Electrical Generating Systems Association and numerous design engineer groups in the US 7x24 Exchange National Fire Protection Association American Society of Healthcare Engineers California Fire Prevention Institute California Fire Prevention Officers (Nor Cal and So Cal) Association of Facility Engineers Electrical Generating Systems Association and numerous design engineer groups in the US Has authored several articles regarding stored diesel fuel stability for industry publications and is the editor of the FTI Technical Information Report, published quarterly Received an Honorable Discharge from the United States Army in Gregory Hagopian

3 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems 7.9 Fuel System Fuel system design shall provide for a clean supply of fuel to the prime mover Fuel system design shall provide for a clean supply of fuel to the prime mover.

4 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems 7.9 Fuel System Fuel system design shall provide for a clean supply of fuel to the prime mover Fuel system design shall provide for a clean supply of fuel to the prime mover. NFPA 110 Technical Committee recognizes the importance of clean fuel for the reliable operation of an EPS. NFPA 110 Technical Committee recognizes the importance of clean fuel for the reliable operation of an EPS.

5 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems 7.9 Fuel System Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is (1) Consumed within the storage life, Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is (1) Consumed within the storage life, University of Idaho scientists conducted tests to determine the timeline and percentage of degradation of stored diesel fuel #2. The result of this testing was that petroleum diesel fuel #2 degraded 26% after 28 days of storage

6 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems 7.9 Fuel System Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is (1) Consumed within the storage life, or (2) provision shall be made to replace stale fuel Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is (1) Consumed within the storage life, or (2) provision shall be made to replace stale fuel To remove and replace fuel in a 3,000-gallon diesel fuel storage tank at todays cost of fuel would easily exceed $12,000.

7 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems 7.9 Fuel System Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is (1) consumed within the storage life, or (2) provision shall be made to replace stale fuel or (3) clean fuel Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is (1) consumed within the storage life, or (2) provision shall be made to replace stale fuel or (3) clean fuel Portable or contract equipment brought to the site regularly to remove filter/clean and replace fuel.

8 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems 7.9 Fuel System Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is (1) consumed within the storage life, or (2) provision shall be made to replace stale fuel or (3) clean fuel Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is (1) consumed within the storage life, or (2) provision shall be made to replace stale fuel or (3) clean fuel Portable or contract equipment brought to the site regularly to remove filter/clean and replace fuel. Install a dedicated automated diesel fuel maintenance system that can be programmed to remove impurities weekly. Portable or contract equipment brought to the site regularly to remove filter/clean and replace fuel. Install a dedicated automated diesel fuel maintenance system that can be programmed to remove impurities weekly.

9 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems 7.9 Fuel System Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is (1) consumed within the storage life, or (2) provision shall be made to replace stale fuel or (3) clean fuel Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is (1) consumed within the storage life, or (2) provision shall be made to replace stale fuel or (3) clean fuel Portable or contract equipment brought to the site regularly to remove filter/clean and replace fuel. Install a dedicated automated diesel fuel maintenance system that can be programmed to remove impurities weekly. Introduce fuel additives to promote stability and biocides to control microbial contamination as necessary. Portable or contract equipment brought to the site regularly to remove filter/clean and replace fuel. Install a dedicated automated diesel fuel maintenance system that can be programmed to remove impurities weekly. Introduce fuel additives to promote stability and biocides to control microbial contamination as necessary.

10 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems A.5.1.1(1) See A for shelf-life precautions for fuel supplies. A.5.1.1(1) See A for shelf-life precautions for fuel supplies. A Consideration should be given to sizing tanks in order to meet minimum fuel supplier delivery requirements, particularly for small tanks. A Consideration should be given to sizing tanks in order to meet minimum fuel supplier delivery requirements, particularly for small tanks.

11 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems A.5.1.1(1) See A for shelf-life precautions for fuel supplies. A.5.1.1(1) See A for shelf-life precautions for fuel supplies. A Consideration should be given to sizing tanks in order to meet minimum fuel supplier delivery requirements, particularly for small tanks. Consideration should also be given to oversizing tanks, because many fuels have a shelf life and deteriorate with age. A Consideration should be given to sizing tanks in order to meet minimum fuel supplier delivery requirements, particularly for small tanks. Consideration should also be given to oversizing tanks, because many fuels have a shelf life and deteriorate with age.

12 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems A.5.1.1(1) See A for shelf-life precautions for fuel supplies. A.5.1.1(1) See A for shelf-life precautions for fuel supplies. A Consideration should be given to sizing tanks in order to meet minimum fuel supplier delivery requirements, particularly for small tanks. Consideration should also be given to oversizing tanks, because many fuels have a shelf life and deteriorate with age. Where large tanks are required, it is recommended that fuels be periodically pumped out and used in other services and replaced with fresh fuel. A Consideration should be given to sizing tanks in order to meet minimum fuel supplier delivery requirements, particularly for small tanks. Consideration should also be given to oversizing tanks, because many fuels have a shelf life and deteriorate with age. Where large tanks are required, it is recommended that fuels be periodically pumped out and used in other services and replaced with fresh fuel.

13 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems A.5.1.1(1) See A for shelf-life precautions for fuel supplies. A.5.1.1(1) See A for shelf-life precautions for fuel supplies. A Consideration should be given to sizing tanks in order to meet minimum fuel supplier delivery requirements, particularly for small tanks. Consideration should also be given to oversizing tanks, because many fuels have a shelf life and deteriorate with age. Where large tanks are required, it is recommended that fuels be periodically pumped out and used in other services and replaced with fresh fuel. Prudent disaster management could require much larger on-site temporary or permanent fuel storage. A Consideration should be given to sizing tanks in order to meet minimum fuel supplier delivery requirements, particularly for small tanks. Consideration should also be given to oversizing tanks, because many fuels have a shelf life and deteriorate with age. Where large tanks are required, it is recommended that fuels be periodically pumped out and used in other services and replaced with fresh fuel. Prudent disaster management could require much larger on-site temporary or permanent fuel storage.

14 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems Technical Review, Diesel Fuels, Chevron Products Company While storage stability should not be a concern for the majority of diesel fuel users, those who store diesel fuel for a prolonged period, i.e., one-year or longer, can take steps to maintain fuel integrity. Technical Review, Diesel Fuels, Chevron Products Company While storage stability should not be a concern for the majority of diesel fuel users, those who store diesel fuel for a prolonged period, i.e., one-year or longer, can take steps to maintain fuel integrity.

15 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems Technical Review, Diesel Fuels, Chevron Products Company While storage stability should not be a concern for the majority of diesel fuel users, those who store diesel fuel for a prolonged period, i.e., one-year or longer, can take steps to maintain fuel integrity. Technical Review, Diesel Fuels, Chevron Products Company While storage stability should not be a concern for the majority of diesel fuel users, those who store diesel fuel for a prolonged period, i.e., one-year or longer, can take steps to maintain fuel integrity. Fuel contamination is a major cause of premature shutdown for standby engine generator sets, fire pump engines and other diesel engine support functions. Contamination commences as soon as the storage tanks are filled and continues until the fuel is used.

16 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems

17 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems Technical Review, Diesel Fuels, Chevron Products Company While storage stability should not be a concern for the majority of diesel fuel users, those who store diesel fuel for a prolonged period, i.e., one-year or longer, can take steps to maintain fuel integrity. Technical Review, Diesel Fuels, Chevron Products Company While storage stability should not be a concern for the majority of diesel fuel users, those who store diesel fuel for a prolonged period, i.e., one-year or longer, can take steps to maintain fuel integrity. Fuel contamination is a major cause of premature shutdown for standby engine generator sets, fire pump engines and other diesel engine support functions. Contamination commences as soon as the storage tanks are filled and continues until the fuel is used. As the length of storage period increases, the probability for premature engine shutdown due to either clogged filters, or excessive water entrainment, increases. FM Global Approval Guide, Flammable Liquid Equipment Section. Fuel contamination is a major cause of premature shutdown for standby engine generator sets, fire pump engines and other diesel engine support functions. Contamination commences as soon as the storage tanks are filled and continues until the fuel is used. As the length of storage period increases, the probability for premature engine shutdown due to either clogged filters, or excessive water entrainment, increases. FM Global Approval Guide, Flammable Liquid Equipment Section.

18 NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA Edition Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems Page Fuel System * Fuel system design shall provide for a clean supply of fuel to the prime mover. A.5.1.1(1) See A for shelf-life precautions for fuel supplies. Page A Consideration should be given to sizing tanks in order to meet minimum fuel supplier delivery requirements, particularly for small tanks. Consideration should also be given to oversizing tanks, because many fuels have a shelf life and deteriorate with age. Where large tanks are required, it is recommended that fuels be periodically pumped out and used in other services and replaced with fresh fuel. Prudent disaster management could require much larger on-site temporary or permanent fuel storage Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is (1) consumed within the storage life, or (2) provision shall be made to replace stale fuel or (3) clean fuel.

19 NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection Fuel Supply tank(s) shall have a capacity at least equal to 5.07 L per kW (1 gal pr hp), plus 5 percent volume for expansion and 5 percent volume for sump Fuel Supply and Arrangements Fuel Tank Capacity.

20 NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection Fuel Supply tank(s) shall have a capacity at least equal to 5.07 L per kW (1 gal pr hp), plus 5 percent volume for expansion and 5 percent volume for sump Larger-capacity tanks could be required and shall be determined by prevailing conditions, such as refill cycle and fuel heating due to recirculation, and shall be subject to special conditions in each case Fuel Supply tank(s) shall have a capacity at least equal to 5.07 L per kW (1 gal pr hp), plus 5 percent volume for expansion and 5 percent volume for sump Larger-capacity tanks could be required and shall be determined by prevailing conditions, such as refill cycle and fuel heating due to recirculation, and shall be subject to special conditions in each case Fuel Supply and Arrangements Fuel Tank Capacity.

21 NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection The engine fuel supply (suction) connection shall be located on the tank so that 5 percent of the tank volume provides a sump volume not usable by the engine Fuel Supply tank(s) shall have a capacity at least equal to 5.07 L per kW (1 gal pr hp), plus 5 percent volume for expansion and 5 percent volume for sump Larger-capacity tanks could be required and shall be determined by prevailing conditions, such as refill cycle and fuel heating due to recirculation, and shall be subject to special conditions in each case Fuel Supply tank(s) shall have a capacity at least equal to 5.07 L per kW (1 gal pr hp), plus 5 percent volume for expansion and 5 percent volume for sump Larger-capacity tanks could be required and shall be determined by prevailing conditions, such as refill cycle and fuel heating due to recirculation, and shall be subject to special conditions in each case Fuel Supply and Arrangements Fuel Tank Capacity Fuel Supply Location

22 NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection The engine fuel supply (suction) connection shall be located on the tank so that 5 percent of the tank volume provides a sump volume not usable by the engine Fuel Supply tank(s) shall have a capacity at least equal to 5.07 L per kW (1 gal pr hp), plus 5 percent volume for expansion and 5 percent volume for sump Larger-capacity tanks could be required and shall be determined by prevailing conditions, such as refill cycle and fuel heating due to recirculation, and shall be subject to special conditions in each case Fuel Supply tank(s) shall have a capacity at least equal to 5.07 L per kW (1 gal pr hp), plus 5 percent volume for expansion and 5 percent volume for sump Larger-capacity tanks could be required and shall be determined by prevailing conditions, such as refill cycle and fuel heating due to recirculation, and shall be subject to special conditions in each case Fuel Supply and Arrangements Fuel Tank Capacity Fuel Supply Location The fuel storage tanks shall be kept as full as possible at all times, but never less than 50 percent of tank capacity Fuel Supply Maintenance.

23 NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection The engine fuel supply (suction) connection shall be located on the tank so that 5 percent of the tank volume provides a sump volume not usable by the engine Fuel Supply tank(s) shall have a capacity at least equal to 5.07 L per kW (1 gal pr hp), plus 5 percent volume for expansion and 5 percent volume for sump Larger-capacity tanks could be required and shall be determined by prevailing conditions, such as refill cycle and fuel heating due to recirculation, and shall be subject to special conditions in each case Fuel Supply tank(s) shall have a capacity at least equal to 5.07 L per kW (1 gal pr hp), plus 5 percent volume for expansion and 5 percent volume for sump Larger-capacity tanks could be required and shall be determined by prevailing conditions, such as refill cycle and fuel heating due to recirculation, and shall be subject to special conditions in each case Fuel Supply and Arrangements Fuel Tank Capacity Fuel Supply Location The fuel storage tanks shall be kept as full as possible at all times, but never less than 50 percent of tank capacity The tanks shall always be filled by means that will ensure removal of all water and foreign material The fuel storage tanks shall be kept as full as possible at all times, but never less than 50 percent of tank capacity The tanks shall always be filled by means that will ensure removal of all water and foreign material Fuel Supply Maintenance.

24 NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection 11.4 Fuel Supply and Arrangements. A Active systems that are permanently added to fuel tanks for removing water and particulates from the fuel can be acceptable, provided the following apply: (1) All connections are made directly to the tank and are not interconnected with the engine or its fuel supply and return piping in any way. A Active systems that are permanently added to fuel tanks for removing water and particulates from the fuel can be acceptable, provided the following apply: (1) All connections are made directly to the tank and are not interconnected with the engine or its fuel supply and return piping in any way.

25 NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection NFPA Edition Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps For Fire Protection 11.4 Fuel Supply and Arrangements. A Active systems that are permanently added to fuel tanks for removing water and particulates from the fuel can be acceptable, provided the following apply: (1) All connections are made directly to the tank and are not interconnected with the engine or its fuel supply and return piping in any way. (2) There are no valves or other devices added to the engine or its fuel supply and return piping in any way. A Active systems that are permanently added to fuel tanks for removing water and particulates from the fuel can be acceptable, provided the following apply: (1) All connections are made directly to the tank and are not interconnected with the engine or its fuel supply and return piping in any way. (2) There are no valves or other devices added to the engine or its fuel supply and return piping in any way.

26 As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY

27 As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY

28 As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. Data also shows that some B20 can have good stability and others do not depending on the B100 used for blending. As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. Data also shows that some B20 can have good stability and others do not depending on the B100 used for blending. DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY

29 As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. Data also shows that some B20 can have good stability and others do not depending on the B100 used for blending. The D4625 data suggests that most B20 can be stored for 8 to 12 months. As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. Data also shows that some B20 can have good stability and others do not depending on the B100 used for blending. The D4625 data suggests that most B20 can be stored for 8 to 12 months. DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY

30 As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. Data also shows that some B20 can have good stability and others do not depending on the B100 used for blending. The D4625 data suggests that most B20 can be stored for 8 to 12 months. The National Biodiesel Board recommends that B20 be used within 6 months. As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. Data also shows that some B20 can have good stability and others do not depending on the B100 used for blending. The D4625 data suggests that most B20 can be stored for 8 to 12 months. The National Biodiesel Board recommends that B20 be used within 6 months. DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY

31 As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. Data also shows that some B20 can have good stability and others do not depending on the B100 used for blending. The D4625 data suggests that most B20 can be stored for 8 to 12 months. The National Biodiesel Board recommends that B20 be used within 6 months. This is comparable to the recommendations of petrodiesel suppliers, some of whom recommend petrodiesel be used within 3-4 months. As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. Data also shows that some B20 can have good stability and others do not depending on the B100 used for blending. The D4625 data suggests that most B20 can be stored for 8 to 12 months. The National Biodiesel Board recommends that B20 be used within 6 months. This is comparable to the recommendations of petrodiesel suppliers, some of whom recommend petrodiesel be used within 3-4 months. DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY

32 As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. Data also shows that some B20 can have good stability and others do not depending on the B100 used for blending. The D4625 data suggests that most B20 can be stored for 8 to 12 months. The National Biodiesel Board recommends that B20 be used within 6 months. This is comparable to the recommendations of petrodiesel suppliers, some of whom recommend petrodiesel be used within 3-4 months. Adding antioxidants and/or stability additives is recommended for storage over longer periods. As of this date there is a growing database available on B20 but more data is needed to accurately predict the impact of biodiesel on blend oxidative and thermal stability. Compared to the B100 data on the same fuels, it appears that B20 may have a longer storage life than B100. Data also shows that some B20 can have good stability and others do not depending on the B100 used for blending. The D4625 data suggests that most B20 can be stored for 8 to 12 months. The National Biodiesel Board recommends that B20 be used within 6 months. This is comparable to the recommendations of petrodiesel suppliers, some of whom recommend petrodiesel be used within 3-4 months. Adding antioxidants and/or stability additives is recommended for storage over longer periods. DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY

33 DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY As biodiesel ages in storage, the acid number tends to increase and go out of specification, gums and varnish can form, and the viscosity can increase.

34 DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY As biodiesel ages in storage, the acid number tends to increase and go out of specification, gums and varnish can form, and the viscosity can increase. Acid number, Viscosity, and Water and Sediment tests can be used to ensure your B20 meets ASTM specifications for either biodiesel or diesel fuel. As biodiesel ages in storage, the acid number tends to increase and go out of specification, gums and varnish can form, and the viscosity can increase. Acid number, Viscosity, and Water and Sediment tests can be used to ensure your B20 meets ASTM specifications for either biodiesel or diesel fuel.

35 DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY As biodiesel ages in storage, the acid number tends to increase and go out of specification, gums and varnish can form, and the viscosity can increase. Acid number, Viscosity, and Water and Sediment tests can be used to ensure your B20 meets ASTM specifications for either biodiesel or diesel fuel. There are data suggesting that when oxidized or aged biodiesel is blended with diesel to make B20, some of the sediments and gums soluble in the B100 become insoluble and come out of solution, forming sediments. This information is presented as a warning only. As biodiesel ages in storage, the acid number tends to increase and go out of specification, gums and varnish can form, and the viscosity can increase. Acid number, Viscosity, and Water and Sediment tests can be used to ensure your B20 meets ASTM specifications for either biodiesel or diesel fuel. There are data suggesting that when oxidized or aged biodiesel is blended with diesel to make B20, some of the sediments and gums soluble in the B100 become insoluble and come out of solution, forming sediments. This information is presented as a warning only.

36 DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY As biodiesel ages in storage, the acid number tends to increase and go out of specification, gums and varnish can form, and the viscosity can increase. Acid number, Viscosity, and Water and Sediment tests can be used to ensure your B20 meets ASTM specifications for either biodiesel or diesel fuel. There are data suggesting that when oxidized or aged biodiesel is blended with diesel to make B20, some of the sediments and gums soluble in the B100 become insoluble and come out of solution, forming sediments. This information is presented as a warning only. You should never blend out-of-specification B100 into diesel to make B20. As biodiesel ages in storage, the acid number tends to increase and go out of specification, gums and varnish can form, and the viscosity can increase. Acid number, Viscosity, and Water and Sediment tests can be used to ensure your B20 meets ASTM specifications for either biodiesel or diesel fuel. There are data suggesting that when oxidized or aged biodiesel is blended with diesel to make B20, some of the sediments and gums soluble in the B100 become insoluble and come out of solution, forming sediments. This information is presented as a warning only. You should never blend out-of-specification B100 into diesel to make B20.

37 DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY DOE Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidlines BIODIESEL STABILITY As biodiesel ages in storage, the acid number tends to increase and go out of specification, gums and varnish can form, and the viscosity can increase. Acid number, Viscosity, and Water and Sediment tests can be used to ensure your B20 meets ASTM specifications for either biodiesel or diesel fuel. There are data suggesting that when oxidized or aged biodiesel is blended with diesel to make B20, some of the sediments and gums soluble in the B100 become insoluble and come out of solution, forming sediments. This information is presented as a warning only. You should never blend out-of-specification B100 into diesel to make B20. Make sure the Water and Sediment, Acid number, and Viscosity values are all within spec before blending. As biodiesel ages in storage, the acid number tends to increase and go out of specification, gums and varnish can form, and the viscosity can increase. Acid number, Viscosity, and Water and Sediment tests can be used to ensure your B20 meets ASTM specifications for either biodiesel or diesel fuel. There are data suggesting that when oxidized or aged biodiesel is blended with diesel to make B20, some of the sediments and gums soluble in the B100 become insoluble and come out of solution, forming sediments. This information is presented as a warning only. You should never blend out-of-specification B100 into diesel to make B20. Make sure the Water and Sediment, Acid number, and Viscosity values are all within spec before blending.

38 FOUR STEPS TO CLEAN FUEL 1. Test fuel semi-annually for condition of stability and microbial contamination. 1. Test fuel semi-annually for condition of stability and microbial contamination.

39 FOUR STEPS TO CLEAN FUEL 1. Test fuel semi-annually for condition of stability and microbial contamination. 2. Introduce a registered biocide as necessary. 1. Test fuel semi-annually for condition of stability and microbial contamination. 2. Introduce a registered biocide as necessary.

40 FOUR STEPS TO CLEAN FUEL 1. Test fuel semi-annually for condition of stability and microbial contamination. 2. Introduce a registered biocide as necessary. 3. Introduce a fuel additive to promote stability. 1. Test fuel semi-annually for condition of stability and microbial contamination. 2. Introduce a registered biocide as necessary. 3. Introduce a fuel additive to promote stability.

41 FOUR STEPS TO CLEAN FUEL 1. Test fuel semi-annually for condition of stability and microbial contamination. 2. Introduce a registered biocide as necessary. 3. Introduce a fuel additive to promote stability. 4. Remove water and particulate regularly. 1. Test fuel semi-annually for condition of stability and microbial contamination. 2. Introduce a registered biocide as necessary. 3. Introduce a fuel additive to promote stability. 4. Remove water and particulate regularly.

42 FUEL TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL LLC PO BOX 6368, Santa Maria, CA (805) When the lights go out, its too late to clean your fuel When the lights go out, its too late to clean your fuel A Veteran Owned Business QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


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