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© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Intrinsic Safety Overview
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Evolution of NeSSI Gen III Circa 200? Miniature/Modular (enabled by Mechanical Standard) PnP Smart Devices (enabled by Communication Standard) Micro Analytical (enabled by Technology Advances) End User Value Gen II Circa 2005 Gen I Now We are Here By Line (enabled by Intrinsic Safety)
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Plug-n-Play Top Hat Concept Presented at IFPAC 2002 by Rob Dubois, Dow Chemical.
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Fire Triangle Must have all three components for an Explosion! Safe if one of the following: –Eliminate explosive atmosphere. –Contain the explosion. –Prevent ignition source.
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Hazardous Area Protection Methods Purge Mount electric devices in a cabinet to keep explosive atmosphere out. Explosion Proof Mount electric devices in a cabinet to keep explosion in. Intrinsic Safety Prevent the explosion ignition by limiting electrical energy.
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Type of Hazard North American Area Classifications DefinitionDivision SystemZone System* Class 1Flammable gas, vapor or mistsNEC 505-5, CEC J NEC 505-7, CEC J Class 2Combustible DustsNEC 505-6, CEC J Class 3Fibers and Ignitable FlyingsNEC 505-7, CEC J Standards harmonization? * Introduced in 1996 to parallel to the IEC system.
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Degree of Hazard North American Zones and Divisions Zone DefinitionsDivision Definitions Zone 0Usually hazardous during normal operations (>100 hrs/yr) Div 1 Usually or Frequently hazardous vapors present during normal operations Zone 1Frequently hazardous during normal operations Zone 2NOT hazardous during normal operations (<10 hrs/yr) Div 2NOT hazardous during normal operations Standards harmonization?
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Abnormal Conditions Division 1 and Zone 0 –Usually hazardous –No ignition energy with ANY 2 Faults at 1.0 Safety factor. Zone 1 –Frequently hazardous –No ignition energy with ANY 1 Faults at 1.5 Safety factor. Division 2 and Zone 2 –Normally NOT hazardous. –No ignition energy with NO Faults at 1.5 Safety factor. –Sometimes called non-incendive
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Atmosphere Volatility North American Atmosphere Classification Zone System Gas (Class 1)Division System Gas (Class 1) IICAcetylene + Hydrogen Type AAcetylene Type BHydrogen, Propylene oxide IIBEthyleneType CEthylene, Ethel ether IIAPropaneType DPropane, acetone, benzene Division System Dust (Class 2) Type EMetal Dust Type FCarbon Dust Type GGrain Dust Division System Fibers (Class 3) Standards harmonization?
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Ignition Curve from UL 913
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Intrinsic Safety (IS) Protection Safest and most easily implemented protection. Equipment incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal energy under normal or abnormal conditions. Used for low power applications in Div 1/ Zone 0,1 –Division Standards UL 913, CSA 22.2 No.157, ANSI/ISA –Zone Standards FM 3610, UL 2279, UL 913, CSA-E-79-11, CSA-E-79-7 Unless self contained, the IS Apparatus in the hazardous area must be connected to an Associated Apparatus in a safe area.
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 IS Apparatus Classifications Class 1 Div 1 Type A, B, C & D T4 Temperature 135ºC Acetylene and all other gasses Safe with 2 faults Gas or Vapor Class 1 Zone 0 AEx ia IIC T4 Temperature 135ºC Acetylene + Hydrogen Intrinsically safe protection American hazardous standards. Area classification
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Typical IS Configuration Associated Apparatus (ie. Barrier) Intrinsically Safe Apparatus (ie. Pressure Xducer)
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 IS Apparatus Control Drawing V max Maximum voltage that may be applied safely to the intrinsically safe apparatus; I max Maximum current that may be applied safely to the intrinsically safe apparatus; C i Internal unprotected capacitance of the intrinsically safe apparatus; L i Internal unprotected inductance of the intrinsically safe apparatus. V oc Maximum open-circuit voltage that can supplied by the associated apparatus under fault conditions; I sc Maximum short-circuit current that can be supplied by the associated apparatus under fault conditions; C a Maximum capacitance connected to the associated apparatus L a Maximum inductance connected to the associated apparatus.
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Associated Apparatus (Barriers) Zener Barrier –IS ground required Isolation Barrier –No ground required
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Associated Apparatus Control Dwg.
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 MS-CRD-PTI-E Can this PTI be used with the barrier on the previous page in a Class 1 Div 1 Ethylene Application?
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 IS Wiring Options
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 European System Use the Zone system ATEX directive is a CE mark requirement EN Standards (CENELEC) –Recognized within the European Union IEC Standards (International Electric Commission) –Recognized within the European Union –Generally portable to Eastern Block and Asian countries
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 European Markings
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 Applicable Standards
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 FISCO Power Budget Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe COncept model Developed by PTB 1 in Braunschweig, Germany Doubles the number of devices per segment. 1.Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Johannsmeyer, "Investigation into the intrinsic safety of fieldbus systems (FISCO)". PTB, report W53, ISBN Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt, "Investigations into the intrinsic safety of fieldbus systems". PTB 1994, ISBN Max Voltage17.8 Vdc Max Current IIC Group Gas Vdc Max Current IIB Group Gas Vdc Max Power5.24 W Max Co / Lo5 nF / 10 uH per Device
© Swagelok Company, 2003 Rick Ales 8/20/2003 NeSSI Architecture Information - Level 2 LAN (Ethernet) OPC Gateway Control Room Field - Level 1 LAN (EtherNet) By-Line Sample Point Class 1 Zone 0/1 Wireless Handheld HMI Field Circuit 1 Enclosure Class 1 Zone 2 IS Barrier 24 VDC Sensor - Level 0 LAN DeviceNet <250 V T P A NeSSI Device Sample System Gas Analyzer Logical Segment Circuit 2 Circuit 0 CAN Master Sensor Actuator Manager
© 2006 Swagelok Company. IS CAN Bus – CiA DSP 103 V 1.0 Low Cost, Intrinsically Safe Transducer Bus Enabling NeSSI Gen II Rick Ales Swagelok Company.
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