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IEEE Region1 2012 Winter Workshop Accounting 101 Double Entry Bookkeeping & GnuCash Al Reinhart Worcester County Section (

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Presentation on theme: "IEEE Region1 2012 Winter Workshop Accounting 101 Double Entry Bookkeeping & GnuCash Al Reinhart Worcester County Section ("— Presentation transcript:

1 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 Double Entry Bookkeeping & GnuCash Al Reinhart Worcester County Section (

2 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Account Types Double Entry Bookkeeping Transactions GnuCash

3 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash The 5 Basic Accounts Basic accounting rules group all finance related things into 5 fundamental types of accounts Everything that accounting deals with can be placed into one of these 5 accounts: Assets things you own Liabilities things you owe Equity overall net worth Income increases the value of your accounts Expenses decreases the value of your accounts It is possible to categorize everything in your financial world into these 5 groups

4 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Accounting Equation Equity is defined by assets and liabilities. Net worth (equity) is calculated by subtracting your liabilities from your assets: Equity = Assets - Liabilities You increase equity through income, and decrease equity through expenses The Accounting Equation: Assets - Liabilities = Equity + (Income – Expenses) This equation must always be balanced: Can only be satisfied if you enter values to multiple accounts

5 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Double Entry Bookkeeping ( Principle of Balance ) The accounting equation is the very heart of a double entry accounting system Assets - Liabilities = Equity + (Income – Expenses) For every change in value of one account in the Accounting Equation, there must be a balancing change in another. This concept is known as the Principle of Balance You will always be concerned with at least 2 accounts, Necessary to keep the accounting equation balanced

6 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Debit / Credit ( Left Side / Right Side ) Balancing changes (or transfers of money) among accounts is done by debiting one account and simultaneously crediting another Accounting debits and credits do not mean decrease and increase Debits and Credits each increase certain types of accounts and decrease others In asset and expense accounts, debits increase the balance and credits decrease the balance In liability, equity and income accounts, debits decrease the balance and credits increase the balance Debits are always on the left side, credits are always on the right side

7 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Accounts An account keeps track of what you own, owe, spend or receive Each account can contain many sub-accounts up to an arbitrary number of levels Some accounts: - track the activity for that real account - inform you of its status. i.e.: checking accounts, savings accounts, credit card accounts Other accounts are used to categorize the money you receive or spend: - these are not accounts that receive statements - they allow you to determine how much money is being spent or received in each of these areas

8 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Transactions A transaction represents the movement of money among accounts Whenever you spend or receive money, or transfer money between accounts, that is a transaction In double entry accounting, transactions always involve at least two accounts - a source account - a destination account A transaction can be a compound transaction A compound transaction involves more than two accounts

9 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Accounts There is no imposed, specific account tree layout (chart of accounts) You design your account structure in any manner you wish All accounting is based on the 5 basic account types: Assets, Liabilities, Equity, Income, and Expenses Accounts types are divide into 2 groups: - Balance Sheet accounts (Assets, Liabilities, Equity) - Income and Expense Statement accounts (Income, Expenses) Accounting Equation Assets - Liabilities = Equity + (Income – Expenses)

10 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Balance Sheet Accounts - are Assets, Liabilities, and Equity - are used to track the changes in value of things you own or owe Assets is the group of things that you own, that have value - Anything that has convertible value - What you theoretically could sell for cash Liabilities is the group of things on which you owe money Anything which you must pay back at some time Equity is the same as "net worth" - What is left over after you subtract your liabilities from your assets - The portion of your assets that you own outright, without any debt

11 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Balance Sheet Assets Liabilities ( What has value ) ( What you owe ) Equity ( What you own )

12 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Income and Expense Accounts are used to increase or decrease the value of your accounts Balance Sheet accounts simply track the value of the things you own or owe Income and Expense accounts allow you to change the value of these accounts Income is the payment you receive Will always increase the value of your Assets and thus your Equity Expense is money you spend to purchase goods or services Expenses will always decrease your Equity - If you pay for the expense immediately, you will decrease your Assets - If you pay for the expense on credit, you will increase your Liabilities

13 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Income / Expense Statement ( Profit and Loss Statement ) Income: Funds you receive Expenses: Funds you spend Profit / Surplus or Loss (Income minus Expenses)

14 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Account Type – Debit / Credit Asset accounts debits increase account balances credits decrease account balances Liability accounts: debits decrease account balances credits increase account balances Equity accounts, debits decrease account balances credits increase account balances Income accounts debits decrease account balances credits increase account balances Expense accounts debits increase account balances credits decrease account balances

15 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Transactions Accounts are the framework and structure of a chart of accounts Transactions are the data which fills each account A transaction is an exchange between at least 2 accounts. A single transaction must always consist of at least two parts - a from account - a to account The from account is passing value to the to account

16 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash Summary Five account types: Assets, Liabilities, Equity, Income, Expense All accounts have a Debit Side and a Credit Side Debit Side is the Left Side (Left Column) Credit Side is the Right Side (Right Column) Asset and Expense Accounts Debits increase, Credits decrease Liability, Equity, and Income Accounts Debits decrease, Credits increase Transactions (double entry bookkeeping) Rob Peter, Pay Paul, Justify it

17 IEEE Region Winter Workshop Accounting 101 & GnuCash GnuCash A free, well supported open source accounting software program that implements a double-entry bookkeeping system GnuCash is: - a personal and small-business financial-accounting software - freely licensed under the GNU GPL - available for GNU/Linux, BSD, Solaris, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows GnuCash website: GnuCash.org - Documentation - Help Manual (146 pages): a quick reference on how to use GnuCash - Tutorial and Concepts Guide (219 pages): - an in depth guide to the concepts behind using GnuCash - a tutorial to show how to put those concepts into practice - Support: Wikis, mailing lists, IRC GnuCash tends to hide the double in double-entry bookkeeping


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