Presentation on theme: "Sept 2003 1 Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 The presenter is."— Presentation transcript:
Sept 2003 1 Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Dr. Clifford Lau President-elect IEEE Nanotechnology Council 703-696-0371 firstname.lastname@example.org The presenter is solely responsible for the opinions expressed here.
Sept 2003 2 Scientific research in many disciplines in the early to mid 1990s began to approach nanometer scale, although we didnt call it nanotechnology at the time. 198019902000 Microelectronics Physics Chemistry Materials Molecular biology Nanotechnology Historical Perspective
Sept 2003 3 National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Afterglow of Sputnik had run its course Need to re-energize the next generation S&E Interagency working group began planning in 1996 Support in OSTP President Clinton announced NNI in January 2000 NNI officially began in FY2001
Sept 2003 4 NNI Investment Strategy Fundamental nanoscience and engineering research - Nano-Bio systems - Novel materials, processes, and properties - Nanoscale devices and system architectures - Theory, modeling, and simulations Grand challenges - Chem-bio detection and protection - Instrumentation and metrology - Nanoelectronics/photonics/magnetics - Health care, therapeutics, diagnostics - Environmental improvement - Energy conversion and storage Centers excellence Research infrastructures Societal implications and workforce preparation
Sept 2003 5 Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer). Nanotechnology Definition (NSET, February 2000)
Sept 2003 6 NNI Participating Agency Programs NSFNanocience/engineeering, fundamental knowledge, instrumentation, centers DoDInformation technology, high performance materials, chem-bio-radiological detections DoC/NISTMeasurements and standards, commercialization DoEEnergy science, environment, non-proliferation DoJDiagnostics – crime, contraband detections DoTSmart, light weight materials for transportation EPAEnvironment, green manufacturing of nanomaterials FDAFood packaging, drug delivery, bio-devices Intel CommDetection, prevention of technological surprises NASALighter, smaller adaptive spacecraft, human status monitors, radiation hardening NIHTherapeutics, diagnostics, biocompatible materials miniaturized tools, cellular and molecular sensing NRCRadiological detections, material reliability USDABiotech for improved crop yields, food packaging
Sept 2003 7 National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2001 FY2000FY2001FY2002FY2003FY2004 (enacted)(request)(request) NNI was launched in FY2001, with the goal to double the FY00 baseline of $270M. Since then federal investment in nanotechnology has tripled. NSF$97M$150M$204M$221M$249M DoD$70M$123M$224M$243M$222M DoE$58M$88M$89M$133M$197M NASA$4M$22M$35M$33M$31M NIH/HHS$32M$40M$59M$65M$70M NIST/DoC$8M$33M$77M$69M$62M EPA$5M$6M$6M$5M DHS(TSA)$2M$2M$2M$2M USDA$1M$10M DOJ$1M$1M$1M Total$270M$464M$697.1M$773.7M$849.5M
Sept 2003 8 USA 5395 France 1317 Germany 1949 England 906 Italy 631 Russia 854 Singapore 209 Switzerland 372 Japan 2289 Korea 760 Taiwan 282 China 2474 India 461 Australia 236 Canada 382 Mexico 166 Brazil 285 Sweden 297 Total Worldwide- 18538 Israel 273 CY2002 PUBLICATION COUNT (By Keyword Nano*, 2/2003) Science Citation Index of 5300 Journals Global Participation in Nanoscience
Sept 2003 9 Center NamePrincipal InvestigatorInstitution NSF National Nanofabrication Users Network (NNUN) HuUniv. of California Santa Barbara TiwariCornell University HarrisHoward University FonashPennsylvania State University PlummerStanford University Computational Nanotechnology Network (NCN) LundstromPurdue DOE Integrated NanoSystemsMichalskeSandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories Nanostructured MaterialsLowndesOak Ridge National Lab. Molecular FoundryAlivisatosLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Functional NanomaterialsHwangBrookhaven Laboratory Nanoscale MaterialsBaderArgonne Nanotechnology User Centers and Networks Murday, NRL #140a 2/03
Sept 2003 10 NamePrincipal InvestigatorInstitution NSF NSEC (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center) Nanoscale Systems in Information TechnologiesBuhrmanCornell University Nanoscience in Biological and Environmental EngineeringSmalleyRice University Integrated Nanopatterning and DetectionMirkinNorthwestern University Electronic Transport in Molecular NanostructuresYardleyColumbia University Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device ApplicationsWesterveltHarvard University Directed Assembly of NanostructuresSiegelRensselaer Polytechnic Institute STC (Science and Technology Center) Nanobiotechnology, Science and Technology CenterBairdCornell University MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) Nanoscopic Materials DesignGrovesUniv Virginia Nanostructured MaterialsChienJohns Hopkins University Semiconductor Physics in NanostructuresDoezemaUniv Oklahoma and Arkansas Nanostructured Materials and InterfacesEomUniv Wisconsin Madison Quantum and Spin Phenomena in Nanomagnetic StructuresLiouUniv Nebraska Lincoln Research on the Structure of MatterBonnellUniv Pennsylvania DOD Institute for Soldier NanotechnologiesThomasMass. Inst. of Technology Center for Nanoscience Innovation for DefenseAwschalomUC Santa Barbara Nanoscience InstitutePrinzNaval Research Laboratory NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space ExplorationHoUCLA Institute for Intelligent Bio-NanomaterialsJunkinsTexas A&M & Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Bio-Inspection, Design and Processing of AksayPrinceton Multi-functional Nanocomposites Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing DattaPurdue Centers with Nanotechnology Focus RICE NORTHWESTERN Murday, NRL #140b 1/03
Sept 2003 11 NRL Nanoscience Institute Facility and Program Nanoassembly Nanofilaments: Interactions, Manipulation and Assembly Chemical Assembly of Multifunctional Electronics Directed Self-Assembly of Biologically-Based Nanostructures Template-Directed Molecular Imprinting Chemical Templates for Nanocluster Assembly Nano-optics Photonic Bandgap Materials Org. and Bio. Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots Organic Light Emitting Materials & Devices Nanoscale-Enhanced Processes in a Quantum Dot Structures Nanochemistry Functionalized Dendrimeric Materials Polymers and Supramolecules for Devices Nanoelectronics Coherence, Correlation and Control in Nanostructures Neural-Electronic Interfaces Nanomechanics Nano-Elastic Dynamics Collaborations Developing with universities, NSWC Indian Head, ARL Adelphi, NAVAIR Open Fall 2003 Dr. Gary Prinz, NRL Code 1100 http://nanoscience.nrl.navy.mil/
Sept 2003 12 DoD Perspective Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to be one of the top priority research programs within DoD Nanotechnology will impact practically all areas of interest to DoD Potential for payoff to DoD is great, and is worth the investment
Sept 2003 13 DoD Investment on Nanotechnology FY2000FY2001FY2002FY2003FY2004 DoD$70M$123M$180M$243M$222M OSD$ 28M DARPA$142M Army$ 29M Navy$ 31M Air Force$ 13M OSD$ 28M DARPA$117M Army$ 30M Navy$ 29M Air Force$ 18M Planned Note: FY04 budget is estimate only, with high uncertainty in DARPA investment on nano.
Sept 2003 14 * NANOELECTRONICS/NANOPHOTONICS/NANOMAGNETICS Network Centric Warfare Information Dominance Uninhabited Combat Vehicles Automation/Robotics for Reduced Manning Effective training through virtual reality Digital signal processing and LPI communications * NANOMATERIALS BY DESIGN High Performance, Affordable Materials Multifunction, Adaptive (Smart) Materials Nanoengineered Functional Materials Reduced Maintenance costs * BIONANOTECHNOLOGY - WARFIGHTER PROTECTION Chemical/Biological Agent detection/destruction Human Performance/Health Monitor/Prophylaxis DoD Focused Areas in NNI
Sept 2003 15 DoD Programs in Nanotechnology Army Nanostructured polymers, quantum dots for IR sensing, nanoengineered clusters, nano-composites, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) Navy Nanoelectronics, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, nanostructured materials, ultrafine and thermal barrier nanocoatings, nanobio-materials and processes, nanomagnetics and non-volatile memories, IR transparent nanomaterials Air Force Nanostructure devices, nanomaterials by design, nano-bio interfaces, polymer nanocomposites, hybrid inorganic/organic nanomaterials, nanosensors for aerospace applications, nano-energetic particles for explosives and propulsion DARPA Bio-molecular microsystems, metamaterials, molecular electronics, spin electronics, quantum information sciences, nanoscale mechanical arrays SBIR Nanotechnologies, quantum devices, bio-chem decontaminations OSD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), DEPSCoR, NDSEG
Sept 2003 16 FY01-06 DURINT Research Program InvestigatorPrime InstitutionResearch Topic Josef MichlUniv. of ColoradoNanoscale Machines and Motors Mehmet SarikayaUniv. of WashingtonMolecular Control of Nanoelectronic and Nanomagnetic Structures Michael ZachariahUniv. of MinnesotaNano-energetic Materials Hong-Liang CuiStevens Inst. of Tech.Characterization of Nanoscale Elements, Devices, Systems Richard SmalleyRice Univ.Synthesis, Purification, and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Randall FeenstraCarnegie Mellon Univ.Nanoporous Semiconductors – Matrices and Substrates Subra SureshMITDeformation, Fatigue, and Fracture of Nanomaterials Horia MetiuUC Santa BarbaraNanostructure for Catalysis Mary C. BoyceMITPolymeric Nanocomposites Paras PrasadSUNY at BuffaloPolymeric Nanophotonics and Nanoelectronics Terry OrlandoMITQuantum Computing and Quantum Devices James LukensSUNY, Stony BrookQuantum Computing and Quantum Devices Chad MirkinNorthwestern Univ.Molecular Recognition and Signal Transduction Anupam MadhukarUSCSynthesis and Modification of Nanostructure Surfaces George WhitesidesHarvard Univ.Magnetic Nanoparticles for Application in Biotechnology
Sept 2003 17 Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FYInvestigatorInstitutionResearch Topic 98-03J. SturmPrinceton Univ.Engineering of Nanostructures and Devices 98-03A. EpsteinMITMicrothermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03B. ZinnGeorgia TechMicrothermal Engines for Compact Powers 98-03S. GoodnickArizona State U.Low-power, High Performance Nanoelectronic Circuits 98-03JamesUniv. MinnesotaComputational Tools for Design of Nanodevices 99-04BrueckU. New MexicoNanolithograph 99-04DattaPurdue Univ.Spin Semiconductors and Electronics 00-05MabuchiCaltechQuantum Computing and Quantum Memory 00-05ShapiroMITQuantum Computing and Quantum Memory 01-06Bruce DunnUCLA3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06Ken PoppelmeierNorthwestern3-D Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Power Source 01-06Shelton TaylorUniv VirginiaMultifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 01-06Ed CusslerUniv. MinnesotaMultifunctional Nano-engineered Coatings 02-07I. SchullerUC San DiegoIntegrated Nanosensors 02-07D. LambethCMUIntegrated Nanosensors 03-08Dan van der Weide WisconsinNanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08Lukas NovotnyU. RochesterNanoprobes for Laboratory Design Instrum. Research 03-08William DoolittleGeorgia TechNext Generation Epitaxy for Laboratory Instru. Design 03-08Jimmy XuBrown Univ.Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals
Sept 2003 18 Nanoimprint Lithography Princeton University, Professor Stephen Chou Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by nano- imprint lithography
Sept 2003 19 Biological agent detection –PCR-free bioagent recognition –DNA/Nanosphere-based Anthrax detection in solution –30 nucleotide region of a 141-mer PCR product (blue dot) –Sensitivity: <10 femtomole –Detect single BP mismatch Anthrax detection on substrate –Agent binds Au cluster –Ag: 10 5 amplification –Amount: grey scale –Tested Dugway PG, 2001 –32 parallel tests in 1.5 hrs! –Active technology transfer Nanosphere (spin off company) Medical & industrial interest Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax in Solution Cluster Engineered Materials Chad Mirkin, NWU Colorimetric Detection of Anthrax on Substrate
Sept 2003 20 RESEARCHERS U CO Northwestern U NIST: MD and CO (no MURI funds) MOLECULAR MACHINES DURINT Prof. Josef Michl, Univ. of Colorado COLLABORATIONS AND TRANSITIONS Collaboration with NIST, MD: horizontal rotors prepared with and without paddle for NIST Microfluidics Pgm Collaboration with NIST, CO: molecular rotor prepared for NIST single electron transitor program Collaborations with industry: IBM will do electron beam lithography and Zyvex is supplying patterned surfaces Proposed Laser Protection Using Molecular Machines RESEARCH GOALS Use computation to guide design Design and build molecular machine components Attach the machines to surfaces Coherently operate the machines Characterize the nanoscale properties CHALLENGES: All of the above ARMY/DOD RELEVANCE Laser protection Power generation Chem/bio agent detection Molecular memory, electronics and devices Microfluidics Control of flow at surfaces
Sept 2003 21 Nano-Systems Energetics (DURINT) P.I.: Michael Zachariah, U. Minnesota, email@example.com http://www.me.umn.edu/~mrz/CNER.htm Research Accomplishments Developed continuous flow reactor for nanoparticle production and passivation (copy at ARL-WMRD) Formulated model for nanoparticle formation and growth Designed experiments for characterization of size, composition and reactivity of nanoparticles Computed oxidative reactions of energetic materials (Nitromethane, HMX and FOX-7) on aluminum surfaces Objective Develop new methods for and understanding of nano-scale energetic materials Synthesis, Characterization, Reactivity Methods for nanoparticle growth and surface passivation. Sol-Gel methods for generation of nanostructures Modeling of particle formation from thermal plasmas. Methods for nanoparticle characterization Thermochemistry of nanoparticles and nanostructures. Nanoparticle oxidation kinetics. Characterize rates of energy release for nanostructures. Measurement of solid-solid exothermic reactions. Computational chemistry/physics of nanostructures. CNER: Center for Nano-Energetics Research Research Areas Nanoscale Energetic Materials
Sept 2003 22 Approach prove molecular circuit programming through simulation predict properties of new molecules synthesize new molecules self-assemble in nanocells program and package nanocells April-June 01 Accomplishments: Half-adder, inverter and NAND simulated 25 new molecules synthesized Nanocell wafers (e-beam) designed and in fab Dry box ready for assembly Test bed nanocells (optical) in fab 60 nm Au particle deposition developed Molecule-based circuits designed New Molecules proposed for memory Impact & Transition: Molecular Electronics Corp., Motorola Technology Issues: Nanocell assembly, programming, and packaging Nanocell Approach to a Molecular Computer J. Tour (PI, Rice U.), D. Allara and P. Weiss (Penn State), P. Franzon (NC State), P. Lincoln (SRI), M. Reed (Yale), J. Seminario (S. Carolina), R. Tsui, H. Goronkin, I. Amlani (Motorola). Objectives: Construct logic devices using programmable Nanocells A 1 2.1V -.05V Input A time ( s) 060.0 930nA -40nA Output 1 time ( s) 060.0 W0W0 W1W1 R1R1 R0R0 RW0RW0 RW1RW1 RD0RD0 RD1RD1
Sept 2003 23 Theoretical Analysis, Design, and Simulation of the Nanocell Calculated electrical characteristics for two new molecules proposed during the kick-off meeting: the dioxo with three rings (1), and the dinitro with four rings (2). First realistic molecular simulation of a fragment of the nanocell (below). New candidates for one-year room temperature memory proposed (lower right). R = H, Ac R 1, R 2 = H, NO 2, NH 2
Sept 2003 24 DURINT - Nanoporous SiC and GaN Strain Relief During Epitaxy of GaN on porous SiC Prof. Randall Feenstra, CMU Objective: Relieve the strain which occurs when films are grown on substrates with mismatched lattice constant. ---------------------------------- Results: GaN films have been grown by MBE on porous SiC substrates with a range of surface pore densities. Strain in the films is characterized by stylus profilometry. Significant strain relaxation is found, with the residual strain being about 3 times smaller than for films grown on nonporous substrates. ---------------------------------- Interpretation: For MBE growth, pores from the SiC continue into the GaN. These pores are stress concentrators, acting as nucleation sites for half loop dislocation as seen by TEM. These half loops then propagate and relieve the strain in the film. TEM image of MBE-grown GaN on porous SiC Strain in GaN film vs. surface pore density
Sept 2003 25 Objectives To understand and control the materials chemistry and physics of nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; To develop new nano-composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties; To fabricate nanotube-based electron field emission devices and evaluate their properties for technological applications; To investigate energy-storage capability of carbon nanotubes; To fabricate nanotube NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). Carbon Nanotube Based Materials and Devices University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill URL: http://www.physics.unc.edu/~zhou/muri Major Accomplishments Multidisciplinary Approach DOD Relevance New materials and technology for structural reinforcement, energy storage, electron emission, and nano-device applications. Established materials synthesis and processing capability First observation of rolling at nanometer scale, including manipulation and simulation of NEMS friction Measured and simulated the electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes Synthesized nanotube-based polymer composites Fabricated nanotube field emission devices and demonstrated high current capability (4A/cm 2 ) Performed the first 13 C NMR measurement of the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. Demonstrated high Li storage capacity in processed SWNTs. Research Highlights Carbon nanotube field emitters provide high current density and stability Rolling and Friction at the atomic scale Materials synthesis, assembly, functionalization; Nanometer-scale manipulation and measurements of transport, electronic and mechanical properties; Spectroscopic characterization and studies; Large-scale ab inito and empirical molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical calculations. MURI Team UNC: Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science and Computer Science NCSU: Physics and Materials Science Duke: Chemistry Industrial Partners: Lucent Technologies, Raychem Co. and Ise Electronics
Sept 2003 26 An Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Coating for Aerospace Using Molecular and Nano-Engineering Methods University of Virginia, Prof. Shelton Taylor APPROACH Multi-coat system built upon thermally spayed amorphous Al-alloy cladding Combinatorial chemistry and nano- encapsulation to identify/deliver non- chromate inhibitors Colloidal crystalline arrays, and other molecular probes to provide sensing DOD TECH PAYOFF Will provide significant advancement in corrosion protection, life cycle costs, and mission safety GOALS/OBJECTIVES To develop a new multi-functional coating system for military aircraft Coating will sense corrosion and mechanical damage Initiate mitigation response to mechanical and chemical damage Provide corrosion protection and adhesion using environmentally compliant materials Nano-crystalline cladding Non-chromate inhibition AA2024 substrate Sensing
Sept 2003 27 Program Goal: Transforming a new type of carbon, single wall nanotubes (SWNTs) into highly organized bulk materials DoD Impact: High strength, light weight fibers Structures with controlled dielectric properties Potentials in hydrongen storage and electrode technology Activities Underway: Understand chemistry & kinetics of the HiPCO process for SWNT synthesis Development of purification methods for SWNT Mobilization of SWNTs in solutions and/or suspensions Mechanical and molecular modeling of sidewall chemistry and tube/polymer interactions Spinning of composites with nanotube fibers Synthesis, Purification, and Assembly of SWNT Carbon Fibers Prof. Richard Smalley, Rice University
Sept 2003 28 Quantum Well IR Sensors Advanced Photodetectors –Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Use electronic band engineering and nanofabrication techniques Multispectral IR imaging –Uncooled Infrared Detectors Uses nanofabrication and advanced materials –Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection Increase light detection by 20X Target Designation and CCM –IR Lasers for Target Designation Need: Compact, 300K IR lasers Solution: Quantum cascade lasers Impact on Future Army –Smart, multispectral sensors coupled with ATR for target ID –Shorter logistics tail Nanoparticle Enhanced Detection Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors AH-64 ApacheHellfire
Sept 2003 29 Nanometric Energetic Materials Research at AFRL Munitions Directorate Scale Differences… –Very High Specific Surface Area 4- 6 Orders of Magnitude Increase –Short Diffusion Path-Length in Burning … Can Lead to Important Performance Enhancements –Complete Burning of Fuel Particles –Accelerated Burn Rates –Ideal Detonation in Fueled Explosives Al Al 2 O 3 25 nm 29,995nm Surface Area = 0.1m 2 /gSurface Area = 74 m 2 /g 2.5 nm Al 2 O 3 2.5 nm Al Energetic Coating Coating Benefits... –Intimate Contact Between Fuel, Energetic Material –Fewer Problems with Processing, Handling –Material Coating Thickness on Nano-fuel Particles Is Nano-scale Fewer Defects, Better Crystals Improved Insensitivity Properties New approach for energetic materials: nano-thick energetic material coating-layer on nanoscale aluminum fuel particles gives improved, intimate mixing in energetic formulations, and very high specific surface area. These effects support very high burn rates. 30 Micron Particle30 nm Particle 30 nm Aluminum Particles Each Coated with Energetic Material Layer
Sept 2003 30 Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Prof. Ed Thomas, MIT Investment Areas Nanofibres for Lighter Materials Active/reactive Ballistic Protection (solve energy dissipation problem) Environmental Protection Directed Energy Protection Micro-Climate Conditioning Signature Management Chem/Bio Detection and Protection Biomonitoring/Triage Exoskeleton Components Forward Counter Mine University Affiliated Research Center Investment in Soldier Protection Industry partnership/participation Accelerate transition of Research Products Goals Enhance Objective Force Warrior survivability Leverage breakthroughs in nanoscience & nanomanufacturing Supramolecular Self-Assembly Mesoscopic Integration Molecular Scale Control Nano-Scale Devices Accomplishments Ribbons made of electroactive polymers Artificial muscle and molecular muscle Organic/inorganic multilayers for optical Communications Tunable optical fibers Dendrimers for protective armors Conducting polymer for bio-status monitors
Sept 2003 31 The evolution of computer technology over the last few decades has revolutionized computational capability Faster electronics Lower power consumption Larger data handling capabilities More complex information processing The era of Nanoelectronics (<100 nm) is forecast (ITRS) to begin within 3 years (2005) Why Nanoelectronics? Stan Williams, HP Murday, NRL #168 3/02
Sept 2003 35 On the Evolutionary Path Silicon technology will continue down the scaling path for at least another decade if not two. In reality, we are already in the regime of nanoelectronics. New techniques will be invented to overcome some of the limitations of optical lithography, short channel effects, etc. New device architecture will be invented to continue the down-scaling, e.g. vertical devices. However, scaling cannot continue forever. Still a lot of work on circuit and system architectures to exploit the gazillions of devices on a chip. Then there are multichip modules, flip chip, 3-D, etc. Silicon technology is not going away for a long time.
Sept 2003 36 DARPA HGI Program, PI - K. Saraswat (Stanford U.) N + /P + poly Insulating Substrate GateDrainSource L Channel Film Gate Dielectric Gate Electrode N + /P + poly or Silicide Transistor 9 nm Vertical Field Effect Transistor
Sept 2003 38 Carbon Nanotube Transistors Single nanotube transistor that operates at room temperature. This three-terminal device consists of an individual semiconducting nanotube on two metal nanoelectrodes with the substrate as a gate electrode. The nanotube is ~5 nm in diameter Nanotube Field Effect Transistor IBM Research Fabricated, tested, and functional Delft University of Technology, Professor Cees Dekker
Sept 2003 39 Figure 1. Suspended nanotube device architecture. (a) Schematic illustrating a periodic suspended nanotube crossbar array with a device element at each crossing point. The substrate consists of a conductor (e.g., highly doped silicon, dark- grey) that terminates in a thin dielectric layer (e.g., SiO2, light grey). The lower nanotubes (dark grey cylinders) are supported directly on the dielectric film, while the upper nanotubes are suspended by patterned inorganic or organic supports (dark grey blocks). The device elements at each crossing have two stable states: off and on. The off state (b) corresponds to the case where the nanotubes are separated, while the on state (c) is when the tubes are in vdW contact. A device element is switched between off and on states by applying voltage pulses that transiently charge the nanotubes to produce attractive or repulsive forces. After switching, the junction resistance can be read by measuring the current through the junction at a bias voltage much smaller than the voltage necessary for switching. (b) and (c) correspond to the calculated shapes (see text and Fig. 2) of off and on states for a 20 nm (10,10) SWNT, where the initial separation is 2.0 nm. Lieber, Harvard U.
Sept 2003 40 On the Revolutionary Path Revolutionary nanoelectronic devices (chips) are a long way off. Devices/chips must be stable, reproducible, and low cost in mass production. Devices/chips must have reliable input/output signals and interconnections. New circuit and system architectures must be developed to match the nanoelectronic devices. Devices/chips must be designable, testable, verifiable, and easy to package. Devices/chips must allow for heat dissipation and removal. First generation revolutionary nanoelectronics, if and when it is realizable, will be nitch applications, e.g. high density memories. For random logics, silicon technology will be hard to displace. Reliability and manufacturability are as important if not more so as speed and performance.
Sept 2003 41 CNT FED Display; Zhou, UNC GMR Reading Head; IBM INFORMATION NANOTECHNOLOGY STORAGE DISPLAY LOGIC CNT FET; Avouris, IBM TRANSMISSION Superlattice VCSEL; Honeywell AU Nanocluster Vapor Sensor; Snow NRL, MSI/SAWTEK SENSE
Sept 2003 43 Commercial Products Tools for characterization (FM, SPM, STM, etc.) Tools for fabrication (NIL, DPL, etc.) Carbon nanotubes by the pound 65nm VLSI chips Corrosion resistant ceramic nanoparticle coatings Embedded nanotube polymer matrix materials Sunscreen with TiO 2 nanoparticles Nanoenergetic particles NEMS devices Flat panel displays (soon)
Sept 2003 44 Nanotechnology is here to stay Worldwide investment on nanotechnology Continues to increase Basic research is leading to Commercial products Frontier for next industrial revolution Summary