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2009 Bob Griffin (1) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 A Case Study in Standards Development Interim Report on the ISTA's project on Equipment Stability Safeguards.

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Presentation on theme: "2009 Bob Griffin (1) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 A Case Study in Standards Development Interim Report on the ISTA's project on Equipment Stability Safeguards."— Presentation transcript:

1 2009 Bob Griffin (1) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 A Case Study in Standards Development Interim Report on the ISTA's project on Equipment Stability Safeguards Bob Griffin, IBM Corporation

2 2009 Bob Griffin (2) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Abstract Status of IT industrys development activities with the ISTA to produce a voluntary industry-wide test procedures and criteria for shipping large IT products on casters or pallets. Improve the reliability of transportation stability for large IT products Develop physical safeguards (and test procedures) for Equipment where possible Develop instructional safeguards (documentation, recommended handling practices and the like. )

3 2009 Bob Griffin (3) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 History Background –Damage or replacement costs, risks of injury and logistics' insurance rates associated with the movement of large high value IT equipment are increasingly important parts of the overall product delivery plan. –The environment between the long distance Carrier and Installation location is particularly important and is not generally addressed by either the product or the transportation standards Product Safety Standards cover as installed equipment. For example IEC60950-1. Transportation, Shipping and Handling Standards cover the high volume, long distance shipping environment.

4 2009 Bob Griffin (4) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 History Background –Damage or replacement costs, risks of injury and logistics' insurance rates associated with the movement of large high value IT equipment are increasingly important parts of the overall product delivery plan. –The environment between the long distance Carrier and Installation location is particularly important and is not generally addressed by either the product or the transportation standards Product Safety Standards cover as installed equipment. For example IEC60950-1. In between? Transportation, Shipping and Handling Standards cover the high volume, long distance shipping environment.

5 2009 Bob Griffin (5) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Participants Rack Transport Stability Team (RTST International Safe Transit Association (ISTA)

6 2009 Bob Griffin (6) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Typical Rack Products

7 2009 Bob Griffin (7) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Marketing and Business Trends Rack Systems are getting taller and heavier (42U max height is growing to 50U) Broad spectrum of pre- configured racks systems completed prior to delivery (Center of Gravity is difficult to determine) Third world developing markets (BRIC countries) have less experience and handling equipment typically

8 2009 Bob Griffin (8) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Marketing and Business Trends Rack Systems are getting taller and heavier (42U max height is growing to 50U) Broad spectrum of pre- configured racks systems completed prior to delivery (Center of Gravity is difficult to determine) Third world developing markets (BRIC countries) have less experience and handling equipment typically The last mile can be very challenging!

9 2009 Bob Griffin (9) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 And the result

10 2009 Bob Griffin (10) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Incident History Tip-over incidents continue to occur –Potential for serious personal injury –Potential for extreme financial loss ($Ms) Typical Root Causes: –Handling by inexperienced or untrained individuals, subcontractors, etc. –Failure to consistently execute known safer handling practices –Business Partners (clients) not adhering to product configuration limits –Improper handling equipment, general carelessness, excessive speed, etc.

11 2009 Bob Griffin (11) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Project Scope GOAL - Improve transportation stability and reliability for products such as racks and storage systems when shipped, relocated or returned. –Produce a voluntary industry-wide test procedure and criteria for shipping large individual IT Products on casters, cushioned or regular pallets and or in shipping crates. Focus on the local movement of equipment to and from truck to installation sites. (Not to include large scale, large volume move environments such as containers, air, sea)

12 2009 Bob Griffin (12) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Refrigerator versus the Rack System

13 2009 Bob Griffin (13) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 What needs to be moved? Large individual units that must be moved as a single unit. –1m wide, 1.5m deep, 2m tall –Heavy – 2000 kgs –4 Casters (fixed or swivel) –Unpredictable center of gravity Wood or Thermoplastic crates and pallets –Permit use of mechanical assistance –Added protection and stability –Added weight and dimension –Unpredictable center of gravity

14 2009 Bob Griffin (14) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 What needs to be moved? Large individual units that must be moved as a single unit. –1m wide, 1.5m deep, 2m tall –Heavy – 2000 kgs –4 Casters (fixed or swivel) –Unpredictable center of gravity Wood or Thermoplastic crates and pallets –Permit use of mechanical assistance –Added protection and stability –Added weight and dimension –Unpredictable center of gravity >$1M replacement cost And Mission Critical >$1M replacement cost And Mission Critical

15 2009 Bob Griffin (15) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Over what surface is it moved? –Supporting Surfaces – Concrete, brick pavers, tile, plywood, raised flooring, diamond plate sheets, carpet –Flooring Obstructions – Floor gaps (3.8cm negative obstruction) and thresholds, ramp edges, steel plates (2.5cm positive obstruction). Dock lifts are of particular interest

16 2009 Bob Griffin (16) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Over what surface is it moved? –Building Ramps – Almost every move involves movement up or down a ramp. Frequent use of ramps 4.75 degree ADA compliant ramps Some regions report as much as 7.1 degree grades are common.

17 2009 Bob Griffin (17) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 How is it going to be moved? –Move Distance Commonly between 15m and 30m –Move Speed – Moving in straight lines or around corners As high as 1 m/sec with lighter equipment (typical walking speed) with corning at 0.5m/sec on 1m radius. –Moving Equipment - Fork Lifts and pallet jacks are common Fork lifts and pallet jacks have typical loaded speeds are related to ASTM D6055 which sets speed limits at 5.5 km/h in straights and 3.5 km/h in turns. Observed speeds have been much higher! Special Equipment – Use of strapping equipment or mast stabilization tools may also be available. –Lift Gates – Lift gates are a special case that pose some difficult challenges for non-palleted equipment. Width of lift gate is only slightly larger than equipment caster spacing Lift Gates mover (flex, tilt) when loaded Weight ratings Immobilization of equipment while on the lift gate. –Weather – Snow, rain, wet surfaces or windy weather can also contribute to instability or accidents

18 2009 Bob Griffin (18) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Who is going to move it? Warehouse Personnel Professional Single Unit Shipping Companies –Deliver via truck from warehouse to installation site placing product as close to install location as possible. –Trained to manage this type of equipment –In some cases, subcontract to local movers (small truck delivery model) to installation site Equipment Integrators –Purchase standard equipment, modify then deliver non-palleted equipment to installation site. Riggers –Special class of moving companies that can assist with unique situations. Trained to understand unique products and challenges. Examples include Cranes used to lift equipment to rooftops Removal of door frames or provision of special moving equipment

19 2009 Bob Griffin (19) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 And others

20 2009 Bob Griffin (20) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Equipment Safeguards Design and configure equipment to remain stable on the most common ramps, when impacting normal floor impediments and when being moved at a prescribed speed. Equipment Train/Instruct movers and forklift drivers to identify ramps that are too steep for equipment, speeds that are unsafe and to clear paths of larger obstructions from point to point on site Behavioral

21 2009 Bob Griffin (21) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Caster Safeguards Design Casters to meet and expected level of performance that ensures safe handling and caster integrity when impact objects and thresholds known to be in the environment Equipment Train/Instruct movers to inspect the environment and provide for clear paths from point to point on site. Provide additional floor modifications to address larger thresholds or gaps that can damage the caster. Behavioral

22 2009 Bob Griffin (22) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Development of Requirements Establish a typical worst case move environment combined with expected movers and equipment to be moved. Determine where physical (equipment, pallet design) safeguards can be implemented to meet the expected performance level –Physical Safeguards are used to address probable situations (not all plausible situations) Determine where behavioral (instructions, expected human reaction) safeguards can be implemented to address both the probable and the plausible situations. –Behavioral safeguards include both the expected and reasonable actions of a mover with a defined type of training AND the awareness of hazards through proper instructions, labels, and equipment markings.

23 2009 Bob Griffin (23) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Development of Requirements Establish a typical worst case move environment combined with expected movers and equipment to be moved. Determine where physical (equipment, pallet design) safeguards can be implemented to meet the expected performance level –Physical Safeguards are used to address probable situations (not all plausible situations) Determine where behavioral (instructions, expected human reaction) safeguards can be implemented to address both the probable and the plausible situations. –Behavioral safeguards include both the expected and reasonable actions of a mover with a defined type of training AND the awareness of hazards through proper instructions, labels, and equipment markings. Critical Task – Establish the level of equipment performance (equipment safeguards) that can be achieved so that the mover can predict and manage the safe movement (behavioral safeguards) of the equipment to and from the installation site.

24 2009 Bob Griffin (24) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Behavioral Safeguard Development Behavioral Safeguards –Training –Labels and marking –Instruction or guidance The behavioral safeguards being considered for this project include the development and publication of –A common set of symbols and icons for use on products and shipping materials –Rack Handling Guide for movers and shipping companies –Training guidance to ensure these guides and symbols are well understood.

25 2009 Bob Griffin (25) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Equipment Safeguard Development (Casters) Caster Design (Future work) –Caster impact on solid objects can destroy the caster or impact its ability to roll or turn freely. –Supporting surfaces can impact the life of the caster under heavy loads Proposal –Develop a obstacle course with ramps and impediments that are frequently found in the environment. –Validate on cabinets and develop a dynamic caster test Review and consider opportunities to validate static or materials pre-selection requirements

26 2009 Bob Griffin (26) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Equipment Safeguard Development (Stability) Model the dynamic stability of Rack system being moved in the defined worst case environment. –Determine the performance and contributing factors to equipment instability –Determine critical performance thresholds and analyze data. Develop a dynamic performance expectation that can be clearly communicated via –A test standard for the equipment, and –Handling instructions for the mover. Develop a more cost effective and conservative static tilt stability test by: –measuring critical static parameters of equipment that pass, fail and are at the threshold of the expected dynamic test performance expectations, and –establishing test conditions including a minimum tilt stability angle that will ensure compliance with the dynamic performance expectations.

27 2009 Bob Griffin (27) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Next Steps Where are we now –Complete Environment characterization is complete Rack Handling Guides and training materials –http://www.ista.org/pages/resources/RTST.php –In Process Develop common symbol and icon use in the environment Dynamic modeling of rack and cabinet movements in the normal environments to refine minimum equipment performance expectations –To be done Develop and validate test standards and equivalent static tilt test methods that will ensure compliance with dynamic expectations. Validate methodology with the user/mover Finalize development and release of final instructions, labels and test standards

28 2009 Bob Griffin (28) Toronto, ONOct. 26 - 28, 2009 Questions? Bob Griffin IBM Corporation Interim Report on the ITSA's project on Equipment Stability Safeguards bobgriff@us.ibm.com Research Triangle Park, NC


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