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Carbon Nanotube Antennas for Wireless Communications

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Presentation on theme: "Carbon Nanotube Antennas for Wireless Communications"— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbon Nanotube Antennas for Wireless Communications
Jack Winters Jack Winters Communications, LLC NJ Coast Section Meeting Sponsored by the ElectroMagnetic Compatibility/Vehicular Technology/Antennas & Propagation Chapter March 18, 2010

2 Outline Overview of Wireless Trends Carbon Nanotube Antennas
Applications to Wireless Communications Conclusions

3 Overview Goal: Wireless communications, anywhere, in any form
Means: Standard-based heterogeneous networks, since no one wireless network is best in all cases – Centralized networks – cellular/LTE, WiMax Decentralized systems – WLANs, Bluetooth, sensor networks – RFID Multi-mode terminals Small, ubiquitous devices (RFID, smart dust)

4 Wireless System Evolution
Cellular: 2G – GPRS – kbps 2.5G - EDGE – up to 400 kbps (Evolved EDGE – 1 Mbps) 3G: HSPA – 7.2 Mbps (AT&T completed 2009) HSPA+ 21/42 Mbps LTE/WiMAX/IMT-Advanced – 100 Mbps and higher LTE: 50 Mbps UL, 100 Mbps DL (deployment in 2012 by AT&T) (From IEEE Comm. Mag. 1/10)

5 Wireless System Evolution
WLAN: 802.11n: >100 Mbps in MAC >3 bits/sec/Hz 802.11ac (< 6GHz) and ad (60 GHZ) >500 Mbps link throughput >1 Gbps multiuser access point throughput >7.5 bits/sec/Hz (Network throughput is not addressed) RFID: Active and passive tags Read ranges with omni-directional antennas: Active tags (433 MHz) feet Passive tags (900 MHz) - 9 feet

6 Techniques for Higher Performance
Smart Antennas (keeping within standards): Range increase Interference suppression Capacity increase Data rate increase using multiple transmit/receive antennas (MIMO) Radio resource management techniques Dynamic channel/packet assignment Adaptive modulation/coding/platform (software defined radio) Cognitive radio (wideband sensing)

7 Smart Antennas Adaptive Antenna Array Switched Multibeam Antenna
SIGNAL OUTPUT BEAM SELECT SIGNAL BEAMFORMER SIGNAL INTERFERENCE BEAMFORMER WEIGHTS SIGNAL OUTPUT Smart antenna is a multibeam or adaptive antenna array that tracks the wireless environment to significantly improve the performance of wireless systems. Switched Multibeam versus Adaptive Array Antenna: Simple beam tracking, but limited interference suppression and diversity gain, particularly in multipath environments Adaptive arrays are generally needed for devices and when used for MIMO

8 Key to Higher Data Rates: Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Radio
With M transmit and M receive antennas, can provide M independent channels, to increase data rate M-fold with no increase in total transmit power (with sufficient multipath) – only an increase in DSP. Peak link throughput increase: Indoors – up to 150-fold in theory Outdoors – 8-12-fold typical

9 MIMO LTE/WiMAX/802.11n: 2X2, 4X2, 4X4 MIMO 802.11ad (60 GHz):
10 to 100 antennas Phased array On chip 802.11ac (<6 GHz) 8X4 or 16X2 MIMO => multiple access point/terminal antennas MHz bandwidth => cognitive radio (large networks)

10 RFID – Adaptive Arrays for Readers and Tags
Active and passive tags Read ranges with omni-directional antennas: Active tags (433 MHz) feet Passive tags (900 MHz) - 9 feet Reader can use scanning beam to transmit, adaptive array to receive Tag can use adaptive array to receive, then use same weights to transmit

11 Issues Large arrays at access point/base station/terminal:
Diversity (for MIMO) in small size 700 MHz Low cost/power signal processing 802.11n: up to 4 on card/computer, but only 1 or 2 at handset Multiplatform (MIMO) terminals, and the need for multi-band/conformal/embedded antennas, increase the problem Cognitive radio – cross-layer with MIMO Wide bandwidth

12 Adaptive Arrays for RFID Tags
Tags can be very small devices (single chip), making multiple antenna placement an issue At 900 MHz, half-wavelength spacing is 6 inches.

13 Diversity Types Spatial: Separation – only ¼ wavelength needed at terminal (but can’t do at 700 MHz) Polarization: Dual polarization (doubles number of antennas in one location Pattern: Allows even closer than ¼ wavelength => 16 or more on a handset

14 Multiplatform Devices with Smart Antennas
3/27/2017 Multiplatform Devices with Smart Antennas Most systems consider only 2 antennas on devices (4 antennas in future) because of costly A/Ds and size of antennas. Antenna Location

15 Signal Processing: Analog/Switching (RF) or Digital
3/27/2017 Analog Advantages: Digital requires M complete RF chains, including M A/D and D/A's, versus 1 A/D and D/A for analog, plus substantial digital signal processing The cost is much lower than digital (see, e.g., R. Eickhoff, et al, “Developing Energy-Efficient MIMO Radios”, IEEE VT magazine, March 2009) Switched antennas have even lower cost Digital Advantages: Slightly higher gain in Rayleigh fading (as more accurate weights can be generated) Temporal processing can be added to each antenna branch much easier than with analog, for higher gain with delay spread Needed for spatial processing with MIMO => Use RF combining where possible, minimizing digital combining (limit to number of spatial streams)

16 Combination of Switching, RF, and Digital Combining (Hybrid)
“Capacity and Complexity Trade-offs in MIMO Analog–Digital Combining Systems,” Xin Zhou, Jack Winters, Patrick Eggers, and Persefoni Kyritsi, Wireless Personal Communications, July 24, 2009. RF combining in addition to digital combining provides added gain for higher data rates over larger area with reduced cost

17 Closely-Spaced Antennas - Solutions
Metamaterials: Closer spacing with low mutual coupling but good diversity (pattern) and smaller size with directivity (active antennas) Ex: Rayspan MetarrayTM: 1/6 wavelength spacing 1/10 wavelength antenna length Netgear has implemented metamaterial antennas in their WLANs 40 x 15mm 4 dBi

18 Closely-Spaced Antennas - Solutions
Metamaterials (cont.): 1/50th of a wavelength demonstrated ( html):

19 Closely-Spaced Antennas (cont.)
2) Active antennas: Use of MEMs with metamaterial antennas and carbon nanotube antennas on graphene substrates Frequency agility, reducing the number of antennas Bandwidth/polarization/beampattern adaptation Low cost, small size/form factor solution

20 Closely-Spaced Antennas (cont.)
3) Superconductivity Can “pull” transmitted power to receiver (requires large currents)

21 4) Carbon Nanotube Antennas
Basic features Wave velocity is 1% of free space 1.7 mm (vs. 17 cm) half-wavelength spacing at 900 MHz 10,000 antennas in same area (106 antennas in same volume) as standard antenna => Very low antenna efficiency – but have pattern diversity => Much stronger than steel for given weight Can be integrated with graphene circuitry for adaptive arrays L R// D One-atom-thick graphite rolled up into cylinder

22 ([1] D. Mast – Antenna Systems Conference 2009)
Carbon Forms ([1] D. Mast – Antenna Systems Conference 2009)

23 Carbon Nano-Forms [1]

24 SWCNT [1] Length to width of 108
Current density > metal (3 orders of magnitude greater than copper) Strength > Steel (2 orders of magnitude stronger by weight) Thermal Conductivity > Diamond (1 order of magnitude greater than copper)

25 SWCNT Issues [1] Small diameter (usually no larger than 2 nm) Short length (usually less than 100 microns) 1/3 metallic and 2/3 semiconductor (without control of which kind) Full scale, low cost production Electrical contact to electronics (graphene electronics)

26 Structure of SWCNTs [1]

27 SWCNT pillars – connect with array electronics
Implementation SWCNT pillars – connect with array electronics

28 Arrays Graphene electronics: 2 orders of magnitude higher electron mobility than silicon >30 GHz transistors demonstrated Antenna Weights

29 SWCNT Radio [1]

30 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes [1]
Array on silicon 1.5 mm array Scanning electron microscope image One MWCNT antenna – 24 nm outer, 10 nm inner diameter (transmission electron microscope image)

31 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes – Threads [1]

32 MWCNT Thread in Radio [1]

33 Non-Aligned Carbon Nanotube Antennas
High conductivity and flexibility ([2] Zhou, Bayram, Volakis, APS2009) Non-aligned CNT sheet [3] Sheet resistivity: ~ CNT length: ~200 μm CNT spacing distance: ~ 100 nm CNT tips are entangled (touching), giving rise to high conductivity cross section view top view

34 Polymer-CNT Patch Antenna Performance [2]
31 mm 56 mm 8 mm MCT-PDMS substrate, 5 mm CNTs sheet 150 mm CNT patch: 0.9 Ohm/square Patch antenna: 5.6 dB gain (compared to 6.4 dB of PEC patch) Radiation efficiency: 83% Return loss Gain

35 Summary and Conclusions
Communication systems increasingly need electrically small, active antennas – multiplatform devices with MIMO, small RFIDs Carbon nanotube antennas have unique properties including strength, current density, wave velocity, and thermal conductivity. They can be connected directly to graphene electronics (with high electron mobility) for dense adaptive arrays of SWCNT. Many issues to be resolved, but substantial innovation opportunity (examples including MWCNT threads and non-aligned SWCNT sheets).

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