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New Nuclear Plant Deployment Gary Fader Director, New Plant Deployment Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Gary Fader Director, New Plant Deployment.

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Presentation on theme: "New Nuclear Plant Deployment Gary Fader Director, New Plant Deployment Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Gary Fader Director, New Plant Deployment."— Presentation transcript:

1 New Nuclear Plant Deployment Gary Fader Director, New Plant Deployment Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Gary Fader Director, New Plant Deployment Institute of Nuclear Power Operations

2 March 28, 1979March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island – a catalyst for industry improvementThree Mile Island – a catalyst for industry improvement INPOs unique roleINPOs unique role –Self-regulation through peer review March 28, 1979March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island – a catalyst for industry improvementThree Mile Island – a catalyst for industry improvement INPOs unique roleINPOs unique role –Self-regulation through peer review INPO - Our Roots

3 Presidents Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island Set and police standards of excellenceSet and police standards of excellence Systematic gathering and analysis of operating experienceSystematic gathering and analysis of operating experience Accredited trainingAccredited training Operator training and plant simulatorsOperator training and plant simulators

4 s Mission To promote the highest levels of safety and reliability to promote excellence in the operation of nuclear electric generating plants To promote the highest levels of safety and reliability to promote excellence in the operation of nuclear electric generating plants

5 Our Workforce Permanent325 Permanent 65 On Loan65 On Loan 10 On Reverse Loan10 On Reverse Loan Budget ~ $90 millionBudget ~ $90 million 325 Permanent325 Permanent 65 On Loan65 On Loan 10 On Reverse Loan10 On Reverse Loan Budget ~ $90 millionBudget ~ $90 million

6 Institute of Nuclear Power Operations National Academy for Nuclear Training World Association of Nuclear Operators Institute of Nuclear Power Operations National Academy for Nuclear Training World Association of Nuclear Operators

7 Cornerstone Programs Analysis & Information Exchange Analysis & Information Exchange Training & Accreditation Evaluations Assistance

8 Other Activities Other Activities New Plant Development Worldwide benchmarkingWorldwide benchmarking International Program Information exchangeInformation exchange Technical supportTechnical support Supplier Participant Program Vendor adviceVendor advice Industry issuesIndustry issues New Plant Development Worldwide benchmarkingWorldwide benchmarking International Program Information exchangeInformation exchange Technical supportTechnical support Supplier Participant Program Vendor adviceVendor advice Industry issuesIndustry issues (continued)

9 Members and Participants Members Members International Participants (14) International Participants (14) BrazilCanadaFrance JapanSouth KoreaMexico BelgiumRomaniaSouth Africa SpainTaiwanUnited Kingdom Slovak RepublicSlovenia Supplier Participants (17) Supplier Participants (17) Members Members International Participants (14) International Participants (14) BrazilCanadaFrance JapanSouth KoreaMexico BelgiumRomaniaSouth Africa SpainTaiwanUnited Kingdom Slovak RepublicSlovenia Supplier Participants (17) Supplier Participants (17) AREVABechtel Black & Veatch Day & Zimmermann General Electric Hitachi Scientech The Shaw Group Toshiba Washington Group Westinghouse 27 U.S. Utility Members who operate nuclear power plants and 38 Utility Associate Member co-owners Honeywell Louisiana Energy Services Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Services PBMR Sargent & Lundy

10 WANO Organization Coordinating Center Regional Centers Atlanta London Paris Moscow Tokyo

11 Why Nuclear, Why Now? Energy needsEnergy needs Energy independenceEnergy independence Environmental considerationsEnvironmental considerations Safety & efficiencySafety & efficiency Licensing confidenceLicensing confidence Federal financial incentivesFederal financial incentives Energy needsEnergy needs Energy independenceEnergy independence Environmental considerationsEnvironmental considerations Safety & efficiencySafety & efficiency Licensing confidenceLicensing confidence Federal financial incentivesFederal financial incentives

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13 Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cycle

14 Nuclear Fuel Uranium primarily mined in:Uranium primarily mined in: –Canada, Australia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Niger, Namibia, others Conversion to UF6Conversion to UF6 –US, Canada, France, UK, Russia, others EnrichmentEnrichment –France, Germany, Netherlands, UK, US, Russia, others Uranium primarily mined in:Uranium primarily mined in: –Canada, Australia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Niger, Namibia, others Conversion to UF6Conversion to UF6 –US, Canada, France, UK, Russia, others EnrichmentEnrichment –France, Germany, Netherlands, UK, US, Russia, others

15 What Happens to Used Nuclear Fuel in the US? NRC requires contract with DOE for spent fuel removalNRC requires contract with DOE for spent fuel removal Currently, ~ 75,000 metric tons is stored at over 100 nuclear power plants in pools or casks.Currently, ~ 75,000 metric tons is stored at over 100 nuclear power plants in pools or casks. DOE plans to store/bury used fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada - $13.5 B spentDOE plans to store/bury used fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada - $13.5 B spent Cost of storageCost of storage –All nuclear electricity is taxed at 0.1¢/kW- hr for a disposal fund, which will pay for storage (~$500 million/year, >$22 B not spent) NRC requires contract with DOE for spent fuel removalNRC requires contract with DOE for spent fuel removal Currently, ~ 75,000 metric tons is stored at over 100 nuclear power plants in pools or casks.Currently, ~ 75,000 metric tons is stored at over 100 nuclear power plants in pools or casks. DOE plans to store/bury used fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada - $13.5 B spentDOE plans to store/bury used fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada - $13.5 B spent Cost of storageCost of storage –All nuclear electricity is taxed at 0.1¢/kW- hr for a disposal fund, which will pay for storage (~$500 million/year, >$22 B not spent)

16 InternationalInternational Countries that reprocess spent fuel:Countries that reprocess spent fuel: –France, UK, Russia, Japan 1% each Uranium and Plutonium (MOX) recovered1% each Uranium and Plutonium (MOX) recovered 1/5 original volume for disposal1/5 original volume for disposal Remaining waste vitrified, storedRemaining waste vitrified, stored Countries that reprocess spent fuel:Countries that reprocess spent fuel: –France, UK, Russia, Japan 1% each Uranium and Plutonium (MOX) recovered1% each Uranium and Plutonium (MOX) recovered 1/5 original volume for disposal1/5 original volume for disposal Remaining waste vitrified, storedRemaining waste vitrified, stored

17 Current Situation in U.S. Funding reduced for Yucca Mt.Funding reduced for Yucca Mt. Whats needed:Whats needed: –Interim centralized storage –Technology & business case for reprocessing –Licensing of permanent disposal site Bipartisan commission proposed to reassess programBipartisan commission proposed to reassess program Funding reduced for Yucca Mt.Funding reduced for Yucca Mt. Whats needed:Whats needed: –Interim centralized storage –Technology & business case for reprocessing –Licensing of permanent disposal site Bipartisan commission proposed to reassess programBipartisan commission proposed to reassess program

18 Environmental: Nu Clear Nuclear power produces 70% of US carbon-free electricity (Steven Chu at Senate confirmation hearing)

19 Significant Events Significant events meet one or more of the following criteria: Degradation of important safety equipment A major transient or unexpected plant response Degradation of fuel integrity, primary coolant pressure boundary, or important associated structures A reactor trip with complications An unplanned release of radioactivity exceeding the technical specifications or regulations Operation outside the technical specification limits Other events considered significant

20 Unit Capability Factor

21 Unplanned Capability Loss Percent

22 10 CFR 52 Combined Licenses, Early Site Permits, and Standard Design Certifications Early Site Permit* Reactor Construction Standard Design Certification* Combined License Review and Hearing Reactor Operation Verification of Inspection, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria

23 TimelinesTimelines Design certificationDesign certification –2-4 years to prepare – months for NRC review –12 months for rulemaking Early Site PermitEarly Site Permit –12-18 months to prepare –21 month NRC review –12 months for hearing Combined licenseCombined license –12-24 months to prepare –42 month NRC review, assuming DC & ESP are referenced –12 months for hearings Design certificationDesign certification –2-4 years to prepare – months for NRC review –12 months for rulemaking Early Site PermitEarly Site Permit –12-18 months to prepare –21 month NRC review –12 months for hearing Combined licenseCombined license –12-24 months to prepare –42 month NRC review, assuming DC & ESP are referenced –12 months for hearings

24 Energy Policy Act Incentives Standby Support Coverage for delays beyond owners controlStandby Support Coverage for delays beyond owners control –$500 million for first two plants, –$250 million for next four after a 180 day period Production Tax CreditsProduction Tax Credits –$18/MWh for 6,000 MW caped at $125 million for a 1,000 MW plant Loan GuaranteesLoan Guarantees –Low emission generation up to 80% of total project cost –80/20 Debt-equity structure, with debt underwritten by Federal government Standby Support Coverage for delays beyond owners controlStandby Support Coverage for delays beyond owners control –$500 million for first two plants, –$250 million for next four after a 180 day period Production Tax CreditsProduction Tax Credits –$18/MWh for 6,000 MW caped at $125 million for a 1,000 MW plant Loan GuaranteesLoan Guarantees –Low emission generation up to 80% of total project cost –80/20 Debt-equity structure, with debt underwritten by Federal government

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27 Current Statistics Early site permits:Early site permits: –3 issued, 1 under review Design CertificationsDesign Certifications –2 issued –4 under review (AP-1000 amendment) COL applications:COL applications: –17 submitted (26 units) –23 total expected (34units) Early site permits:Early site permits: –3 issued, 1 under review Design CertificationsDesign Certifications –2 issued –4 under review (AP-1000 amendment) COL applications:COL applications: –17 submitted (26 units) –23 total expected (34units)

28 More Statistics Long-lead equipment orders: –9 utilities ordered large forgings –6 steel containment shells AP-1000 –24 Rx coolant pumps AP-1000 EPC Contracts: –4 in place –1 firm commitment to construct Financial incentives: –Loan guarantees: 15 applications ($93B vs. $18.5B allocated) –5 eligible per DOE Long-lead equipment orders: –9 utilities ordered large forgings –6 steel containment shells AP-1000 –24 Rx coolant pumps AP-1000 EPC Contracts: –4 in place –1 firm commitment to construct Financial incentives: –Loan guarantees: 15 applications ($93B vs. $18.5B allocated) –5 eligible per DOE

29 More Statistics Spent fuel disposalSpent fuel disposal –19 contracts with DOE –Fuel removal starts 20 years from 1 st refueling –Removal complete 10 years after shutdown –$5M/yr penalty Spent fuel disposalSpent fuel disposal –19 contracts with DOE –Fuel removal starts 20 years from 1 st refueling –Removal complete 10 years after shutdown –$5M/yr penalty

30 More Statistics - Global NPPs actively under construction:NPPs actively under construction: –China (10), India (6), Russia (4), Japan (2), France (1), South Korea (8), Taiwan (2), U.S. (1) 106 on order/planned in 24 countries106 on order/planned in 24 countries 200 under consideration in 37 countries200 under consideration in 37 countries NPPs actively under construction:NPPs actively under construction: –China (10), India (6), Russia (4), Japan (2), France (1), South Korea (8), Taiwan (2), U.S. (1) 106 on order/planned in 24 countries106 on order/planned in 24 countries 200 under consideration in 37 countries200 under consideration in 37 countries

31 Flamanville 3 - France

32 Flamanville 3 – Reactor Containment

33 Shin-Kori 1 & 2– South Korea

34 Advanced Plant Designs Currently under consideration:Currently under consideration: –GE Advanced BWR (Certified May 97) –Westinghouse AP-1000 PWR (Certified Jan 06) –GE Economic Simplified BWR (Applic. Aug 05) –AREVA Evolutionary PWR (Applic. Fall 07) –Mitsubishi US Advanced PWR (Applic. Mar 2008) Others:Others: –Westinghouse (CE) System 80+ (Certified May 97) –Pebble Bed Modular Reactor –Westinghouse AP-600 (Certified Dec 99) Currently under consideration:Currently under consideration: –GE Advanced BWR (Certified May 97) –Westinghouse AP-1000 PWR (Certified Jan 06) –GE Economic Simplified BWR (Applic. Aug 05) –AREVA Evolutionary PWR (Applic. Fall 07) –Mitsubishi US Advanced PWR (Applic. Mar 2008) Others:Others: –Westinghouse (CE) System 80+ (Certified May 97) –Pebble Bed Modular Reactor –Westinghouse AP-600 (Certified Dec 99)

35 General Design Features GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (vessel internal recirculation pumps, 3 trains active safety systems, 1350 MWe), 4 units operating & 1 under construction in Japan, 2 units under construction in TaiwanGE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (vessel internal recirculation pumps, 3 trains active safety systems, 1350 MWe), 4 units operating & 1 under construction in Japan, 2 units under construction in Taiwan Westinghouse AP-1000 (conventional primary & secondary PWR systems, passive safety systems, 1100 MWe), 4 units under construction in ChinaWestinghouse AP-1000 (conventional primary & secondary PWR systems, passive safety systems, 1100 MWe), 4 units under construction in China GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (vessel internal recirculation pumps, 3 trains active safety systems, 1350 MWe), 4 units operating & 1 under construction in Japan, 2 units under construction in TaiwanGE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (vessel internal recirculation pumps, 3 trains active safety systems, 1350 MWe), 4 units operating & 1 under construction in Japan, 2 units under construction in Taiwan Westinghouse AP-1000 (conventional primary & secondary PWR systems, passive safety systems, 1100 MWe), 4 units under construction in ChinaWestinghouse AP-1000 (conventional primary & secondary PWR systems, passive safety systems, 1100 MWe), 4 units under construction in China

36 General Design Features GE Economic Simplified BWR (natural circulation main coolant system, passive safety systems, 1500 MWe)GE Economic Simplified BWR (natural circulation main coolant system, passive safety systems, 1500 MWe) AREVA Evolutionary PWR (conventional primary & secondary systems, 4 trains active safety systems, 1600 MWe), under construction in Finland, France China (2)AREVA Evolutionary PWR (conventional primary & secondary systems, 4 trains active safety systems, 1600 MWe), under construction in Finland, France China (2) GE Economic Simplified BWR (natural circulation main coolant system, passive safety systems, 1500 MWe)GE Economic Simplified BWR (natural circulation main coolant system, passive safety systems, 1500 MWe) AREVA Evolutionary PWR (conventional primary & secondary systems, 4 trains active safety systems, 1600 MWe), under construction in Finland, France China (2)AREVA Evolutionary PWR (conventional primary & secondary systems, 4 trains active safety systems, 1600 MWe), under construction in Finland, France China (2)

37 General Design Features Mitsubishi US Advanced PWR (conventional primary & secondary systems, 4 trains active safety systems, advanced accumulator design,1700 MWe), similar plant in licensing in JapanMitsubishi US Advanced PWR (conventional primary & secondary systems, 4 trains active safety systems, advanced accumulator design,1700 MWe), similar plant in licensing in Japan

38 Control Rooms All plants use digital instrumentation & controls for control and protectionAll plants use digital instrumentation & controls for control and protection Some emergency safeguards actions backed up by hard-wired controlsSome emergency safeguards actions backed up by hard-wired controls All control rooms use flat-panel screens for operator interface, with large screen displaysAll control rooms use flat-panel screens for operator interface, with large screen displays Most plants have automated startup & shutdownMost plants have automated startup & shutdown All plants use digital instrumentation & controls for control and protectionAll plants use digital instrumentation & controls for control and protection Some emergency safeguards actions backed up by hard-wired controlsSome emergency safeguards actions backed up by hard-wired controls All control rooms use flat-panel screens for operator interface, with large screen displaysAll control rooms use flat-panel screens for operator interface, with large screen displays Most plants have automated startup & shutdownMost plants have automated startup & shutdown

39 Current U.S. Control Room

40 Lungmen Simulator

41 Tomari 3 Simulator

42 Westinghouse Simulator

43 INPO Activities Provide Info & Experience –Operating experience to influence design –Past US construction experience –International benchmarking for new plant deployment –Construction experience exchange process Provide Info & Experience –Operating experience to influence design –Past US construction experience –International benchmarking for new plant deployment –Construction experience exchange process

44 INPO Activities Training and Accreditation –Training guidelines –Process for Initial Accreditation of Training in the Nuclear Power Industry Training and Accreditation –Training guidelines –Process for Initial Accreditation of Training in the Nuclear Power Industry

45 Current INPO Activities AssistanceAssistance –Visits to suppliers Design control / quality programDesign control / quality program Engineering human performanceEngineering human performance Corrective actionCorrective action Use of operating experienceUse of operating experience –Equipment reliability process –Configuration management process –Industry meetings to share construction lessons learned AssistanceAssistance –Visits to suppliers Design control / quality programDesign control / quality program Engineering human performanceEngineering human performance Corrective actionCorrective action Use of operating experienceUse of operating experience –Equipment reliability process –Configuration management process –Industry meetings to share construction lessons learned

46 Current INPO Activities Contd Conduct on-site visits to Watts Bar 2Conduct on-site visits to Watts Bar 2 –Review, Assistance Revise plant review guidelinesRevise plant review guidelines Conduct construction site visits (later)Conduct construction site visits (later) –Quality program implementation –Operational programs development and implementation –Operational readiness Conduct on-site visits to Watts Bar 2Conduct on-site visits to Watts Bar 2 –Review, Assistance Revise plant review guidelinesRevise plant review guidelines Conduct construction site visits (later)Conduct construction site visits (later) –Quality program implementation –Operational programs development and implementation –Operational readiness

47 Key Construction Lessons COL holder organization is in place and integrated with the engineering, procurement, & construction contractorCOL holder organization is in place and integrated with the engineering, procurement, & construction contractor COL holder oversight (COL holders managers continually assess contractor work)COL holder oversight (COL holders managers continually assess contractor work) QA organizations in place ( procedures, qualified staff), and workers understand the need for quality constructionQA organizations in place ( procedures, qualified staff), and workers understand the need for quality construction COL holder organization is in place and integrated with the engineering, procurement, & construction contractorCOL holder organization is in place and integrated with the engineering, procurement, & construction contractor COL holder oversight (COL holders managers continually assess contractor work)COL holder oversight (COL holders managers continually assess contractor work) QA organizations in place ( procedures, qualified staff), and workers understand the need for quality constructionQA organizations in place ( procedures, qualified staff), and workers understand the need for quality construction

48 Key Construction Lessons Adequate construction staffing (project managers, QA/QC inspectors, welders, electricians)Adequate construction staffing (project managers, QA/QC inspectors, welders, electricians) Maintaining standardizationMaintaining standardization Design essentially complete before construction and construction in compliance with designDesign essentially complete before construction and construction in compliance with design Adequate construction staffing (project managers, QA/QC inspectors, welders, electricians)Adequate construction staffing (project managers, QA/QC inspectors, welders, electricians) Maintaining standardizationMaintaining standardization Design essentially complete before construction and construction in compliance with designDesign essentially complete before construction and construction in compliance with design

49 Questions?Questions?


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