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IEEE Communications Society Seminar, 10th November 1999

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1 IEEE Communications Society Seminar, 10th November 1999
HDTV/DTV: Technical Overview and Roadmap Dr. Nikhil Balram Vice President of Advanced Technology Faroudja Laboratories, Sunnyvale, CA

2 Overview HDTV/DTV Overview Source Channel Receiver/Display Forecasts
History & current status Technical overview Major players Barriers to rapid penetration/deployment Source Channel Receiver/Display Forecasts Summary Acknowledgements References Disclaimer: All opinions/material presented in this seminar are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of current or past employers. Any trademarks or brand names mentioned here are the properties of their respective holders and are hereby acknowledged.

3 HDTV/DTV Overview History Technical overview Major players
Barriers to rapid penetration/deployment

4 HDTV/DTV Overview History 1987 Broadcasters petition FCC to institute rules for terrestrial HDTV broadcast FCC creates Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Services (ACATS) to gather information and recommend a standard 1988 US Broadcasters create Advanced Television Test Center (ATTC) to conduct tests of the proposed systems 1989/90 Cable industry through Cable Television Labs (CableLabs) prepares to test proposed Advanced Television (ATV) systems over cable networks 9 systems offered to ATTC for testing: all analog except Zenith hybrid Faroudja Labs, MIT, North American Phillips (NAP), Production Services Inc., Zenith Electronics, 2 from David Sarnoff Research Center (DSRC), 2 from Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK)

5 HDTV/DTV Overview History (cont.) 1990/91 FCC favors simulcast (full HDTV with eventual shutdown of NTSC) versus augmentation Shift to digital started by General Instruments (GI) DigiCipher 6 systems (4 digital) from different coalitions tested by ATTC 1992 Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) agrees to coordinate task of documenting standard chosen by FCC 1993 Analog options eliminated Proponents of the 4 digital systems form Grand Alliance (GA) AT&T, DSRC, GI, MIT, NAP, Thomson Consumer Electronics, Zenith Electronics 1994 ACATS approves GA system 1995/96 ATSC documents and approves standard based on GA system

6 HDTV/DTV Overview History (cont.) 1996 FCC proposes to adopt GA system as documented by ATSC Computer Industry Coalition on Advanced Television Services (CICATS) files strong objection and proposes progressive SDTV with future path to HDTV through an augmentation signal Dec FCC adopts ATSC DTV standard except for table 3 with 18 formats (6 HD, 12 SD) 1997 HDTV rollout schedule agreed to Some stations in top 10 markets to offer some programming by November 1, 1998 Top 10 markets (covering 30% of US households) to be on air by May 1, 1999 Top 30 markets (covering 50% of US households) to be on air by November 1, 1999 All commercial stations on air by May 1, 2002, (public stations get 1 more year) NTSC broadcasting to cease on May 1, 2006, (later changed to whenever 85% of market is using HDTV sets) Nov 1998 HDTV broadcasts begin

7 Current Status November 1999
HDTV/DTV Overview Current Status November 1999 Overall 474 TV stations have filed construction permit applications 220 have been granted DTV construction permits 66 are on air with full facilities 25 are on air with special or experimental DTV authority Top 10 market network affiliates - 40 stations 32 are on air with full facilities 8 have requested second extensions Markets network affiliates - 79 stations 20 are on air with full facilities See for more information

8 Technical Overview Video: Audio: Transport: RF/Transmission:
HDTV/DTV Overview Technical Overview Video: MPEG2 Main High Level 18 formats: 6 HD, 12 SD Audio: Dolby AC-3 Transport: Subset of MPEG2 Fixed length 188-byte packets RF/Transmission: Terrestrial: 8-VSB (Vestigial Side Band) with Trellis coding effective payload of ~19.3 Mb/s (18.9 Mb/s used for video) Cable: 16-VSB effective payload of ~38.6 Mb/s

9 HDTV/DTV System Layers
HDTV/DTV Overview HDTV/DTV System Layers layered system with header/descriptors 996 Mb/s 1920 x Picture Layer Multiple Picture Formats and Frame Rates Compression Layer MPEG-2 video and Dolby AC-3 compression syntax Data Headers Motion Vectors Chroma and Luma DCT Coefficients Variable Length Codes Flexible delivery of data and future extensability Packet Headers Transport Layer Video packet Audio packet Video packet Aux data MPEG-2 packets Transmission Layer 19.3 Mb/s 8-VSB Source:Sarnoff Corporation 6 MHz

10 HDTV/DTV MPEG2 Transport
HDTV/DTV Overview HDTV/DTV MPEG2 Transport ...packets with header/descriptors enable flexiblility and features... Many services can be dynamically multiplexed and delivered to the viewer video TEXT video audio 1 video video audio 2 video video PGM GD video 188 Byte Packet 184 Byte Payload (incl. optional Adaptation Header) Video Adaptation Header (variable length) 4 Byte Packet Header Time synchronization Media synchronization Random access flag Bit stream splice point flag Packet sync Type of data the packet carries Packet loss/misordering protection Encryption control Priority (optional) Source:Sarnoff Corporation

11 Y Cr Cb 4 5 MPEG2 Video Basics: 1 2 3 B B I B B P B B P B B P Sequence
HDTV/DTV Overview MPEG2 Video Basics: Sequence (Display Order) GOP (Display Order, N=12, M=3) B B I B B P B B P B B P Cr Y Picture Cb Slice Note: Y = Luma Cr = Red-Y Cb = Blue-Y 1 2 3 4 5 MacroBlock Y Blocks Cr Block Cb Block Source:Sarnoff Corporation

12 “Previous” & “Future” Frames
HDTV/DTV Overview MPEG2 Video Basics MPEG2 Profiles/Levels MPEG specification is generic - intended to cover wide range of applications “Profiles” and “Levels” used to put bounds around parameters for applications “Profile” is subset of bitstream syntax “Level” constrains parameters within allowed syntax Main Main Level - DVD 4:2:0 I,P,B, bit rates up to 15 Mb/s Main High Level - HDTV 4:2:0 I,P,B, bit rates up to 80 Mb/s Block Diagram of MPEG2 Encoder Present frame DCT Coefficients + DCT Q VLC + - Q-1 “Previous” & “Future” Frames Motion Compensation IDCT Motion Estimation Motion Vectors

13 MPEG2 Video Basics: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)
HDTV/DTV Overview MPEG2 Video Basics: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) Spatial Spatial Image Reconstructed domain 8 x 8 Transform domain domain 8 x 8 DCT -1 Image DCT 8x8 pixels 8x8 coefficients 8x8 pixels DCT is an orthogonal transformation 2-D DCT is separable in x and y dimensions Has good energy compaction properties Close to Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT), which is optimal but depends on image statistics. Efficient hardware realization Theoretically lossless, but slightly lossy in practice due to round off errors Source:Sarnoff Corporation

14 MPEG2 Video Basics: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)
HDTV/DTV Overview MPEG2 Video Basics: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) “DC” horizontal low high 300 137 51 -12 -8 2 -1 -6 59 -94 25 40 3 14 -3 89 -35 -42 17 -2 39 4 -20 -16 -13 5 12 6 7 -14 -4 -7 8 16 1 -5 low 8x8 DCT high vertical frequency coefficients pixels Note: Transform values in this example are for illustration only. 8x8 pixel blocks transformed to 8x8 frequency coefficient blocks Applied to intra-field blocks and motion-compensated (prediction error) blocks Source:Sarnoff Corporation

15 MPEG2 Video Basics: Motion-compensated Prediction
HDTV/DTV Overview MPEG2 Video Basics: Motion-compensated Prediction F Current Macroblock X MVF Previous I or P Picture Current P or B Picture Instead of sending quantized DCT coefficients of X, send: 1. quantized DCT coefficients of X-F (prediction error). If prediction is good, error will be near zero and will need few bits. 2. MVF, the motion vector. This will be differentially coded with respect to its neighboring vector, and will code efficiently. This will typically result in 50% - 80% savings in bits.

16 ATSC Formats 18 formats: 6 HD, 12 SD
HDTV/DTV Overview ATSC Formats “HD0” 18 formats: 6 HD, 12 SD 720 vertical lines and above considered High Definition Choice of supported formats left voluntary due to disagreement between broadcasters and computer industry Computer industry led by Microsoft wants exclusion of interlace and initially use of only those formats which leave bandwidth for data services - “HD0” subset Different picture rates depending on motion content of application 24 frames/sec for film 30 frames/sec for news and live coverage 60 fields/sec, 60 frames/sec for sports and other fast action content 1920 x 60 frames/sec not included because it requires ~100:1 compression to fit in 19.3 Mb/s terrestrial channel, which cannot be done at high quality with MPEG2

17 Aspect Ratios 800 800 600 600 450 4:3 aspect ratio 16:9 aspect ratio
HDTV/DTV Overview Aspect Ratios Two options: 16:9 and 4:3 4:3 standard aspect ratio for US TV and computer monitors HD formats are 16:9 better match with cinema aspect ratio better match for aspect ratio of human visual system better for some text/graphics tasks allows side-by-side viewing of 2 pages 800 800 600 600 450 4:3 aspect ratio 16:9 aspect ratio

18 Aspect Ratios Aspect ratio conversion will be required
HDTV/DTV Overview Aspect Ratios Aspect ratio conversion will be required 4:3 material on 16:9 monitor 16:9 material on 4:3 monitor Several options (shown below) Full Zoom Squeeze 16 x 9 Display Modes 4 x 3 Display Modes Variable Expand Shrink (j) (d) (b) (a) 4 3 (e) (f) (g) (i) (h) 16 9 (c) Video Transmission Format

19 Viewing Distance Versus Resolution
HDTV/DTV Overview Viewing Distance Versus Resolution V E R T I C A L N S PER P U H T. MINIMUM VERTICAL LINES Source: McLaughlin Consulting Group

20 Display Size SDTV vs. HDTV PC vs. TV The widescreen requirement
HDTV/DTV Overview Display Size SDTV vs. HDTV SDTV is adequate for small size TVs (<30 inches) at normal (>2 meters) viewing distances Current PC monitor definition offers excellent HDTV imaging at close viewing distances (<1 meter) However, it may not feel the same as a large screen display even though it subtends the same angle ? Major opportunity for HDTV is for big screens (>>30 inches) viewed at > 2 meters PC vs. TV Both SDTV and HDTV can be displayed on 19”/21” PC monitors Big screens TVs for family entertainment The widescreen requirement Major new requirement of DTV is widescreen format Requires widescreen home PC monitors and SDTVs

21 Interlace vs Progressive
HDTV/DTV Overview Interlace vs Progressive Odd Even Direct-view and projection CRT TVs typically use interlaced scanning, alternating between all odd lines and all even lines Odd & Even CRT monitors and Flat Panel Displays put lines up in consecutive order Reasons for interlacing in NTSC/PAL Conserves bandwidth & storage Maintains frame rate & vertical resolution Minimizes line structure

22 Interlaced Vertical-Temporal Spectrum: 525 Lines @ 60I
HDTV/DTV Overview Interlaced Vertical-Temporal Spectrum: I Spectrum of (NTSC) interlaced video: I is original content, II, III, IV, V are replicas caused by V-T sampling Interlacing artifacts: line twitter/flicker, line crawl, feathering Spatial Freq. (cycles/picture height) 525 II IV C V 262.5 D B E I III A F 30 60 Temporal Freq. (Hz)

23 Progressive Vertical-Temporal Spectrum: 525 Lines at 60P
HDTV/DTV Overview Progressive Vertical-Temporal Spectrum: 525 Lines at 60P Spectrum of (NTSC-like) progressive video: I is original content, II, III, IV are replicas caused by V-T sampling Absence of replica V avoids artifacts created by interlacing Uses 2X as much bandwidth as 60I Spatial Freq. (cycles/picture height) 525 II IV 262.5 I III 30 60 Temporal Freq. (Hz)

24 Addressability vs Resolution
HDTV/DTV Overview Addressability vs Resolution Addressability refers to number of pixels/lines that can be addressed Resolution is number of pixels (lines) that can be resolved Measured as line pairs or TV-lines Resolution is usually less than addressability due to Bandwidth of channel and electronics cables, video amplifiers, etc Characteristics of reconstruction filter (display system) CRTs (horizontally): Gaussian spot described by Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) FPDs (and CRTs in vertical direction): spatially varying this is why NTSC is considered to have ~330 lines of resolution even though there are 480 active lines. # active lines is derated by Kell factor of 0.7 described by Multi-valued Modulation Transfer Function (MMTF) Major implications for design of optimal video display system

25 Interactivity & Data Services
HDTV/DTV Overview Interactivity & Data Services DTV bandwidth can be used for digital data Allows new data enhanced viewing modes instant access to information such as player statistics, profiles of actors, etc. Simulated and actual interactivity real interactivity possible if platform has backchannel Sophisticated electronic programming guide needed to manage much greater choice created by multicast of SDTV streams HDTV channel can be used to send multiple audio/video stream exact number depends on format and content. Infrastructure for data services and interactivity lagging

26 Major Players Content providers Highway providers
HDTV/DTV Overview Major Players Content providers Studios Broadcasters Highway providers Cable Direct Broadcast Satellite Receiver/Platform providers Consumer electronics Computer Technology providers Equipment Semiconductor Supervisors/regulators FCC Congress Consumers

27 Distribution of US TV Viewers
HDTV/DTV Overview Distribution of US TV Viewers Total households ~ 100M ~ M Total TV households ~ 99M ~ M Total Cable subscribers ~ 65M ~ 65-70M Total DBS subscribers ~ 8M ~ 13-20M Total Terrestrial only ~ 25M ~ 20-22M Cable dominates and will continue to do so ~ 2/3 of US viewers

28 Barriers to Rapid Deployment
HDTV/DTV Overview Barriers to Rapid Deployment Source Infrastructure costs New towers, transmitters, antennae Equipment costs Large amount of NTSC equipment Operating costs Higher electricity bills Greater programming costs - chicken & egg problem with viewers vs advertising revenues Existing archives Huge existing archives of material will still need to be used

29 Barriers to Rapid Deployment
HDTV/DTV Overview Barriers to Rapid Deployment Channel Approx 2/3 of US TV households get programming via cable Cable BW is NOT free Huge investments made by cable companies to increase bandwidth More choice (of SD or 480i channels) and data services may offer better ROI than HD programming No “must carry” rules yet Receiver/Display Large high resolution displays are very expensive New electronics is expensive and still evolving Chicken & egg problem volumes vs cost

30 Crossing the Barriers: Source
Upconversion of 480i to ATSC Huge NTSC archive and installed base of NTSC equipment can continue to be used by addition of Digital Format Translator (DFT) which upconverts 480i (NTSC, S-Video, D1, D2) to any ATSC HDTV format in real-time Allows gradual introduction of HD equipment as volumes increase and costs drop 480i Digital Format Translator ATSC formats

31 Crossing the Barriers: Source
Upconversion 480i (NTSC, S-Video, D1, D2) to any ATSC HDTV format in real-time Network Broadcast:Cable:Satellite Video Source Network Digital Switching HD MPEG2 Format Transmission Satellite Uplink Tape Archive Analog or Compressor Translator or Disk Source CCIR601 To Affiliates Fiber TV Affiliate or Cable Operator Broadcast Affiliate Affiliate HD MPEG2 Receiver & Transmission From Compressor Television Tower Satellite Downlink Decompressor Network Video Source Fiber Digital Cable Tape Archive Format Cable System or Disk Source Translator

32 Crossing the Barriers: Channel
Cable adding significant capacity by upgrading to hybrid fiber/coax fiber from headend to node coax from node to homes Premium channels/content might use full HD Channel bandwidth can be conserved by combination of good down/up conversion Cable (and DBS/DSS) control both sides of channel that delivers content to the home ATSC formats ATSC formats 480i or 480p Upconvert Downconvert HDTV/DTV channel Set-Top box inside home Headend or node

33 Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display
Receiver and display currently separated in most offerings Enhanced DTV addressability < 720 lines vertically cost < $5000 direct-view and rear projection usually include line doubler (de-interlacer) Hitachi, Samsung, Panasonic, and many others HDTV-capable full HD addressability cost typically > $5000 no HD receiver HD input from external receiver, often via proprietary interface mainly rear-projection, but some direct-view Mitsubishi HD1080 Diamond Series with 4:3 and 16:9 options, Panasonic, Faroudja, Hitachi, Samsung, and many others HDTV-ready includes HD receiver and possibly others (e.g., DirecTV) mainly rear-projection but some direct view Thomson, Sony, Toshiba, Hitachi, Samsung, and others

34 Receiver/Display Options
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Receiver/Display Options Display options Direct-view CRT TV Rear-projection CRT TV Rear-projection LCDs & DMDs Liquid-Crystal-On-Silicon (LCOS) devices could offer cheap high-def solution Front-projection LCDs & DMDs LCOS Headsets Plasma Direct-view LCD 17”-21” CRT computer monitors rapid decline in price + rapid increase in volumes Receiver options Set-Top Box (STB) simplest option is simple decoding device similar to DSS/Cable STB most popular option under development is low-cost multi-functional computer that can be used for gaming, DVD, digital VCR, interactivity, Internet surfing, etc PC-DTV PC with low cost DTV receiver

35 Set-Top Box Basically a PC-like device
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Set-Top Box Basically a PC-like device Low cost: < 500$ Multi-functional HDTV/DTV tuner, demux, decode, conversions NTSC tuner, decode, upconversion 3D Games DVD player Interactivity & data services Internet surfing Digital VCR Open architecture Not necessarily using Windows or x86 Leveraging PC components and approach PCI bus Graphics and video components leveraged from PC Software APIs to allow ISVs to offer enhanced services DBS/DSS and Cable STBs pursuing similar direction

36 Set-Top Box: System View
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Set-Top Box: System View MTS 100 Stream Player DTV NIM TV Tuner Audio Amplifier HD Digital Disk Recorder S/PDIF In S/PDIF Out Reference SDI In SDI Out Composite Out Svideo Out R (R-Y) G (Y) B (B_Y) S Evaluation RS232 JTAG Tap TL850 CPU Software Development Tools Application Control Program Modem USB/P1394 Smartcard IR/IRDA Telco Remote Control (or IRDA Peripherals) USB Peripherals (Scanners, Keyboards, Joysticks, Printers ) Source:TeraLogic, Inc.

37 Set-Top Box: Structure and I/Fs
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Set-Top Box: Structure and I/Fs Source: TeraLogic Inc. Cougar DTV Reference Platform HW

38 Set-Top Box: SW Architecture
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Set-Top Box: SW Architecture Source: TeraLogic Inc. Cougar DTV Reference Platform SW

39 DTV-STB Receiver Architecture
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display DTV-STB Receiver Architecture SDRAM Descrambler/ CA sub system DTV Decoder HD Video Out DTV Tuner Demodulator Transport Stream Audio Out NTSC NTSC/PAL Decoder CCIR601 Aux. Video Out CCIR601 Digital NTSC/PAL Encoder IIC SC PWM GPIO STB I/O PCI Bus RS-232 Parallel USB IDE PCI Bridge 1394 Link Super I/O EPROM FLASH SDRAM 1394 PHY CPU IR

40 PC-DTV Platform Near-term solution Long-term solution
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV Platform Near-term solution add-in card with HDTV/NTSC tuner and demux/decoder offers HDTV/DTV viewing on conventional CRT computer monitor or HD monitor enhanced services and interactivity possible through other PC HW/SW low cost: likely < 300$ in 2H99 add-in card with HDTV/NTSC tuner HW NTSC decode SW HD demux and decode (with IDCT+Motion Compensation assistance from graphics accelerator - likely by 1H00). very low cost possible: could be < $100 in 1H00 Long-term solution PC-based Integrated Digital Media Platform Modular secure architecture based on compact enclosed receiver modules (Device Bay) with SW acting as bridge between receiver and renderer. Big push by Microsoft in this direction

41 Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display
PC-DTV Add-in Card Add-in card option based on dual-input tuner and HW DTV decoder Could be < $300 in 2H99 Source: TeraLogic Inc.

42 DTV Decoder IC Highly integrated DTV decoder IC
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display DTV Decoder IC Highly integrated DTV decoder IC Comprehensive set of features: transport demux, MPEG2 decode, video processing, 2D graphics for GUI support, display processor, PCI I/F Suitable for STB or PC-DTV Source: TeraLogic Inc.

43 Philips Coney PCI ATSC/NTSC Reference Design
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Philips Coney PCI ATSC/NTSC Reference Design Low cost add-in card option NTSC/ATSC reception with single tuner ATSC transport stream, scaled 656, and BTSC stereo audio sent out via PCI Could be < $100 in high volume

44 PC-DTV: HW/SW Partitioning
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV: HW/SW Partitioning HW/SW partitioning for low cost Coney card option NTSC/CC app/UI DTV app/UI DShow sound AC3 decode Analog/dig tuner driver video decode DShow video renderer VSB demod driver TS demux PCI Bridge WDM Gfx driver Software Hardware Analog TV demod Gfx hardware PCI Bridge h/w assist Tuner Digital TV demod

45 On-chip MPEG acceleration
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV: System View Enhanced programming NTSC Video Audio Data Cable Cable Graphics chip/card 1394 Device Bay or external C.A. Receiver Module 8VSB PCI Receiver Module Analog (MPEG Encoding) Receiver Module On-chip MPEG acceleration 1394 PCI PCI AGP WDM driver WDM driver WDM driver Driver MPEG decode support PC motherboard and software TS split CS create CS store/retrieve CS split

46 PC-DTV: Long-term System Architecture
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV: Long-term System Architecture Receiver functions separate from rendering functions All streams go through Microsoft DirectShow SW layer Cable Video display subsystem Terrestrial Satellite ADSL DirectShow (value adding filters) Audio subsystem Telco ???? Data subsystem DVD Storage (Network) MPEG Enc

47 PC-DTV: Long-term View
Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV: Long-term View Integrated Digital Media Platform (“PC-Inside”) Satellite TV receiver Cable box Atsc box PC inside Telco box A/V receiver Subsumes functionality of some or all of these VCR DVD player Web browser Game console

48 Large volume receiver market
Forecasts Depends on whether PC-based DTV (or PC-like STB-based DTV) can provide quick ramp up in volume PC-DTV add-in cards for $99-$299 coupled with 17”-21” CRT monitors could provide significant early deployment to create the positive spiral needed for fast growth PC & CE industry will try ultimately depends on consumer preferences Traditional approach based on HDTV sets and vanilla HD receivers will be much slower Large installed base of eyeballs Effective advertising Positive spiral Low cost interactive receivers Better free programs Large volume receiver market

49 Summary Transition to HDTV/DTV began with November 98 broadcasts
Current status is 66 stations on air with full facilities, 25 with partial Many barriers to rapid deployment, but most can be overcome Upconversion STB and PC DTV low cost receiver platforms New functionality such as digital recording, interactive television, data services, at low cost could attract high volumes PC/semiconductor industry price pressure could offer price-points as low as $99 (for lowest functionality option). Emerging display technologies such as LCOS, low cost large PC CRT monitors, and enhanced CRT SDTVs could provide high quality viewing options at reasonable cost. Could be a significant opportunity for “enhanced TV” Ultimately will depend on consumer preferences

50 Acknowledgements Speaker gratefully acknowledges material and/or information provided by Chuck McLaughlin, McLaughlin Consulting Group Mark O’Brien, TeraLogic, Inc. Terry Smith, Sarnoff Corporation Dave Marsh, Microsoft Corporation Mark Farley, S3 Incorporated Glen Sakata, Broadcast Group, Faroudja Laboratories

51 References HDTV/DTV “HDTV Status and Prospects”, B. Lechner, SID 1997 Seminar M-10. detailed history of development of HDTV “The Impact of DTV on Television and Computer Displays”, R. Cooke, C. McLaughlin, McLaughlin Consulting Group, December 1998 provides in depth analysis of US market and a detailed product and technology forecast “Opportunities for Displays in the DTV Era”, R. Cooke, C. McLaughlin, McLaughlin Consulting Group, April 1999 abridged version, summarizes market trends and forecasts DTV rollout web site for Advanced Television Systems Committee white papers on set-top box and PC implementations of DTV presentations and white papers on PC-centric DTV web site for FCC - up-to-date information on TV stations DTV transition

52 References MPEG2 PC multimedia architecture Image/Video/Television
“An Introduction to MPEG-2” B. Haskell, A. Puri, A. Netravali, Chapman & Hall, 1997 PC multimedia architecture “Multimedia Accelerators”, N. Balram, SID 1998 Seminar M-7. Datasheets and data books from various multimedia accelerator companies Image/Video/Television “Video Demystified: A Handbook for the Digital Engineer”, K. Jack, HighText Publications, 1993. “Digital Television”, C. P. Sandbank (editor), John Wiley & Sons, 1990. “High Quality Video De-interlacing”, N. Balram, B. Herz, Windows Hardware Engineering Conference (WinHEC98), 1998. “Video Processing for Pixellized Displays”, Y. Faroudja, N. Balram, Proceedings of SID International Symposium, May, 1999. “Principles of Digital Image Synthesis”, Vols 1 & 2, A. Glassner, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1995.

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