Presentation on theme: "IEEE Communications Society Seminar, 10th November 1999"— Presentation transcript:
1 IEEE Communications Society Seminar, 10th November 1999 HDTV/DTV: Technical Overview and Roadmap Dr. Nikhil Balram Vice President of Advanced Technology Faroudja Laboratories, Sunnyvale, CA
2 Overview HDTV/DTV Overview Source Channel Receiver/Display Forecasts History & current statusTechnical overviewMajor playersBarriers to rapid penetration/deploymentSourceChannelReceiver/DisplayForecastsSummaryAcknowledgementsReferencesDisclaimer: All opinions/material presented in this seminar are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of current or past employers. Any trademarks or brand names mentioned here are the properties of their respective holders and are hereby acknowledged.
3 HDTV/DTV Overview History Technical overview Major players Barriers to rapid penetration/deployment
4 HDTV/DTV OverviewHistory1987Broadcasters petition FCC to institute rules for terrestrial HDTV broadcastFCC creates Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Services (ACATS) to gather information and recommend a standard1988US Broadcasters create Advanced Television Test Center (ATTC) to conduct tests of the proposed systems1989/90Cable industry through Cable Television Labs (CableLabs) prepares to test proposed Advanced Television (ATV) systems over cable networks9 systems offered to ATTC for testing: all analog except Zenith hybridFaroudja Labs, MIT, North American Phillips (NAP), Production Services Inc., Zenith Electronics, 2 from David Sarnoff Research Center (DSRC), 2 from Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK)
5 HDTV/DTV OverviewHistory (cont.)1990/91FCC favors simulcast (full HDTV with eventual shutdown of NTSC) versus augmentationShift to digital started by General Instruments (GI) DigiCipher6 systems (4 digital) from different coalitions tested by ATTC1992Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) agrees to coordinate task of documenting standard chosen by FCC1993Analog options eliminatedProponents of the 4 digital systems form Grand Alliance (GA)AT&T, DSRC, GI, MIT, NAP, Thomson Consumer Electronics, Zenith Electronics1994ACATS approves GA system1995/96ATSC documents and approves standard based on GA system
6 HDTV/DTV OverviewHistory (cont.)1996FCC proposes to adopt GA system as documented by ATSCComputer Industry Coalition on Advanced Television Services (CICATS) files strong objection and proposes progressive SDTV with future path to HDTV through an augmentation signalDecFCC adopts ATSC DTV standard except for table 3 with 18 formats (6 HD, 12 SD)1997HDTV rollout schedule agreed toSome stations in top 10 markets to offer some programming by November 1, 1998Top 10 markets (covering 30% of US households) to be on air by May 1, 1999Top 30 markets (covering 50% of US households) to be on air by November 1, 1999All commercial stations on air by May 1, 2002, (public stations get 1 more year)NTSC broadcasting to cease on May 1, 2006, (later changed to whenever 85% of market is using HDTV sets)Nov 1998HDTV broadcasts begin
7 Current Status November 1999 HDTV/DTV OverviewCurrent StatusNovember 1999Overall474 TV stations have filed construction permit applications220 have been granted DTV construction permits66 are on air with full facilities25 are on air with special or experimental DTV authorityTop 10 market network affiliates - 40 stations32 are on air with full facilities8 have requested second extensionsMarkets network affiliates - 79 stations20 are on air with full facilitiesSee for more information
8 Technical Overview Video: Audio: Transport: RF/Transmission: HDTV/DTV OverviewTechnical OverviewVideo:MPEG2 Main High Level18 formats: 6 HD, 12 SDAudio:Dolby AC-3Transport:Subset of MPEG2Fixed length 188-byte packetsRF/Transmission:Terrestrial:8-VSB (Vestigial Side Band) with Trellis codingeffective payload of ~19.3 Mb/s (18.9 Mb/s used for video)Cable:16-VSBeffective payload of ~38.6 Mb/s
9 HDTV/DTV System Layers HDTV/DTV OverviewHDTV/DTV System Layerslayered system with header/descriptors996 Mb/s1920 xPictureLayerMultiple Picture Formatsand Frame RatesCompressionLayerMPEG-2 videoand Dolby AC-3compressionsyntaxDataHeadersMotionVectorsChroma and LumaDCT CoefficientsVariable Length CodesFlexible delivery of dataand future extensabilityPacket HeadersTransportLayerVideo packetAudio packetVideo packetAux dataMPEG-2 packetsTransmissionLayer19.3 Mb/s8-VSBSource:Sarnoff Corporation6 MHz
10 HDTV/DTV MPEG2 Transport HDTV/DTV OverviewHDTV/DTV MPEG2 Transport...packets with header/descriptors enable flexiblility and features...Many services can be dynamically multiplexed and delivered to the viewervideoTEXTvideoaudio 1videovideoaudio 2videovideoPGM GDvideo188 Byte Packet184 Byte Payload (incl. optional Adaptation Header)Video Adaptation Header(variable length)4 BytePacket HeaderTime synchronizationMedia synchronizationRandom access flagBit stream splice point flagPacket syncType of data the packet carriesPacket loss/misordering protectionEncryption controlPriority (optional)Source:Sarnoff Corporation
11 Y Cr Cb 4 5 MPEG2 Video Basics: 1 2 3 B B I B B P B B P B B P Sequence HDTV/DTV OverviewMPEG2 Video Basics:Sequence(Display Order)GOP(Display Order,N=12, M=3)BBIBBPBBPBBPCrYPictureCbSliceNote:Y = LumaCr = Red-YCb = Blue-Y12345MacroBlockY BlocksCr BlockCb BlockSource:Sarnoff Corporation
12 “Previous” & “Future” Frames HDTV/DTV OverviewMPEG2 Video BasicsMPEG2 Profiles/LevelsMPEG specification is generic - intended to cover wide range of applications“Profiles” and “Levels” used to put bounds around parameters for applications“Profile” is subset of bitstream syntax“Level” constrains parameters within allowed syntaxMain Main Level - DVD4:2:0 I,P,B, bit rates up to 15 Mb/sMain High Level - HDTV4:2:0 I,P,B, bit rates up to 80 Mb/sBlock Diagram of MPEG2 EncoderPresent frameDCT Coefficients+DCTQVLC+-Q-1“Previous” & “Future” FramesMotionCompensationIDCTMotionEstimationMotion Vectors
13 MPEG2 Video Basics: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) HDTV/DTV OverviewMPEG2 Video Basics: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)SpatialSpatialImageReconstructeddomain8 x 8Transform domaindomain8 x 8DCT-1ImageDCT8x8 pixels8x8 coefficients8x8 pixelsDCT is an orthogonal transformation2-D DCT is separable in x and y dimensionsHas good energy compaction propertiesClose to Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT), which is optimal but depends on image statistics.Efficient hardware realizationTheoretically lossless, but slightly lossy in practice due to round off errorsSource:Sarnoff Corporation
14 MPEG2 Video Basics: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) HDTV/DTV OverviewMPEG2 Video Basics: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)“DC”horizontallowhigh30013751-12-82-1-659-942540314-389-35-4217-2394-20-16-1351267-14-4-78161-5low8x8DCThighverticalfrequency coefficientspixelsNote: Transform values in this example are for illustration only.8x8 pixel blocks transformed to 8x8 frequency coefficient blocksApplied to intra-field blocks and motion-compensated (prediction error) blocksSource:Sarnoff Corporation
15 MPEG2 Video Basics: Motion-compensated Prediction HDTV/DTV OverviewMPEG2 Video Basics: Motion-compensated PredictionFCurrentMacroblockXMVFPrevious I or P PictureCurrent P or B PictureInstead of sending quantized DCT coefficients of X, send:1. quantized DCT coefficients of X-F (prediction error). If prediction is good, error will be near zero and will need few bits.2. MVF, the motion vector. This will be differentially coded with respect to its neighboring vector, and will code efficiently.This will typically result in 50% - 80% savings in bits.
16 ATSC Formats 18 formats: 6 HD, 12 SD HDTV/DTV OverviewATSC Formats“HD0”18 formats: 6 HD, 12 SD720 vertical lines and above considered High DefinitionChoice of supported formats left voluntary due to disagreement between broadcasters and computer industryComputer industry led by Microsoft wants exclusion of interlace and initially use of only those formats which leave bandwidth for data services - “HD0” subsetDifferent picture rates depending on motion content of application24 frames/sec for film30 frames/sec for news and live coverage60 fields/sec, 60 frames/sec for sports and other fast action content1920 x 60 frames/sec not included because it requires ~100:1 compression to fit in 19.3 Mb/s terrestrial channel, which cannot be done at high quality with MPEG2
17 Aspect Ratios 800 800 600 600 450 4:3 aspect ratio 16:9 aspect ratio HDTV/DTV OverviewAspect RatiosTwo options: 16:9 and 4:34:3 standard aspect ratio for US TV and computer monitorsHD formats are 16:9better match with cinema aspect ratiobetter match for aspect ratio of human visual systembetter for some text/graphics tasksallows side-by-side viewing of 2 pages8008006006004504:3 aspect ratio16:9 aspect ratio
18 Aspect Ratios Aspect ratio conversion will be required HDTV/DTV OverviewAspect RatiosAspect ratio conversion will be required4:3 material on 16:9 monitor16:9 material on 4:3 monitorSeveral options (shown below)FullZoomSqueeze16 x 9 Display Modes4 x 3 Display ModesVariableExpandShrink(j)(d)(b)(a)43(e)(f)(g)(i)(h)169(c)VideoTransmissionFormat
19 Viewing Distance Versus Resolution HDTV/DTV OverviewViewing Distance Versus ResolutionVERTICALNSPERPUHT.MINIMUM VERTICAL LINESSource: McLaughlin Consulting Group
20 Display Size SDTV vs. HDTV PC vs. TV The widescreen requirement HDTV/DTV OverviewDisplay SizeSDTV vs. HDTVSDTV is adequate for small size TVs (<30 inches) at normal (>2 meters) viewing distancesCurrent PC monitor definition offers excellent HDTV imaging at close viewing distances (<1 meter)However, it may not feel the same as a large screen display even though it subtends the same angle ?Major opportunity for HDTV is for big screens (>>30 inches) viewed at > 2 metersPC vs. TVBoth SDTV and HDTV can be displayed on 19”/21” PC monitorsBig screens TVs for family entertainmentThe widescreen requirementMajor new requirement of DTV is widescreen formatRequires widescreen home PC monitors and SDTVs
21 Interlace vs Progressive HDTV/DTV OverviewInterlace vs ProgressiveOddEvenDirect-view and projection CRT TVs typically use interlaced scanning, alternating between all odd lines and all even linesOdd & EvenCRT monitors and Flat Panel Displays put lines up in consecutive orderReasons for interlacing in NTSC/PALConserves bandwidth & storageMaintains frame rate & vertical resolutionMinimizes line structure
22 Interlaced Vertical-Temporal Spectrum: 525 Lines @ 60I HDTV/DTV OverviewInterlaced Vertical-Temporal Spectrum: ISpectrum of (NTSC) interlaced video: I is original content, II, III, IV, V are replicas caused by V-T samplingInterlacing artifacts: line twitter/flicker, line crawl, featheringSpatial Freq. (cycles/picture height)525IIIVCV262.5DBEIIIIAF3060TemporalFreq. (Hz)
23 Progressive Vertical-Temporal Spectrum: 525 Lines at 60P HDTV/DTV OverviewProgressive Vertical-Temporal Spectrum: 525 Lines at 60PSpectrum of (NTSC-like) progressive video: I is original content, II, III, IV are replicas caused by V-T samplingAbsence of replica V avoids artifacts created by interlacingUses 2X as much bandwidth as 60ISpatial Freq. (cycles/picture height)525IIIV262.5IIII3060Temporal Freq. (Hz)
24 Addressability vs Resolution HDTV/DTV OverviewAddressability vs ResolutionAddressability refers to number of pixels/lines that can be addressedResolution is number of pixels (lines) that can be resolvedMeasured as line pairs or TV-linesResolution is usually less than addressability due toBandwidth of channel and electronicscables, video amplifiers, etcCharacteristics of reconstruction filter (display system)CRTs (horizontally): Gaussian spotdescribed by Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)FPDs (and CRTs in vertical direction): spatially varyingthis is why NTSC is considered to have ~330 lines of resolution even though there are 480 active lines. # active lines is derated by Kell factor of 0.7described by Multi-valued Modulation Transfer Function (MMTF)Major implications for design of optimal video display system
25 Interactivity & Data Services HDTV/DTV OverviewInteractivity & Data ServicesDTV bandwidth can be used for digital dataAllows new data enhanced viewing modesinstant access to information such as player statistics, profiles of actors, etc.Simulated and actual interactivityreal interactivity possible if platform has backchannelSophisticated electronic programming guide needed to manage much greater choice created by multicast of SDTV streamsHDTV channel can be used to send multiple audio/video streamexact number depends on format and content.Infrastructure for data services and interactivity lagging
27 Distribution of US TV Viewers HDTV/DTV OverviewDistribution of US TV ViewersTotal households ~ 100M ~ MTotal TV households ~ 99M ~ MTotal Cable subscribers ~ 65M ~ 65-70MTotal DBS subscribers ~ 8M ~ 13-20MTotal Terrestrial only ~ 25M ~ 20-22MCable dominates and will continue to do so~ 2/3 of US viewers
28 Barriers to Rapid Deployment HDTV/DTV OverviewBarriers to Rapid DeploymentSourceInfrastructure costsNew towers, transmitters, antennaeEquipment costsLarge amount of NTSC equipmentOperating costsHigher electricity billsGreater programming costs - chicken & egg problem with viewers vs advertising revenuesExisting archivesHuge existing archives of material will still need to be used
29 Barriers to Rapid Deployment HDTV/DTV OverviewBarriers to Rapid DeploymentChannelApprox 2/3 of US TV households get programming via cableCable BW is NOT freeHuge investments made by cable companies to increase bandwidthMore choice (of SD or 480i channels) and data services may offer better ROI than HD programmingNo “must carry” rules yetReceiver/DisplayLarge high resolution displays are very expensiveNew electronics is expensive and still evolvingChicken & egg problemvolumes vs cost
30 Crossing the Barriers: Source Upconversion of 480i to ATSCHuge NTSC archive and installed base of NTSC equipment can continue to be used by addition of Digital Format Translator (DFT) which upconverts 480i (NTSC, S-Video, D1, D2) to any ATSC HDTV format in real-timeAllows gradual introduction of HD equipment as volumes increase and costs drop480iDigital Format TranslatorATSC formats
31 Crossing the Barriers: Source Upconversion480i (NTSC, S-Video, D1, D2) to any ATSC HDTV format in real-timeNetwork Broadcast:Cable:SatelliteVideo SourceNetworkDigitalSwitchingHD MPEG2FormatTransmissionSatellite UplinkTape ArchiveAnalog orCompressorTranslatoror Disk SourceCCIR601To AffiliatesFiberTV Affiliate or Cable OperatorBroadcastAffiliateAffiliateHD MPEG2Receiver &TransmissionFromCompressorTelevision TowerSatellite DownlinkDecompressorNetworkVideo SourceFiberDigitalCableTape ArchiveFormatCable Systemor Disk SourceTranslator
32 Crossing the Barriers: Channel Cable adding significant capacity by upgrading to hybrid fiber/coaxfiber from headend to nodecoax from node to homesPremium channels/content might use full HDChannel bandwidth can be conserved by combination of good down/up conversionCable (and DBS/DSS) control both sides of channel that delivers content to the homeATSCformatsATSCformats480i or 480pUpconvertDownconvertHDTV/DTVchannelSet-Top box inside homeHeadend or node
33 Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Receiver and display currently separated in most offeringsEnhanced DTVaddressability < 720 lines verticallycost < $5000direct-view and rear projectionusually include line doubler (de-interlacer)Hitachi, Samsung, Panasonic, and many othersHDTV-capablefull HD addressabilitycost typically > $5000no HD receiverHD input from external receiver, often via proprietary interfacemainly rear-projection, but some direct-viewMitsubishi HD1080 Diamond Series with 4:3 and 16:9 options, Panasonic, Faroudja, Hitachi, Samsung, and many othersHDTV-readyincludes HD receiver and possibly others (e.g., DirecTV)mainly rear-projection but some direct viewThomson, Sony, Toshiba, Hitachi, Samsung, and others
34 Receiver/Display Options Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplayReceiver/Display OptionsDisplay optionsDirect-view CRT TVRear-projection CRT TVRear-projection LCDs & DMDsLiquid-Crystal-On-Silicon (LCOS) devices could offer cheap high-def solutionFront-projection LCDs & DMDsLCOS HeadsetsPlasmaDirect-view LCD17”-21” CRT computer monitorsrapid decline in price + rapid increase in volumesReceiver optionsSet-Top Box (STB)simplest option is simple decoding device similar to DSS/Cable STBmost popular option under development is low-cost multi-functional computer that can be used for gaming, DVD, digital VCR, interactivity, Internet surfing, etcPC-DTVPC with low cost DTV receiver
35 Set-Top Box Basically a PC-like device Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplaySet-Top BoxBasically a PC-like deviceLow cost: < 500$Multi-functionalHDTV/DTV tuner, demux, decode, conversionsNTSC tuner, decode, upconversion3D GamesDVD playerInteractivity & data servicesInternet surfingDigital VCROpen architectureNot necessarily using Windows or x86Leveraging PC components and approachPCI busGraphics and video components leveraged from PCSoftware APIs to allow ISVs to offer enhanced servicesDBS/DSS and Cable STBs pursuing similar direction
36 Set-Top Box: System View Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplaySet-Top Box: System ViewMTS 100StreamPlayerDTVNIMTVTunerAudioAmplifierHD DigitalDisk RecorderS/PDIF InS/PDIF OutReferenceSDI InSDI OutComposite OutSvideo OutR (R-Y)G (Y)B (B_Y)SEvaluationRS232JTAG TapTL850CPUSoftware Development ToolsApplication Control ProgramModemUSB/P1394SmartcardIR/IRDATelcoRemote Control(or IRDA Peripherals)USB Peripherals(Scanners, Keyboards,Joysticks, Printers )Source:TeraLogic, Inc.
37 Set-Top Box: Structure and I/Fs Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplaySet-Top Box: Structure and I/FsSource: TeraLogic Inc. Cougar DTV Reference Platform HW
38 Set-Top Box: SW Architecture Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplaySet-Top Box: SW ArchitectureSource: TeraLogic Inc. Cougar DTV Reference Platform SW
39 DTV-STB Receiver Architecture Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplayDTV-STB Receiver ArchitectureSDRAMDescrambler/CA sub systemDTVDecoderHD Video OutDTV TunerDemodulatorTransportStreamAudio OutNTSCNTSC/PAL DecoderCCIR601Aux. Video OutCCIR601 DigitalNTSC/PALEncoderIICSCPWMGPIOSTB I/OPCI BusRS-232ParallelUSBIDEPCI Bridge1394 LinkSuper I/OEPROMFLASHSDRAM1394 PHYCPUIR
40 PC-DTV Platform Near-term solution Long-term solution Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplayPC-DTV PlatformNear-term solutionadd-in card with HDTV/NTSC tuner and demux/decoderoffers HDTV/DTV viewing on conventional CRT computer monitor or HD monitorenhanced services and interactivity possible through other PC HW/SWlow cost: likely < 300$ in 2H99add-in card with HDTV/NTSC tunerHW NTSC decodeSW HD demux and decode (with IDCT+Motion Compensation assistance from graphics accelerator - likely by 1H00).very low cost possible: could be < $100 in 1H00Long-term solutionPC-based Integrated Digital Media PlatformModular secure architecture based on compact enclosed receiver modules (Device Bay) with SW acting as bridge between receiver and renderer.Big push by Microsoft in this direction
41 Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV Add-in CardAdd-in card option based on dual-input tuner and HW DTV decoderCould be < $300 in 2H99Source: TeraLogic Inc.
42 DTV Decoder IC Highly integrated DTV decoder IC Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplayDTV Decoder ICHighly integrated DTV decoder ICComprehensive set of features: transport demux, MPEG2 decode, video processing, 2D graphics for GUI support, display processor, PCI I/FSuitable for STB or PC-DTVSource: TeraLogic Inc.
43 Philips Coney PCI ATSC/NTSC Reference Design Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplayPhilips Coney PCI ATSC/NTSC Reference DesignLow cost add-in card optionNTSC/ATSC reception with single tunerATSC transport stream, scaled 656, and BTSC stereo audio sent out via PCICould be < $100 in high volume
45 On-chip MPEG acceleration Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplayPC-DTV: System ViewEnhanced programmingNTSCVideo Audio DataCableCableGraphics chip/card1394 Device Bay or external C.A. Receiver Module8VSB PCI Receiver ModuleAnalog (MPEG Encoding) Receiver ModuleOn-chip MPEG acceleration1394PCIPCIAGPWDM driverWDM driverWDM driverDriverMPEG decode supportPC motherboard and softwareTS splitCS createCS store/retrieveCS split
46 PC-DTV: Long-term System Architecture Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplayPC-DTV: Long-term System ArchitectureReceiver functions separate from rendering functionsAll streams go through Microsoft DirectShow SW layerCableVideo display subsystemTerrestrialSatelliteADSLDirectShow(value adding filters)Audio subsystemTelco????Data subsystemDVDStorage(Network)MPEG Enc
47 PC-DTV: Long-term View Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/DisplayPC-DTV: Long-term ViewIntegrated Digital Media Platform (“PC-Inside”)Satellite TV receiverCable boxAtsc boxPC insideTelco boxA/V receiverSubsumes functionality of some or all of theseVCRDVD playerWeb browserGame console
48 Large volume receiver market ForecastsDepends on whether PC-based DTV (or PC-like STB-based DTV) can provide quick ramp up in volumePC-DTV add-in cards for $99-$299 coupled with 17”-21” CRT monitors could provide significant early deployment to create the positive spiral needed for fast growthPC & CE industry will tryultimately depends on consumer preferencesTraditional approach based on HDTV sets and vanilla HD receivers will be much slowerLarge installed base of eyeballsEffective advertisingPositive spiralLow cost interactive receiversBetter free programsLarge volume receiver market
49 Summary Transition to HDTV/DTV began with November 98 broadcasts Current status is 66 stations on air with full facilities, 25 with partialMany barriers to rapid deployment, but most can be overcomeUpconversionSTB and PC DTV low cost receiver platformsNew functionality such as digital recording, interactive television, data services, at low cost could attract high volumesPC/semiconductor industry price pressure could offer price-points as low as $99 (for lowest functionality option).Emerging display technologies such as LCOS, low cost large PC CRT monitors, and enhanced CRT SDTVs could provide high quality viewing options at reasonable cost.Could be a significant opportunity for “enhanced TV”Ultimately will depend on consumer preferences
50 AcknowledgementsSpeaker gratefully acknowledges material and/or information provided byChuck McLaughlin, McLaughlin Consulting GroupMark O’Brien, TeraLogic, Inc.Terry Smith, Sarnoff CorporationDave Marsh, Microsoft CorporationMark Farley, S3 IncorporatedGlen Sakata, Broadcast Group, Faroudja Laboratories
51 ReferencesHDTV/DTV“HDTV Status and Prospects”, B. Lechner, SID 1997 Seminar M-10.detailed history of development of HDTV“The Impact of DTV on Television and Computer Displays”, R. Cooke, C. McLaughlin, McLaughlin Consulting Group, December 1998provides in depth analysis of US market and a detailed product and technology forecast“Opportunities for Displays in the DTV Era”, R. Cooke, C. McLaughlin, McLaughlin Consulting Group, April 1999abridged version, summarizes market trends and forecasts DTV rolloutweb site for Advanced Television Systems Committeewhite papers on set-top box and PC implementations of DTVpresentations and white papers on PC-centric DTVweb site for FCC - up-to-date information on TV stations DTV transition
52 References MPEG2 PC multimedia architecture Image/Video/Television “An Introduction to MPEG-2” B. Haskell, A. Puri, A. Netravali, Chapman & Hall, 1997PC multimedia architecture“Multimedia Accelerators”, N. Balram, SID 1998 Seminar M-7.Datasheets and data books from various multimedia accelerator companiesImage/Video/Television“Video Demystified: A Handbook for the Digital Engineer”, K. Jack, HighText Publications, 1993.“Digital Television”, C. P. Sandbank (editor), John Wiley & Sons, 1990.“High Quality Video De-interlacing”, N. Balram, B. Herz, Windows Hardware Engineering Conference (WinHEC98), 1998.“Video Processing for Pixellized Displays”, Y. Faroudja, N. Balram, Proceedings of SID International Symposium, May, 1999.“Principles of Digital Image Synthesis”, Vols 1 & 2, A. Glassner, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1995.
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