Presentation on theme: "Ou Liang, Ahmet Sekercioglu and Nallasamy Mani"— Presentation transcript:
1Gateway Multipoint Relays — an MPR-based Broadcast Algorithm For Ad Hoc Networks Ou Liang, Ahmet Sekercioglu and Nallasamy ManiDepartment of Electrical and Computer Systems EngineeringMonash University, Australia
2Sections Broadcasting in wireless ad hoc networks. Multipoint Relays (MPRs).Our new algorithm.Conclusion and future work.
3Broadcasting in wireless ad hoc networks Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Broadcasting in wireless ad hoc networksIt is commonly used in routing protocols.As a necessary mechanism in various applications that need to maintain global network information (paging a particular host or sending alarm signals).
4Network wide broadcast in ad hoc networks Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Network wide broadcast in ad hoc networksDue to the limitation of radio power, a mobile node may not be within the transmission range of all other nodes. Therefore, broadcast packets have to be relayed by other recipient nodes.S
5Proposed broadcast algorithms Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Proposed broadcast algorithmsGenerally, broadcast algorithms in ad hoc networks can be categorized into five groups :Probability based algorithms.Distance based algorithms.Location based algorithms.Neighbor-designating algorithms.Cluster based algorithms.
6Neighbor–designating algorithms Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Neighbor–designating algorithmsEach node informs neighbor nodes about its node information such as node IDs of neighbor nodes.A node determines whether its neighbors should forward broadcast packets.
7Neighbor–designating example Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Neighbor–designating exampleNode S chooses its neighbors A, B and C to relay broadcast packets.BSAC
8Cluster based algorithms Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Cluster based algorithmsNetwork is clustered and cluster-heads are elected. Cluster-heads are referred to as dominators.Cluster-heads select some connectors to connect other cluster-heads.
10Multipoint Relays (MPRs) Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Multipoint Relays (MPRs)It is a broadcast mechanism used in the Optimized Link State Routing protocol (OLSR) [2, 3] , and it belongs to the family of neighbor–designating algorithms.Each node selects a subset of nodes from its one-hop neighbors to cover all its two-hop neighbors.
12Our Gateway Multipoint Relays (GMPR) Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Our Gateway Multipoint Relays (GMPR)It is a combination of Clustering and Multipoint Relay methods.Each node in the network can be in one of the four states: dominator, dominatee, connector and candidate.Dominator: It is the cluster-head, and it performs MPR calculation.Dominatee: The nodes connected by dominators.Node statesConnector: Can only be entered from dominatee state.Candidate: Initial state that attends dominator election.
13Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Operations of GMPRDominators (nodes that covers most number of candidates) are elected in the network where all nodes can be covered by the dominators.Each dominator selects MPRs to cover its two-hop neighbor nodes.An MPR is a connector if it is selected by the largest dominator of this MPR.Only dominators and connectors forward broadcast packets.
14Gateway Multipoint Relays example Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Gateway Multipoint Relays exampleElect dominators based on the candidate coverage.Dominators calculate MPRs to cover two-hop neighbor nodes.Each MPR decides whether it is the connector.Selected by “H”Selected by “H”IEAJHFSelected by “P”TBDKSelected by “D”CLPGOMSelected by “P”NSelected by “D”
15Self-pruning procedure Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Self-pruning procedureAim:To further reduce retransmissions by preventing leaf-dominators forwarding broadcast packets.A dominator D is a leaf-dominator if it has a one-hop connector that can cover all D’s one-hop neighbors.A leaf-dominator is referred to as the Silent-dominator, which still selects MPRs but does not retransmit broadcast packets.
16Self-pruning procedure example Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Self-pruning procedure exampleAfter selecting connectorsDominators: E, HConnector: FAGBEFHThen Both dominators apply self-pruning procedure, and H becomes a silent-dominator.CID
17Simulation studies Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Simulator OMNeT++ with Mobility Framework.MAC protocolAssume a perfect MAC layer (error and collision free).Network area100m x 100m two dimensional area.Topology generatingRandomly distribute nodes in the area. Each node is placed within the transmission range of a previously placed node to make sure connectivity.Number of nodesRange from 20 to 100.Transmission rangeTwo transmission ranges: 25m and 50m.Number of runsA sufficient number of runs are conducted to achieve 95% confidence interval within a ±5% margin.
18Transmission range R = 25m Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Simulation resultsTransmission range R = 25m
19Transmission range R = 50m Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Simulation resultsTransmission range R = 50m
20Conclusion and future work Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Conclusion and future workWe have proposed a new efficient broadcast algorithm based on the Multipoint Relays and clustering methods. Simulation studies show that compared with related work, our algorithm generates fewer forwarding nodes thus reducing retransmissions and collisions.Future work: investigate the performance of our algorithm in both dense and mobile environment.
21References. J. Wu and F. Dai, “A generic distributed broadcast scheme in ad hoc wireless networks,” in Proceedings of MOBIHOC, 2002, pp. A. Laouiti, A. Qayyum, and L. Viennot, “Multipoint relaying: an efficient technique for flooding in mobile wireless networks,” in 35th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences HICSS’2001..T. Clausen and P. Jacquet, “Optimized link state routing protocol (OLSR),” RFC 3626, Oct [online]. Available:
24Probability based algorithms Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Probability based algorithmsIt is similar to the “blind flooding”, but each node rebroadcast a packet with a predetermined probability value “P”.Problems:Can not guarantee full coverage in the network.Has little effect on in sparse network.
25Distance based algorithms Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Distance based algorithmsA node retransmit a broadcast packet if the distance between it and the sender of the packet is larger than a predefined threshold distance.Problems:Energy wastage (unnecessary broadcast)Cannot guarantee full coveraged1d2SAB
26Location based algorithms Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Location based algorithmsUse positioning devices such as GPS (Global Positioning System) to provide precise locations of hosts in a network.Additional coverageA host retransmits a broadcast packet if the additional area it covers is larger than a threshold value.d1d2SAB