Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1998-05-21LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance1 Learning Technology Systems Architecture -- Overview LTSA 4.00 Frank Farance Farance/Edutool 1998-05-21

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1998-05-21LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance1 Learning Technology Systems Architecture -- Overview LTSA 4.00 Frank Farance Farance/Edutool 1998-05-21"— Presentation transcript:

1 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance1 Learning Technology Systems Architecture -- Overview LTSA 4.00 Frank Farance Farance/Edutool Slides and Document:

2 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance2 Overview Review of goals Abstraction-Implementation Layers Review of each layer Demonstration of perspectives What does conformance mean? Open issues

3 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance3 Review of goals Identify common components Identify critical interfaces Widespread applicability: –platform-neutral –content-neutral –pedagogically-neutral

4 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance4 Architecture Definition And Purpose LTSA 4.0 specification: [Excerpt:] In general, the purpose of developing systems architectures is to discover high-level frameworks for understanding certain kinds of systems, their subsystems, and their interactions with related systems....

5 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance5 Architecture Definition And Purpose (contd) [Excerpt contd:] … An architecture isn't a blue print for designing a single system, but a framework for designing a range of systems over time, and for the analysis and comparison of these systems. …

6 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance6 Architecture Definition And Purpose (contd) [Excerpt contd:] … By revealing the shared components of different systems at the right level of generality, an architecture promotes the design and implementation of components and subsystems that are reusable, cost- effective, and adaptable.

7 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance7 Abstraction-Implementation Layers The Groupings -- abstractions vs. implementations The Priorities -- ordering The Notations -- text, system, bus The LTSA Layers -- five layers

8 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance8 Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The Groupings Organize engineering details into several groupings from high-level (coarse granularity) to low-level (fine granularity) Groupings are called layers Layers above are called abstractions Layers below are called implementations

9 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance9 Information Inclusion Organize raw details as: good, borderline, and bad examples Raw DetailsBad Good Borderline

10 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance10 Information Exclusion Essential vs. Non-Essential Details: Depends on Context BrowserServer Web Content BrowserServer Web Content User Request (Pull) BrowserServer Web Content Server Initiated (Push) BrowserServer Web Content HTMLCGI #1: Minimal Details, Only Data Flow #3: (Again) More Details, Control Flow #2: More Details, Control Flow #4: More Details, Related Subsystems

11 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance11 Architecture Abstraction Hierarchy Reference Model (Belz, Suthers, Wheeler) Application Model Abstract System Model - Interaction Model - Conceptual Model Abstract Implementation Model Resource Model LTSA Layer 1; IEEE LTSA Layer 2; IEEE ; AICC LTSA Layer 4; IEEE ; IMS; AICC LTSA Layer 5; IEEE , , , , , , , , ; IMS; AICC, ARIADNE No category: IEEE , LTSA Layer 3; IEEE ; IMS

12 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance12 Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The Priorities High-level design issues have most pervasive effect on design: first priority Low-level design issues are localized: consider these issues later Example: building a house –High-level (higher design priority): layout and number of rooms –Low-level (leave till later): choosing wallpaper

13 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance13 Iterative Abstraction Design Priorities: Colors (high), Shapes (medium), Raw Details Raw Details Abstraction of Raw Details: Shapes (Arrow, Box, Star) Abstraction of Shapes: Colored Polygons (Red, Green, Blue)

14 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance14 Iterative Implementation Design Priorities: Colors (high), Shapes (medium), Raw Details Implementation of Colored Shapes: Constraints: Arrows Connected to Polygons Implementation of Shapes with Constraints: Red, Green, Blue Implementation of Colored Polygons with Constraints: Eight or fewer sides

15 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance15 Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The Notations High-level: systems (Yourdon) diagrams –Process (oval), store (box), flow (arrow) –Static connections (flows) identify functional decomposition Low-level: bus diagrams –Bus (bar), connector (line), system (box) –Dynamic, point-to-point connections for on-demand, arbitrary component communication

16 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance16 Systems Notation: Processes, Stores, Flows Data Process Control Process One-Way Control Flow One-Way Data Flow Two-Way Control Flow Two-Way Data Flow Data Store Control Store

17 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance17 Bus Notation Common naming Common control flow (initiating transactions) Non-homogeneous data flow (different transactions) Dynamic, on-demand connections

18 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance18 Bus Notation: General Concepts - Common naming - Common control flow - Non-homogeneous data flow - Dynamic, on-demand connections P Q R S Each member of bus has unique name and shares namespace

19 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance19 Bus Notation: General Concepts - Common naming - Common control flow - Non-homogeneous data flow - Dynamic, on-demand connections P Q R S Each member uses same protocol to request or respond to transactions

20 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance20 Bus Notation: General Concepts - Common naming - Common control flow - Non-homogeneous data flow - Dynamic, on-demand connections P Q R S Common control protocol, but different data protocols Example: P Q uses FTP, but P R uses HTTP FTP over TCP/IP bus HTTP over TCP/IP bus

21 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance21 Bus Notation: General Concepts - Common naming - Common control flow - Non-homogeneous data flow - Dynamic, on-demand connections P Q R S No permanent connections among members of bus; each transaction is a connection Examples: 1. Q sends to P 2. P broadcasts to all 3. R sends to Q

22 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance22 Systems vs. Bus Notation Systems notation useful for: –Small number of components –Dedicated functions for each component –Useful for LTSA layers 1, 3, and 4 Bus notation useful for: –Large number of components –Dynamic, on-demand connections between components –Useful for LTSA layer 5

23 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance23 Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The LTSA Layers LTSA from high-level to low-level: –Layer 1: Learner and environment interactions –Layer 2: Human-centered features –Layer 3: System components –Layer 4: Stakeholder perspectives –Layer 5: Operational components

24 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance24 Layer 1: Learner And Environment Interactions Learner interacts with environment as part of a learning experience Learner Teacher Other Students* Books Library Coach Mentor Collaboration* School Other Employees* Internet/Web Television Lab Parent Computers Employer Newspaper Multimedia * See later slide: collaboration is internal to Learner

25 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance25 Layer 1: Learner and Environment: How Environment Effects Learner Primary Focus: the effect of environment on the learner, not the effect of learner on the environment Learner can have important effects on environment (research, teaching teachers, etc.), but is not primary technical focus of learning technology

26 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance26 Layer 1: Learner and Environment: Collaboration: Internal to Learner LTSA learner (abstraction) can represent one or more students (humans). Collaboration among students is internal to learner Thus, from an information technology perspective, all learner interaction is from the environment to the learner, i.e., inbound information

27 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance27 Layer 1: Learner and Environment Learning Interactions: Input to Learner Primary Focus: technology issues, i.e., the flow of information, not pedagogy Environment Student Learner Collaboration Learning Interactions

28 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance28 Layer 2: Human-Centered Features Limitations => Effect on Design Humans receive the learning experience (human learning), not computers (machine learning) Human communication: fundamental limitations has pervasive effect on design Environment Learning Interactions Learner Learner is not a computer. Human learners have limitations -- complicates receiving information from learning interactions.

29 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance29 Layer 2: Human-Centered Features Why humans arent computers Humans arent reliable receivers of information: –Humans mishear or dont hear at all –Retransmission is necessary Humans arent predictable receivers of information: –Humans hear different than desired –Different strategies are necessary

30 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance30 Layer 2: Human-Centered Features Why humans arent computers (contd) Humans learn differently (and over time): –Humans differently from each other –Same human may learn differently over time –Need intelligent customization, configuration –Need rich knowledge library for diverse humans Negotiate learner styles: –Learner alone or system coach alone cannot determine best learning style

31 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance31 Layer 2: Human-Centered Features Constructing LTSA System Components #1: Start with human sensory input: multimedia delivery to learner (similar to entertainment) #2: Add feedback loop for human unreliability #3: Add records database for varying teachers, infer intelligently about student capability #4: Add rich knowledge library, search, and lookup for diversity of humans #5: Add negotiated learning styles

32 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance32 Step #1: Transferring Information Transfer information to Learner Sensory input/interactions for humans Delivery of Multimedia: same as entertainment Delivery Learner Multimedia

33 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance33 Step #2: Feedback/Coaching Loop Feedback necessary, humans are unreliable receivers, e.g., they dont hear what you tell them Current state of feedback loop: Behavior, Evaluation, Assessment Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach MultimediaBehavior A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

34 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance34 Step #2: Feedback/Coaching Loop (contd) System Coach: determines corrective actions Locator Index: –e.g., next lesson (Learning Content) towards objective –directs Delivery of Multimedia to Learner Loop recovers from errors, focuses on target Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach MultimediaBehavior A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

35 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance35 Step #3: Records Database Performance information –helps infer corrective action over long periods of time –nomadic students: allows student migration (handoff) to different teachers (e.g, grade promotion) and different institutions Records Database: Learners history, objectives Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Records Database Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

36 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance36 Step #4: Knowledge Library Humans are unpredictable and diverse Knowledge libraries necessary to match human diversity System Coach: –directs different learning styles and strategies –based on Learners history, objectives, and Assessment –supported via queries to Knowledge Library for appropriate Learning Content Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

37 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance37 Step #5: Advice from the Learner Humans are self-aware: can give advice on learner styles Learning Styles: –interaction between Learner and system to negotiate different learning styles –negotiation might actually be assertion: Learner may assert (e.g., experimentation), or system coach may assert (e.g., primary school might dictate learning style) Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

38 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance38 Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features #1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Knowledge Library: varying/diverse student capabilities #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

39 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance39 Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features #1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

40 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance40 Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features #1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

41 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance41 Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features #1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

42 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance42 Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features #1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

43 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance43 Layer 3: System Components Processes: Learner, Evaluation, System Coach, Delivery Stores: Records Database, Knowledge Library Flows: Behavior, Assessment, Performance (past, present, future), Indexes (query, content, and locator), Learning Content, Multimedia, Learning Style Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

44 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance44 Learner (process, human) Abstraction of student Can represent more than one student Learner: –Receives Multimedia –Emits Behavior –Negotiates Learning Style Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

45 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance45 Learning Styles (data flow) Learners preference as input to system System Coach can negotiate and/or restrict Learners preferences Surrogates: e.g., parent learner, teacher system Other possible surrogates: e.g., parent system, student system, mentor learner Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

46 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance46 Behavior (data flow) Observable Behavior of the Learner, coded, and sent to the Evaluation process Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

47 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance47 Evaluation (process) Evaluation: –Receives Behavior –Receives Learning Content (context of Learners Behavior) –Stores Performance info based on Evaluation of Behavior –Produces Assessment given to System Coach Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

48 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance48 Performance Information Stored By Evaluation (data flow) Evaluation of Behavior: can emit Performance info Stored in Records Database Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

49 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance49 Records Database (data store) Stores Performance information as Learner history Retrieves and stores Learner history records for System Coach Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

50 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance50 Performance Information Received By System Coach (data flow) System Coach gets Learner history by retrieving Performance information from Learners Records Database Can select strategies based on history Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

51 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance51 Performance Information Stored By System Coach (data flow) System Coach can store Performance information, too: –bookmarks (incomplete sessions) –certifications (milestones, completion of module) –objectives (outlines for future sessions) Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

52 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance52 Assessment Information (data flow) Evaluation process can emit Assessments: where there student is at System Coach can use Assessment information, along with other information, to select appropriate learning experience Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

53 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance53 System Coach (process) Sends, receives, and negotiates Learning Style with Learner Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x 1 1

54 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance54 System Coach (process) Receives current Assessment information and Performance information (history and objectives) for future learning experiences Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

55 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance55 System Coach (process) Queries to the Knowledge Library: –Query Indexes sent to search for appropriate material –Content Indexes (metadata) returned as found Learning Content –Extracts the Locator Indexes (e.g., URLs) from the returned Content Indexes (metadata) Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x 4 4

56 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance56 System Coach (process) Locator Indexes (similar to web URLs) are sent to Delivery process to identify (not transfer) Learning Content Note: Delivery is responsible for retrieving and Knowledge Library is responsible for transferring Learning Content Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x 5 5

57 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance57 Query Indexes (data flow) Query Index specifies what to search for in Knowledge Library System Coach sends Query Indexes to search the Knowledge Library for appropriate Learning Content, based on Assessment info and Performance info from Records Database Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

58 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance58 Knowledge Library (data store) Database searched via Query Index Returns Content Indexes (metadata) of Learning Content that matches the Query Index Emits Learning Content based on Locator Index from Delivery process Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

59 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance59 Content Index -- Metadata (data flow) Search of Knowledge Library returns Content Indexes (metadata) for Learning Content that matches Query Index Content Indexes (metadata) are similar to card catalog entries in a library Locator Indexes (e.g., URLs) can be extracted from Content Indexes (metadata) Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

60 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance60 Locator Index (data flow) System Coach extracts Locator Index from the Content Index for appropriate learning experience Locator Index is similar to call number in a library, and similar to URL of the World Wide Web Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

61 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance61 Learning Content Received By Delivery (data flow) Delivery Process sends a Locator Index to the Knowledge Library pointing to Learning Content Knowledge Library returns Learning Content to Delivery process Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

62 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance62 Delivery (process) Receives Locator Index (e.g., URLs) that identify learning experiences desired by the System Coach Transforms Learning Content to Multimedia Sends Learning Content to Evaluation to give context of Learners Behavior Sends interactive Multimedia to the Learner Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

63 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance63 Learning Content Sent By Delivery (data flow) Delivery process sends Learning Content to Evaluation to give context of Learners Behavior Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

64 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance64 Multimedia (data flow) Delivery process generates Multimedia learning experience based on Learning Content Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

65 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance65 Functional vs. Actual Learning Technology Systems LTSA components identify functional boundaries and critical interfaces Actual systems integrate several components into individual products Functionality exists in actual systems but may be embedded within larger system (several components combined) or single component spread across several systems

66 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance66 Actual Implementation Example #1: Web-Based Learning Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x Human Human Interface (e.g., X Windows Win95) Presentation Tool (browser) Courseware Database (web servers) Student Records (database) Abstraction Implementation

67 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance67 Actual Implementation Example #1: Web-Based Learning Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x Human Human Interface (e.g., X Windows Win95) Presentation Tool (browser) Courseware Database (web servers) Student Records (database) Abstraction Implementation

68 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance68 Actual Implementation Example #2: Flight Simulator, Flight Instructor Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x Flight Instructor Flight Simulator Pilots Logbook Abstraction Implementation Pilot

69 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance69 Actual Implementation Example #3: Non-Electronic, Traditional Classroom Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x Teacher Report Cards, Transcript Abstraction Implementation Student School Library Student Uses Library Teacher Points Student To Books (A Locator Index) Retrieves Teaching Materials Grades

70 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance70 Actual Implementation Example #4: Home Study Course Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x School Home Study Course Student Abstraction Implementation

71 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance71 Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives Each stakeholder has a view, but not complete picture Show each stakeholder perspective within LTSA Stakeholder perspectives used to validate views and subsets of LTSA components Its in there! (if not, let us know!)

72 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance72 Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives (contd) Stakeholder perspectives analyzed by: –Primary design issues: LTSA components that greatly affect design and implementation for stake holder (shown as red/bold) –Secondary design issues: LTSA components that affect design and implementation of stake-holder, but not critical (shown as blue/dash ---) –Other LTSA components: insignificant design issue or not applicable (no highlight/green fill)

73 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance73 Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives (contd) Stakeholders, typically, have different and/or incompatible priorities Differing priorities: obstacles to consensus Non-technical (political, business) issues just as important as technical issues Cataloging stakeholder perspectives is critical for building consensus

74 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance74 Abstraction-Implementation: System Components ==> Stakeholder/Design Perspectives Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x Abstraction Implementation Various Stakeholder/Design Perspectives Learner, Assessment, Institution, Metadata, Intelligent Tutor, Mentoring, Collaboration, Ontology, Task, etc.

75 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance75 Isolated LTSA Stakeholders Isolated LTSA subsets -- little interaction with neighboring LTSA components Little overlap with other isolated stakeholders Relatively simple integration Can make use of isolated component standards Best stakeholder examples: Records, Metadata, Multimedia

76 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance76 Learner-Centered Primary: learner keeps his/her records, learner has influence on negotiated learning style Secondary: assessment and performance info Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

77 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance77 Assessment-Centered Primary: educational standards, behavior, evaluation, assessment records, records database reporting Secondary: learning style, learner, system control (adaptive administration) Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

78 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance78 Records, Certifications Primary: records database, performance info Secondary: evaluation, assessment info, system coach Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

79 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance79 Task Model, School-To-Work Primary: records database Secondary: performance info Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

80 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance80 Institution-Centered Primary: system control, administration, records, reporting, negotiating (many times: asserting) learning style Secondary: learner collaboration, teachers, evaluation (grading), delivery infrastructure (including multimedia and behavior observation correlated by learning content) Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

81 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance81 Content-Centered Primary: delivery, multimedia, invocation via locator index (e.g., URLs), learning content format Secondary: assessment, content search (query index, content index), knowledge library, learners user interface Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

82 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance82 Metadata Primary: query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), and associating locator indexes with content indexes Secondary: knowledge organization, learning content (presentation) Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

83 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance83 Ontologies, Expert Systems Primary: knowledge design and knowledge representation in knowledge library, learning content (presentation) Secondary: query index (search), content index (metadata), and locator index (e.g., URLs) Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

84 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance84 Learning Objects Primary: knowledge library, query index (search), content index (metadata), learning content (presentation) Secondary: evaluation, performance info and database, assessment info, system coach, locator index (e.g., URLs) Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

85 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance85 Multimedia Primary: delivery, multimedia, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), hardware limitations Secondary: system coach, knowledge library, learning content format, behavior Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

86 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance86 Collaboration, Asynchronous Learning Primary: communication among students with same roles (collective learner), communication modes (multimedia), delivery tools, and differing time zones Secondary: system control by coordinator/moderator, learning style negotiated among participants and coordinator/moderator Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

87 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance87 Multiple Role, Team Learning Primary: communication among students, but different roles (collective learner), communication modes (multimedia), delivery tools, and differing time zones Secondary: system control by coordinator/moderator, learning style negotiated among participants and coordinator/moderator Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

88 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance88 Overlapping LTSA Stakeholders Concerns many, most, or all LTSA components Overlaps with other stakeholders Differing, conflicting designs priorities Relatively complex integration Potential non-technical, political, or business obstacles to consensus and interoperability Best stakeholder examples: Experimentation, Intelligent Tutoring Tools, Distance Learning

89 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance89 Mentoring, Coaching Primary: learner and mentor/coach jointly perform evaluation and jointly choose direction Secondary: tools and delivery support mentoring, coaching, experimentation, recordkeeping Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

90 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance90 Interactive Environment Primary: learner directs style, learner is observed, delivery is responsive to evaluation Secondary: assessment info, system coach, locator index (e.g., URLs) Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

91 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance91 Simulation Primary: delivery, multimedia, learning content to correlate multimedia and behavior, assessment info, system coach, locator index Secondary: behavior, performance info, records database Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

92 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance92 Learning Tool-To-Tool Communication Primary: system coach, evaluation, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), delivery, invocation Secondary: multimedia, learning style, performance info, records database, knowledge library, learning content Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

93 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance93 Sequencing, Pre-Requisites, Co-Requisites Primary: system coach, evaluation, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), delivery, invocation Secondary: multimedia, learning style, performance info, records database, knowledge library, learning content Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

94 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance94 Experimentation, Discovery Primary: learner chooses direction, acquires knowledge during experimentation, learner, system coach, query index (search), content index (metadata) Secondary: learner does self evaluation, tools and delivery support experimentation, behavior, assessment info, locator index (e.g., URLs), delivery, multimedia Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

95 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance95 Intelligent Tutoring Tools Primary: learner chooses direction, acquires knowledge during use of tutoring tool, knowledge library may be implicit (not explicitly defined) in tutor Secondary: tutor does evaluation, tools and delivery support experimentation Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

96 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance96 Distance Learning, Distributed Learning Primary: distributed and nomadic communication of all flows (behavior, performance, multimedia, etc.) Secondary: processes and stores components NOTE: Take note of primary design issues (red/bold) –How does this slide differ from all others? –Answer: All flows are primary, everything else is secondary Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

97 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance97 Parallel LTSA Stakeholders Integration of multiple sessions, each with differing learning experiences and interactions Synchronization of multiple sessions: starting, stopping, coaching, learner interfacing Integration, collaboration, and synchronization of feedback and coaching strategies Best stakeholder example: Student Teacher

98 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance98 Parallel Sessions for Same Learner Primary: multiple, simultaneous learning experiences; multiple flows of behavior, learning style, multimedia Secondary: multiple evaluation, system coach, and delivery processes Example: flight simulator -- simultaneous training of flying skills, navigation skills, communication skills, cockpit resource management

99 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance99 Student Teacher Primary: student teacher as a teacher Secondary: student teacher as a student Student Teacher

100 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance100 Multi-Tiered Process Improvement Student is evaluated by teacher, teacher coaches student Teacher is evaluated by principal, principal coaches teacher Principal is evaluated by school board, school board coaches principal Teacher is also evaluated by performance of his/her students Principal is also evaluated by performance of his/her students Student Teacher Principal

101 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance101 Standards and Specification Development Organizations ISOANSI IEEE (LTSC) 1484 AICCARIADNEIMS ADL Requirements Specs From Consortia IEEE, ANSI, ISO: Accredited Standards Requirements Specs Liaising

102 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance102 IEEE 1484 As A Stakeholder (IEEE 1484 Roadmap) IEEE 1484 working groups (WGs) and study groups (SGs) each involve certain areas of LTSA Some LTSA components should not be standardized, e.g., evaluation methods, delivery systems Some LTSA components should be standardized outside 1484, e.g., multimedia, education standards, cultural adaptation More info:

103 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance103 IEEE : Architecture and Reference Model WG Primary: all components Secondary: none Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

104 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance104 IEEE : Learner Model WG Primary: learner, negotiated learning style, evaluation, performance info, assessment info, system coach Secondary: behavior Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

105 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance105 IEEE : Glossary WG Primary: none Secondary: all components Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

106 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance106 IEEE : Task Model WG Primary: records database Secondary: performance info Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

107 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance107 IEEE : Course Sequencing WG Primary: system coach, performance info, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary: learning style, records database, knowledge library, delivery, learning content Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

108 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance108 IEEE : Tool/Agent Communication WG Primary: system coach, behavior, evaluation, assessment info, performance info, records database, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs) Secondary: query index (search), content index (metadata), knowledge library, delivery Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

109 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance109 IEEE : Task Ontology WG Primary: knowledge library, learning content (presentation) Secondary: query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs) Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

110 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance110 IEEE : CBT Data Interchange WG Primary: system coach, performance info, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary: learning style, behavior, records database, knowledge library, learning content, delivery Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

111 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance111 IEEE : Computer Managed Instruction WG Primary: performance info, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary: behavior, records database, system coach, knowledge library, learning content, delivery Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

112 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance112 IEEE : Learning Objects Metadata WG Primary: query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs) Secondary: system coach, knowledge library, learning content, delivery Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

113 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance113 IEEE : Student Identifiers SG Primary: performance info, records database Secondary: learner, system coach Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

114 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance114 Other Specification Development Organizations As Stakeholders Educoms Instructional Management Systems (IMS) Project Aviation Industry CBT Committee DoD Advanced Distributed Learning European Union ARIADNE Project

115 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance115 Educoms Instructional Management Systems (IMS) Project Main areas of development: –Metadata: learning technology metadata –Content objects: learning content, course structure –Management systems: collaboration, reporting –Profiles: student records –External services: interface to institution More info:

116 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance116 IMS Metadata Primary: content index (metadata) and associating locator indexes with content indexes Secondary: query index (search), locator index (e.g., URLs), knowledge organization in knowledge library Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

117 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance117 IMS Content Objects Primary: knowledge library, content index (metadata), learning content (presentation) Secondary: evaluation, performance info, assessment info, system coach, locator index (e.g., URLs), delivery Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

118 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance118 IMS Management System Primary: learner, system coach, performance info, locator index (e.g., URLs) Secondary: negotiated learning style, records database, content index (metadata), knowledge library, delivery Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

119 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance119 IMS Profiles Primary: records database, performance info Secondary: evaluation, assessment info, system coach Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

120 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance120 IMS External Services Primary: records database, student registration, institution back office Secondary: performance info Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

121 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance121 Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) Develops guidelines and recommendations for CBT in aviation applications Subject areas: Courseware Delivery Stations, Digital Audio, Operating Windowing System, CBT Peripheral Devices, Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), Courseware Interchange, Digital Video, Icon Standards More info:

122 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance122 AICC AGR003: Digital Audio Primary: multimedia Secondary: delivery Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

123 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance123 AICC AGR005: CBT Peripheral Devices Primary: behavior, delivery, multimedia Secondary: learner Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

124 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance124 AICC AGR006: Computer Managed Instruction Primary: performance info, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary: behavior, records database, system coach, knowledge library, learning content, delivery Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

125 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance125 AICC AGR007: Courseware Interchange Primary: system coach, performance info, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary: learning style, behavior, records database, knowledge library, learning content, delivery Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

126 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance126 AICC AGR008: Digital Video Primary: multimedia Secondary: delivery Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

127 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance127 AICC AGR009: Icon Standards Primary: learner, learning content Secondary: delivery, multimedia Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

128 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance128 AICC CRS002: Glossary of Terms Related to CBT Primary: none Secondary: all components Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

129 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance129 DoD Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Research and development areas: –Promote widespread collaboration. –Exploit Internet technologies. –Develop next generation learning technologies. –Create reusable content, and lower costs, with object-based tools. Supplies requirements to IMS More info:

130 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance130 ADL Collaboration Primary: all components, ADL addresses collaboration of learning technologies and learning technology requirements Secondary: none Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

131 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance131 European Union - ARIADNE Collaborative browsing Learning technology metadata Working with IMS More info: research/cseg/projects/ariadne/

132 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance132 ARIADNE Metadata Primary: content index (metadata) and associating locator indexes with content indexes Secondary: query index (search), locator index (e.g., URLs), knowledge organization in knowledge library Delivery Learner Evaluation System Coach Knowledge Library Content Index (metadata) Query Index Learning Content Performance (new) MultimediaBehavior Learning Style Records Database Learning Content Performance (current) Performance (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o r I n d e xL o c a t o r I n d e x

133 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance133 Layer 5: Operational Components Common components that build the system Operational components may serve several functions Several system components may be implemented via the same operational components, e.g., performance info and learning content both coded as XML (an operational component)

134 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance134 Layer 5: Operational Components (contd) Operational components are identified by: –Systems, e.g., clients and servers –Connectors (interface protocols), e.g., HTTP, PPP –Busses (namespaces), e.g., URLs, telephone numbers Components (systems) on a bus can talk to each other via interface protocols

135 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance135 Abstraction-Implementation: Stakeholder/Design Perspective => Operational Components Various Stakeholder/Design Perspectives Learner, Assessment, Intelligent Tutor, Distance Learning, Mentoring, Collaboration, Ontology, Task, etc. Protocols Interchange Data Storage Processes Human Interface Control Flow Abstraction Implementation

136 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance136 Information Busses: Example: Internet Client-Server Bus, Client Perspective - Client connects to many servers - On-demand connections - Several servers may have same purpose, but varied resources; like libraries: same interface, but varied collections of books Server Client

137 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance137 Information Busses: Example: Internet Client-Server Bus, Server Perspective - Server handles requests from multiple clients - On-demand connections - Clients may appear homogenous, but have different identities Client Server

138 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance138 Information Busses: Example: Combining/bridging two busses User Web Client Web Server 1 Web Server 2 Web Server 3 GUI App 1 GUI App 2 GUI App 3 Window Manager Application Bus Examples: X Windows, Win95 World Wide Web Bus of Browsers and Web Servers Web Browser: sits on two busses: both window manager application & web application

139 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance139 Information Busses: Example: Combining/bridging three busses User Web Client Web Server 1 Web Server 2 GUI App 1 GUI App 2 Window Manager Application Bus World Wide Web Bus of Browsers and Web Servers Web Browser: GUI Web Chat Client 1 Chat Client 2 Chat Server Chat Session: GUI Chat Chat Bus of Sessions

140 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance140 Information Busses: Commonly Used Busses/Protocols Layer 5 is: collection of common bus protocols, no specific requirements Examples: –Transport, Network, Data Link: TCP, UDP, IP, Ethernet, telephone –Application, Presentation, Session: X11, HTTP, IRC, SMTP, NNTP, FTP, TELNET –Data, Control, Security: HTML, XML, RDF, RPC, CORBA, DCOM, HLA, Kerberos, HTTPS, SSL, HLA

141 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance141 Summary of Five LTSA Abstraction- Implementation Layers Environment Interactions Learner Five Human-Centered Features 40+ Stakeholder Perspectives Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 5 Layer 2 Layer 1 Learner Environment Interactions System Components Protocol & Interface Busses LI CI LC LS B M P P A D L E SC KL RD LC QI

142 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance142 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 1: –Learning experience: learners interacting with the environment –A learner (abstract) may represent several students (humans) –From information technology perspective, flow is one-way: environment ==> learner –Collaboration is within the learner abstraction

143 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance143 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 2: –Because the learner abstraction is implemented with humans (human learner), rather implemented with computers (machine learning), the nature of humans has pervasive effect on system design –Fundamental limits of human communication

144 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance144 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 2 (contd): –Humans arent reliable receivers of information: retransmission –Humans arent predictable receivers of information: different strategies –Humans learn differently (and over time): customizable, configurable

145 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance145 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 3: –System notation: process, store, flow –Human-centered feedback loop: learner, behavior, evaluation, assessment, system coach, delivery, multimedia –More intelligence from learning content: need records database and performance records –Learner has different teachers during his/her lifetime: records database facilitates hand-off

146 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance146 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 3 (contd): –Humans each learn differently (and learn differently over time): rich knowledge library required; query indexes and content indexes (metadata) make best use of knowledge library –Learners and their surrogates (e.g, parent, mentor) negotiate learning styles with system coaches and their surrogates (e.g., institution, teacher, courseware developer)

147 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance147 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 4: –Stakeholders each have own, incomplete perspectives –All stakeholders perspectives are incorporated in LTSA system components diagram –IEEE 1484: working groups specifying critical interfaces; some technical standards outside of 1484; education standards are necessary but outside scope of 1484 and technical standards

148 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance148 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 5: –Bus notation: bus, connector, system –Operational components: actual implementation –One operational component (e.g., HTTP) might be used by several system components (e.g., records database, knowledge library) –One system component (e.g., delivery) might use several operational components (e.g., HTTP, HTML, MPEG)

149 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance149 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 5 (contd): –Bus may be used for several purposes –Systems on bus share common namespace, e.g., URLs, process IDs, object IDs –Systems may be connected, simultaneously, to several busses

150 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance150 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 5 (contd): –Systems dynamically connect, on-demand to other systems (e.g., clients to servers) –System connectivity is not pre-arranged –Connections (protocols) may serve several purposes (e.g., XML used for performance records and learning content; MIDI used for behavior and multimedia)

151 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance151 LTSA Conformance LTSA conforming products/services –provide the critical interfaces (functionality) that conform to one or more components of LTSA: Learner (Collaboration), Behavior, Evaluation, Performance, Records Database, System Coach, Query Index (search), Content Index (metadata), Locator Index (e.g., URLs), Knowledge Library, Delivery, Multimedia –identify the protocols that describe the bus interface –identify the interface point

152 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance152 LTSA Conformance LTSA conforming products/services Measuring conformance: the system under test is called the implementation under test A system that conforms to the LTSA specification is called a conforming implementation A conforming implementation shall conform to all five layers.

153 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance153 LTSA Layer 1 Conformance Validating Learner-Environment interactions The implementation under test shall identify the boundaries of the Environment, the flows of Interactions, and the Learner. The implementation under test shall identify the Learner's relationship to human students. Examples of Learner/Student relationship: –Is the Learner represented by more than one Student? –Is there collaboration among the Students?

154 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance154 LTSA Layer 2 Conformance Validating human-centered features The implementation under test shall identify the methods for addressing the human-centered features: –unreliable learners –unpredictable and diverse learners –nomadic learners –influence on learning style

155 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance155 LTSA Layer 3 Conformance Validating decomposition into LTSA system components The implementation under test shall identify the available LTSA system components: Learner, Learning Style, Behavior, Evaluation, Performance, Records Database, Assessment, System Coach, Query Index, Content Index, Locator Index, Knowledge Library, Learning Content, Delivery, Multimedia.

156 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance156 LTSA Layer 4 Conformance Identifying which LTSA subset (stakeholder) is applicable -- stakeholders can be any subset, not limited to the examples in the LTSA specification Mapping conceptual to actual system components The implementation under test shall identify the subset of applicable LTSA system components. The implementation under test shall identify the boundaries and mapping of LTSA system components.

157 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance157 LTSA Layer 5 Conformance Identifying the information busses -- bus protocols and topology not limited to examples in LTSA specification The implementation under test shall identify the information busses in use, their namespace, control protocols, and mapping to LTSA system components.

158 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance158 Open Issues Verifying stakeholders perspectives Identifying and refining operating components: protocols, interfaces Public review in IEEE and other fora

159 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance159 Summary Yourdon (systems notation): tried and true Bus notation used for larger number of component Five abstraction-implementation layers: –Learner and environment interactions –Human-centered features –System components –Stakeholder perspectives –Operational components

160 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance160 Summary (contd) Wide range of implementations supported All stakeholders perspectives identified Reflects commercial systems


Download ppt "1998-05-21LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance1 Learning Technology Systems Architecture -- Overview LTSA 4.00 Frank Farance Farance/Edutool 1998-05-21"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google