2 Genomic EquivalenceGenomic Equivalence – all cells have the same genomeDespite genomic equivalence, there are differences in the cells of multicellular organismsThese differences are due to regulatory mechanismsSo although all cells have the same genome, due to differential genetic regulation, they can look and function dramatically differently.
3 Pattern of Development Development is governed by a combination of cytoplasmic determinants & inductive cell signalsCytoplasmic determinantsChemical signals such as mRNA & transcription factors that were distributed unevenly during cleavageInductionInteraction among cells that influence their fateCauses changes in gene expression among cells
4 Totipotent CellsCells that are capable of developing into ANY possible cell typeAs long as it possesses the requisite genetics, it can become muscular, nervous, epithelial, etc.If you have a totipotent cell, you can literally grow another organism, and you can grow as many as you would likeTotipotent cells exist until the 16-cell stage of cleavageAfter that, they are pluripotent – can become any of the 3 germ layers, but cannot develop into a new being
5 Totipotency in PlantsPlant cells are totipotent throughout their lifetimeBasically plant cloning is easy to do at any stage of development.
6 Totipotency in Animals Some animal cells could be considered totipotent (kind of), but some were not.Older nucleus donor = LOWER chance of developmentSo animal cells change over time in terms of what they can become.
7 Reproductive Mammal Cloning 1997 “born”2003 euthanized due to respiratory complications usually seen only in older sheep (mom’s age)Also had arthritis, which is unusual for Dolly’s age, but not for mom’sReproductive clones do NOT look like mom or the source of the nucleus.Clones of mice, horses, cattle, etc have been successful, with defects.
10 iPS Cells iPS – Induced pluripotent stem cells Take an adult (fully differentiated) cell, modify the signaling being received, thus altering the genetic expression of certain “induction” genesFuture of medicine?
11 Dr. Eric Lander’s AMA (2/21/13) AxelHarver - What do you think is the "coolest" scientific discovery we've made so far in the 21st century?Eric_Lander[S] - I think Yamanaka's discovery that adult cells can be "reprogrammed" into stem cells was mind-blowing. Completely unexpected. Huge impact.Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012: ne/laureates/2012/#ii/S
12 DeterminationTerm used to describe the condition when a cell is irreversibly committed to its fateOnce a cell is differentiated, it expresses genes for tissue-specific proteinsMyoblast Determined muscle cellDifferentiation follows determination by MyoD (transcription factor)MyoD also causes G0 state