Presentation on theme: "Does Your Instruction Rate 5 Stars? First Principles of Instruction M. David Merrill Professor Utah State University."— Presentation transcript:
Does Your Instruction Rate 5 Stars? First Principles of Instruction M. David Merrill Professor Utah State University
2 Case Study Elements of Market Strategy Brief Text Graphic Audio -- narrator reads text Define Marketing Marketing is a word you hear or use almost daily. You probably know several ways the term is used. As you focus on writing a strategic marketing plan, be sure your team agrees on some common definitions, so you are all clear about what the plan is to accomplish. How would you define marketing?
3 Case Study Elements of Market Strategy Inserted Questions Because competition changes the market so quickly, the smart move is to have an ongoing process in your business for developing your market strategy for each product or service. Choose the statement below that's true. __ Strategic marketing planning is primarily for larger companies. __ Every business that wants to succeed should make marketing strategy a continuous process.
4 HCourse Evaluation HContent –Accurate, appropriate, tools HDesign & Delivery Web optimized? Function? Enhance learning? Apply skills in simulations or scenarios? Customize? Relevant assessment? Learning styles? Navigation? HValue Better than alternatives? Worth the time and money? Hwww.onlinelearningguide.com
5 Under content they state: "The information provided in the course is clear, but overall the lesson fails to engage. Although the concepts involved in a marketing strategy are covered, the course fails to give good, concrete steps and detail for when you actually sit down to make a strategic marketing plan. The result is limited retention and limited applicability." Under Design and delivery they state: "Interactivity is limited to learner assessments, which include feedback. Assessments are offered before, during, and following lesson units." Under value they state: "The course is fair value for managers, who need an introduction to marketing strategy." They give the course 2 1/2 stars on their 5 star rating system. Lguide.com evaluation
6 My Evaluation HMarketing concepts -- no examples HAssessment - remember information not application HBased on Effective Instructional Strategies –Not Problem-based –No Activation of previous experience –No Demonstration –No Application –No Integration No stars! Introduction to Marketing is ineffective instruction.
7 First Principles of Instruction Many instructional design theories and models have fundamental underlying principles in common? A principle is a relationship that is always true under appropriate conditions regardless of program or practice.
8 Levels of Design Theory HInstructional design theory, as represented in Reigeluth (1999), varies from basic descriptive laws about learning to broad curriculum programs that concentrate on what is taught rather than on how to teach. HDo all of these design theories and models have equal value? HAre all of these design theories and models merely alternative ways to approach design? HDo these design theories and models have fundamental underlying principles in common? HIf so, what are these underlying principles?
9 Principles, Programs, Practices HPractice -- a specific instructional activity HProgram -- an approach consisting of a set of prescribed practices. HPrinciple -- a relationships that is always true under appropriate conditions regardless of program or practice. Practices always implement or fail to implement underlying principles whether they are specified or not.
10 Instructional Practice HWhat is an instructional practice? It is what a given designer or trainer/teacher does to implement instruction. HA given instructional principle can usually be implemented via a wide variety of practices. HIf a given practice fails to implement the relevant underlying principle there will be a decrement in learning.
11 Instructional Programs HWhat is an instructional program? –It is prescribed set of instructional practices. HInstructional approaches may facilitate the implementation of one or more instructional principles. HIf the practices prescribed by the program do not implement underlying principles, then there will be a decrement in learning.
12 Example Program with Practices HLewis, Watson, Schaps (In Reigeluth) Social, Ethical, and Intellectual Development -- Educations Full Mission HProgram –Literature Based Reading HPractices –Select books rich in social and ethical themes (content) –Partner Reading –Read aloud –Promote values (e.g. Ask How can we help our partners?) HWhat are the prescriptive principles required?
13 Example Program with Practices Kovalik & McGeehan (In Reigeluth) Program –Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI) HPractices –Create a year long theme, monthly components, weekly topics –Select a physical location or event (field trip) –Identify key points (statement of concept, significant knowledge or skill) –Write inquiries and assessment Using a topographical map of our area, determine the boundaries of our watershed. Draw a map to scale. Include our school, major roads, and a dozen other well known reference points. HVery broad setting for learning. HWhat are prescriptive principles involved?
14 Instructional Principles HWhat is a principle? It is a relationship that is always true under appropriate conditions regardless of program or practice. HParsimony would dictate that there should be only a few instructional design principles that can support a wide variety of instructional programs and practices.
15 First Principles of Instruction HPremise: Many instructional design theories and models have fundamental underlying principles in common? HAgenda: Identify these underlying first principles? A principle is a relationship that is always true under appropriate conditions regardless of program or practice.
16 Hypotheses HLearning from a given program will be facilitated in direct proportion to the implementation of these first principles. HLearning from a given program will be facilitated in direct proportion to the degree that these principles are explicitly implemented rather than haphazardly implemented.
17 Method of Inquiry HAnalyze instructional theories and models to extract general first principles. HIdentify the cognitive processes associated with each principle. HIdentify empirical support for the principles. HDescribe the implementation of the principles in a variety of different instructional theories and models. HIdentify prescriptions for instructional design associated with these principles.
18 Areas of Investigation Instructional Design Models Knowledge Objects Cognition & Mental Models Automated Instructional Design First Principles of Instruction Meta-Mental Models
19 Cognition -- A Simplified View HAssociative Memory –Propositions –Rules –Automation H Schematic Memory –Schemata –Mental Models –Problem Solving Data Structures + Processes Declarative + Procedural
20 Some Cognitive Principles HIsolated actions and operations processed by associative memory. HInformation-about processed by associative memory. H Problem solving requires schematic memory HNew schema are built by tuning and restructuring existing schema. HMental models operate on tasks and problems. HProblem solving is selecting a mental model and processing the new information via the mental model. HMental models develop slowly via successive tuning and restructuring HProblems of conceptualization, planning, and interpretation are processed via mental models.
21 Cardinal Principles of Instruction HThe Cognitive Structure Principle … the development of that cognitive structure that is most consistent with the desired learned performance. HThe Elaboration Principle … incremental elaboration for increased generality and complexity HThe Learner Guidance Principle … active cognitive processing HThe Practice Principle … monitored learner performance with feedback
22 First Principles of Instruction Learning is facilitated when … H the learner is engaged in solving a real-world problem. H new knowledge builds on the learners existing knowledge. H new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner. H new knowledge is applied by the learner. H new knowledge is integrated into the learners world.
23 First Principles of Instruction Problem Activation DemonstrationApplication Integration
24 Bransford -- Star Legacy The Challenges Generate Ideas Multiple Perspectives Research & Revise Test Your Mettle Go Public Look ahead Reflect back
26 Andre -- Instructional Episode HActivate phase –activate preexisting knowledge or motivational structures HInstruction phase –types of information provided –how learners are encourages to process information and relate it to preexisting knowledge HFeedback phase –types of performances that are encouraged –types of information provided as a result of the learners performance
27 Problem Learning is facilitated when … Hthe learner is engaged in solving a real-world problem. HThe learner is engaged at the problem or task level not just the operation or action level. Hthe learner solves a progression of problems. Hthe learner is guided to an explicit comparison of problems. Problems promote acquisition, elaboration, and use of mental models rather than only associative memory.
28 Activation Learning is facilitated when … Hthe learner is directed to recall, relate, describe, or apply knowledge from relevant past experience that can be used as a foundation for the new knowledge. Hthe learner is provided relevant experience that can be used as a foundation for the new knowledge. Activates a mental model appropriate for restructuring or tuning.
29 Demonstration Learning is facilitated when … H the learner is shown as well as told. H the demonstration is consistent with the learning goal. H the learner is directed to relevant information. H the learner is shown multiple representations. H the learner is directed to explicitly compare alternative representations. H media plays a relevant instructional role. Instantiates the mental model.
30 Application Learning is facilitated when … H the learner is required to use his/her new knowledge to solve problems. H this problem solving activity is consistent with the learning goal. H the leaner is shown how to detect and correct errors. Hthe learner is guided in his/her problem solving by appropriate coaching that is gradually withdrawn. Enables the student to restructure and tune the mental model.
31 Integration Learning is facilitated when … H the learner can demonstrate his/her new knowledge and skill. H the learner can reflect-on, discuss, and defend his/her new knowledge. H the learner can create, invent, and explore new and personal ways to use his/her new knowledge. Promotes association among mental models and increased generalizability.
32 Gardner -- Multple Approches to Understanding -- Youll never understand the theory unless you [publicly] apply it. p. 74 HActivation –Entry points. … one begins by finding a way to engage the students and to place them centrally within the topic. p. 81 Defines different types of entry points. –Telling analogies...come up with instructional analogies, drawn from material that is already understood. P. 82
33 Gardner (cont.) HDemonstration –… portray the topic in a number of ways. p. 85 HApplication –… [provide] many [and varied] opportunities for practice. p. 86 HIntegration –… display ones comprehension … in a publicly justified manner.
34 Nelson Collaborative Problem Solving HBuild readiness -- (Activation) –Form and norm groups –determine a preliminary problem definition –define and assign roles HEngage in an iterative collaborative problem solving process -- (Application) –finalize the solution HSynthesize and Reflect -- (integration) –Assess products and processes
35 Jonassen -- Constructivist Learning Environments HThe model conceives of a problem … as the focus of the environment, … Jonassen, 1999 –Modeling -- demonstration –Coaching -- application –Scaffolding -- sequence of cases Related cases worked examples multiple perspectives selectable information just-in-time cognitive (knowledge construction tools) –task representation tools –performance support tools –information gathering tools –Provoke reflection, Perturb Learners models -- integration
36 van Merriënboer -- 4C/ID Principled Skill Decomposition Development of Learning Environment Algorithmic Methods Prerequisite Knowledge Heuristic Methods Supportive Knowledge Part-Task Practice Prerequisite Information Whole-Task Practice Supportive Information Rule AutomationSchema Acquisition Analysis Design recurrent skillsnon-recurrent skills proceduresspecific rules facts concepts plans principles Heuristics SAPs conceptual models goal-plan hierarchies causal models mental models available during practice available before practice
37 Schank -- Learning by Doing The first step … is determining... a mission that will be motivational for the student to pursue. Shank, et al, 1999 Goal Based Scenarios Goals -- process and content Mission -- real-world problem Cover story -- the problem to be solved The role -- Scenario operations -- application Resources -- stories -- contextualized demonstration Feedback -- learner guidance
38 Findings to date Are the theories we have reviewed fundamentally different? NO! HAll theories incorporate some of these principles. HNo theory includes all of these principles. HSome theories include principles or prescriptions not on our list of first principles. (Area for further investigation). HNo theory includes a contrary principle or prescription.
39 How do these theories differ? HImplementation details differ. –Detailed discussion beyond scope of this presentation. HPrinciple(s) emphasized differs –Bransford -- phases of learning –McCarthy -- phases of learning and learning styles –Andre -- learning episodes –Gardner -- public exhibition of understanding & kinds of intelligence –Nelson -- collaboration –Jonassen -- problem solving in learning environments –van Merriënboer -- problem solving sequence of cases & sequencing of supporting information –Schank -- problem solving (cases) & stories
40 Conclusion HThere are first principles of instruction that are similar regardless of theory or philosophical orientation. HHypothesis: failure to implement these first principles in the programs and practices will cause a decrement in learning. HMuch remains to be done in articulating these first principles and tracing their role in different theories.
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