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1999-12-06IEEE 1484.1, LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 1 Learning Technology Systems Architecture LTSA 5.0 Specification 1999-12-06 Presentation.

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Presentation on theme: "1999-12-06IEEE 1484.1, LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 1 Learning Technology Systems Architecture LTSA 5.0 Specification 1999-12-06 Presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 1 Learning Technology Systems Architecture LTSA 5.0 Specification Presentation Frank Farance, , Edutool.Com, a division of Farance Inc. Slides and Document: Presentation to LTSC Architecture and Reference Model WG (IEEE )

2 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 2 Overview Review of goals Abstraction-Implementation Layers Review of each layer Demonstration of perspectives What does conformance mean? Open issues

3 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 3 Document Status Specification accepted as a base document for IEEE Comments on draft 4.0: –Typos –Revising human-centered features to accommodate several development orderings –Glossary revisions –Revise for IEEE style

4 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 4 Review of architecture goals Identify common components Identify critical interfaces Widespread applicability: –platform-neutral –content-neutral –pedagogically-neutral

5 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 5 Architecture Definition And Purpose [1/3] LTSA 5.0 specification: [Excerpt:] In general, the purpose of developing systems architectures is to discover high-level frameworks for understanding certain kinds of systems, their subsystems, and their interactions with related systems.... More than one architecture is possible

6 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 6 Architecture Definition And Purpose [2/3] [Excerpt contd:] … An architecture isn't a blue print for designing a single system, but a framework for designing a range of systems over time, and for the analysis and comparison of these systems. … Architecture used for analysis and communication

7 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 7 Architecture Definition And Purpose [3/3] [Excerpt contd:] … By revealing the shared components of different systems at the right level of generality, an architecture promotes the design and implementation of components and subsystems that are reusable, cost-effective, and adaptable. Critical interoperability interfaces/services identified

8 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 8 Abstraction-Implementation Layers The Groupings –abstractions vs. implementations The Priorities –ordering The Notations –text notation –system notation –bus notation The LTSA Layers –five layers

9 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 9 Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The Groupings Organize engineering details into several groupings from high-level (coarse granularity) to low-level (fine granularity) Groupings are called layers Layers above are called abstractions Layers below are called implementations

10 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 10 Information Inclusion Organize raw details as: good, borderline, and bad examples Raw DetailsBad Good Borderline

11 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 11 Information Exclusion Essential vs. Non-Essential Details: Depends on Context BrowserServer Web Content #1: Minimal Details, Only Data Flow BrowserServer Web Content Server Initiated (Push) #3: (Again) More Details, Control Flow BrowserServer Web Content User Request (Pull) #2: More Details, Control Flow BrowserServer Web Content HTMLCGI #4: More Details, Related Subsystems

12 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 12 Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The Priorities High-level design issues have most pervasive effect on design: first priority Low-level design issues are localized: consider these issues later Example: building a house –High-level (higher design priority): layout and number of rooms –Low-level (leave till later): choosing wallpaper

13 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 13 Iterative Abstraction Design Priorities: Colors (high), Shapes (medium), Raw Details Raw Details Abstraction of Raw Details: Shapes (Arrow, Box, Star) Abstraction of Shapes: Colored Polygons (Red, Green, Blue)

14 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 14 Iterative Implementation Design Priorities: Colors (high), Shapes (medium), Raw Details Implementation of Colored Shapes: Constraints: Arrows Connected to Polygons Implementation of Shapes with Constraints: Red, Green, Blue Implementation of Colored Polygons with Constraints: Eight or fewer sides

15 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 15 Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The Notations High-level: systems (Yourdon) diagrams –Process (oval), store (box), flow (arrow) –Static connections (flows) identify functional decomposition Low-level: bus diagrams –Bus (bar), connector (line), system (box) –Dynamic, point-to-point connections for on-demand, arbitrary component communication Not Used: –UML (Unified Modeling Language): too, low level; OO-based –ERD (entity relationship diagrams): useful for applications, but not for architecture and interoperability

16 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 16 Systems Notation: Processes, Stores, Flows Data Process Control Process One-Way Control Flow One-Way Data Flow Two-Way Control Flow Two-Way Data Flow Data Store Control Store

17 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 17 Example of Systems Tiers/Hierarchies: A System and Its Implementation Details System X System Xs Inputs/Outputs Details Of System X Distributed/ Hidden Details Sub-System A Sub-System B Sub-System C System Xs Inputs/Outputs Implementation Details

18 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 18 Bus Notation Common naming Common control flow (initiating transactions) Non-homogeneous data flow (different transactions) Dynamic, on-demand connections

19 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 19 Bus Notation: Common Naming P Q R S Each member of bus has unique name and shares namespace

20 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 20 Bus Notation: Common Control Flow P Q R S Each member uses same protocol to request or respond to transactions

21 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 21 Bus Notation: Non-Homogeneous Data Flow P Q R S Common (homogeneous) control protocol, but different (heterogeneous) data protocols Examples: TCP/IP is common control protocol, but several data protocols may be used: P Q uses FTP, but P R uses HTTP FTP over TCP/IP bus HTTP over TCP/IP bus

22 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 22 Bus Notation: Dynamic, On-Demand Connections P Q R S No permanent connections among members of bus Each transaction is a connection Examples: 1. Q sends to P 2. P broadcasts to all 3. R sends to Q 1 2 3

23 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 23 Examples of Bus Tiers/Hierarchies: Internet Client-Server Bus, Client Perspective Client connects to many servers On-demand connections Several servers may have same purpose, but varied resources. Like libraries: same interface, but varied collections of books Mirror of server perspective Server Client

24 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 24 Examples of Bus Tiers/Hierarchies: Internet Client-Server Bus, Server Perspective Server handles requests from multiple clients On-demand connections Clients may appear homogenous, but have different identities Mirror of client perspective Client Server

25 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 25 Examples of Bus Tiers/Hierarchies: Combining/Bridging Two Busses User Web Client Web Server 1 Web Server 2 Web Server 3 GUI App 1 GUI App 2 GUI App 3 Window Manager Application Bus Examples: X Windows, Win95 World Wide Web Bus of Browsers and Web Servers Web Browser: sits on two busses: both window manager application & web application

26 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 26 Examples of Bus Tiers/Hierarchies: Combining/Bridging Three Busses User Web Client Web Server 1 Web Server 2 GUI App 1 GUI App 2 Window Manager Application Bus World Wide Web Bus of Browsers and Web Servers Web Browser: GUI Web Chat Client 1 Chat Client 2 Chat Server Chat Session: GUI Chat Chat Bus of Sessions

27 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 27 Combined Systems and Bus Notation: Processes, Stores, Flows, Busses Data Process Control Process One-Way Control Flow One-Way Data Flow Two-Way Control Flow Two-Way Data Flow Data And Control Bus X Data-Only Bus Y

28 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 28 Systems vs. Bus Notation Systems notation useful for: –Small number of components –Dedicated functions for each component –Useful for LTSA layers 1, 3, 4, and 5 Bus notation useful for: –Large number of components –Dynamic, on-demand connections between components –Useful for LTSA layer 5

29 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 29 Other Notations UML (Unified Modeling Language) –Not good for architecture definition –UML is useful for analysis and design notations –System and bus notation may be mapped to/from UML for some UML applications IEEE 1471 –LTSA stakeholder mappings satisfy IEEE 1471 recommended practices for multiple perspectives

30 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 30 Architecture Abstraction Hierarchy Reference Model (Belz, Suthers, Wheeler) Application Model Abstract System Model - Interaction Model - Conceptual Model Abstract Implementation Model Resource Model LTSA Layer 1; IEEE LTSA Layer 2; IEEE LTSA Layer 4; IEEE LTSA Layer 5; IEEE , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , No category: IEEE , LTSA Layer 3; IEEE

31 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 31 Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The LTSA Layers LTSA from high-level to low-level: –Layer 1: Learner and environment interactions –Layer 2: Human-centered features –Layer 3: System components –Layer 4: Stakeholder perspectives –Layer 5: Operational components and interoperability

32 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 32 Summary of Five LTSA Abstraction-Implementation Layers 120+ Stakeholder Perspectives/PrioritiesLayer 4 Human-Centered/Pervasive FeaturesLayer 2 Environment Interactions Layer 1 Learner/ Environment Interactions L L L Learner Entity Layer 3 LTSA System Components L CI LP B M PP P A D LE E C LR R IC Q LC L Layer 5 APIs, Codings, & Protocols Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics APIs Codings Protocols Calling Data Comm. Conv. Formats Layers

33 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 33 Layer 1: Learner And Environment Interactions Learner interacts with environment as part of a learning experience Learner Teacher Other Learners* Books Library Coach Mentor Collaboration* School Other Employees* Internet/Web Television Lab Parent Computers Employer Newspaper Multimedia * See later slide: collaboration is internal to Learner

34 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 34 Layer 1: Learner and Environment: How Environment Effects Learner Primary Focus: –The effect of environment on the learner –Not the effect of learner on the environment Learner can have important effects on environment: –Examples: research, teaching teachers, etc. –But learners effect on environment is not the primary technical focus of learning technology

35 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 35 Layer 1: Learner and Environment: Collaboration: Internal to Learner LTSA Learner Entity (an abstraction) can represent one or more Learners (humans) Collaboration among Learners is internal to Learner Entity Identifying collaboration as internal is a significant simplifying feature for LTSA From an information technology perspective –All Learner Interaction is from the environment to the Learner Entity inbound information –Thus the Learner Interactions arrow points inward towards the Learner Entity

36 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 36 Layer 1: Learner and Environment Learning Interactions: Input to Learner Primary Focus: –Technology issues the flow of information –No pedagogy implied Learner Learner Entity Collaboration Learner Environment Learning Interactions

37 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 37 Layer 2: Human-Centered/Pervasive Features Strengths and Weaknesses [1/2] Humans are involved in the learning experience (human learning), not computers (machine learning) Human communication: fundamental strengths and limitations has pervasive effect on design Human-directed: learners can influence the process themselves Environment Learning Interactions Learner Entity - Learner is not a computer - Human learners strengths/ limitations complicates receiving information from learning interactions - Humans can be self-directed

38 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 38 Layer 2: Human-Centered/Pervasive Features Strengths and Weaknesses [2/2] Several stories motivate the need for human-centric and component-based learning technology systems –Illustration 1: Traditional Instructive approach –Illustration 2: Learner-directed Constructive approach Conclusion: –No single right story, but several applicable stories

39 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 39 Illustration 1: Traditional Approach Learner is directed (or instructed) by coach Coach can influence and make decisions about the learners learning experiences Representative of traditional classroom and training scenarios Pervasive issue: –humans as information receivers –both strength and weakness

40 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 40 Layer 2: Human-Centered Features Human communication affects design Humans arent reliable receivers of information: –Humans mishear or dont hear at all –Retransmission is necessary Humans arent predictable receivers of information: –Humans hear different than desired –Different strategies are necessary

41 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 41 Layer 2: Human-Centered Features Wide variations affect design Humans learn differently (and over time): –Humans differently from each other –Same human may learn differently over time –Need intelligent customization, configuration –Need rich learning resources for diverse humans Negotiate learner preferences: –Learner alone or coach alone cannot determine best learning style and/or preferences

42 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 42 Layer 2: Human-Centered Features Constructing LTSA System Components #1: Start with human sensory input: multimedia delivery to learner (similar to entertainment) #2: Add coaching/feedback loop for human unreliability #3: Add learner records for varying teachers, infer intelligently about learner capability #4: Add rich learning resources, search, and lookup to support diversity of humans #5: Add negotiated learning preferences for direct communication with learner

43 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 43 Step #1: Transferring Information Transfer information to Learner Sensory input/interactions for humans Delivery of Multimedia: same as entertainment Delivery Multimedia Learner Entity

44 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 44 Step #2: Coaching/Feedback Loop [1/2] Feedback necessary –Humans are unreliable receivers –They dont hear what you tell them Current state (i.e., the sensor) of the feedback loop: –Behavior –Evaluation –Assessment Delivery Evaluation Coach MultimediaBehavior A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity L o c a t o rL o c a t o r

45 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 45 Step #2: Coaching/Feedback Loop [2/2] Coach: –Determines corrective/suggestive actions Locator: –Examples: next lesson (Learning Content) towards objective; web URL –Directs Delivery of Multimedia to Learner Loop recovers from errors, focuses on target Delivery Evaluation Coach MultimediaBehavior A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity L o c a t o rL o c a t o r

46 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 46 Step #3: Learner Records Performance information –helps infer corrective action over long periods of time –nomadic learners: allows learner migration (handoff) to different teachers (e.g, grade promotion) and different institutions Learner Records: Learners history and objectives Delivery Evaluation Coach (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r

47 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 47 Step #4: Learning Resources Humans are unpredictable and diverse Knowledge libraries necessary to match human diversity Coach: –directs different learning preferences and strategies –based on Learners history/objectives and Assessment –supported via queries to Learning Resources for appropriate Learning Content Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Interaction Context Performance (current) (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Learning Content Catalog Info Locator

48 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 48 Learning Content Step #5: Advice from the Learner Humans are self-aware: can give advice on learner prefs Learning Preferences: –interaction between Learner and system to negotiate different learning preferences –negotiation might actually be assertion: Learner may assert (e.g., experimentation), or coach may assert (e.g., primary school might dictate learning preference) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

49 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 49 Learning Content Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features #1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Learner Records: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Learning Resources: varying/diverse learner capabilities #5: Learning Preferences: negotiate between Learner/system Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

50 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 50 Learning Content Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features #1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Learner Records: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Learning Resources: varying learner capabilities #5: Learning Preferences: negotiate between Learner/system Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

51 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 51 Learning Content Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features #1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Learner Records: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Learning Resources: varying learner capabilities #5: Learning Preferences: negotiate between Learner/system Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

52 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 52 Learning Content Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features #1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Learner Records: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Learning Resources: varying learner capabilities #5: Learning Preferences: negotiate between Learner/system Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

53 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 53 Learning Content Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features #1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Learner Records: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Learning Resources: varying learner capabilities #5: Learning Preferences: negotiate between Learner/system Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

54 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 54 Illustration 2: Learner-Directed Approach Learner is self-directed Learner makes decisions about learners direction and learning experiences Representative of independent, self-taught learning scenarios Focus on humans as directors of their experience Compatible with traditional approach when viewed via LTSA system components

55 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 55 Step #1: Choosing His/Her Direction Individual Learner has some goal Individual Learner –is the Learner Entity –is aware of his/her Learning Preferences –chooses his/her learning direction Individual Learner also serves as role of Coach Coach Learner Entity Individual Learner Has Some Learning Goal Learning Preferences

56 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 56 Step #2: Locating Learning Resources Individual Learner –searches (Query) the Learning Resources –locates learning resources described by Catalog Info Coach Learning Resources Learner Entity Individual Learner Individual Learner searches (via Query) the Learning Resources to locate desirable Learning Resources (via Catalog Info) Query Learning Preferences Catalog Info

57 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 57 Step #3: Using Learning Resources Individual Learner –uses Learning Recourses –initiates Delivery of Multimedia Coach Learning Resources Learner Entity Individual Learner Individual Learner uses the Learning Resources Query Learning Preferences Catalog Info Delivery Multimedia L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Learning Content

58 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 58 Step #4: Learner Self-Evaluates/Directs Individual Learner –self-evaluation –learner chooses next/new/other learning experiences Coach Learning Resources Learner Entity Individual Learner Query Learning Preferences Catalog Info Delivery Multimedia L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Learning Content Evaluation Behavior A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Interaction Context

59 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 59 Step #5: Records Are Kept Individual Learner –may uses records to track progress –records may be used to improve self-directed learner quality Coach Learning Resources Learner Entity Individual Learner Query Learning Preferences Catalog Info Delivery Multimedia L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Learning Content Evaluation Behavior A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Interaction Context Learner Records (new) Performance (current) Performance/ Preferences (history) Records

60 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 60 Layer 2: Conclusions Several possible stories motivate the need to address: –Learner-centric perspective –Traditional classroom/training scenarios –Self-directed learning –Pervasive design issues caused by humans Other stories are possible –Only two stories were illustrated

61 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 61 Layer 3: System Components [using Yourdon system notation] Processes: Learner Entity, Evaluation, Coach, Delivery Stores: Learner Records, Learning Resources Flows: Behavior, Assessment, Performance/Preferences (past, present, future), Query, Catalog Info, Locator, Learning Content, Multimedia, Interaction Context, Learning Preferences Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources MultimediaBehavior Learning Preferences Learner Records A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Learner Entity Query (new) Performance (current) Performance/ Preferences (history) Catalog Info Locator Learning Content Interaction Context

62 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 62 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity [a Yourdon process; implemented by humans] Abstraction of learner Can represent more than one learner Learner Entity: –Receives Multimedia (one-way data flow) –Emits Behavior (one-way data flow) –Negotiates Learning Preferences (two-way data flow) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

63 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 63 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Preferences [a Yourdon 2-way data flow] Learner Entitys preferences (styles, language, cultural, etc.) as input to system Coach can negotiate and/or restrict Learner Entitys preferences Surrogates, such as: –parent learner entity –teacher coach Other possible surrogates: –parent coach –learner coach –mentor learner entity Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

64 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 64 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Behavior [a Yourdon 1-way data flow] Observable Behavior (data flow) of the Learner Entity Coded, and sent to Evaluation (process) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

65 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 65 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Evaluation [a Yourdon data process] Evaluation: –Receives Behavior (input data flow) –Receives Interaction Context (input data flow), i.e., context of Learner Entitys Behavior –May retrieve Performance info (two-way data flow) to support Evaluation –Stores Performance info (two-way data flow) based on Evaluation of Behavior –Produces Assessment (output data flow) given to Coach Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

66 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 66 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Performance Information Stored/Retrieved By Evaluation [a Yourdon 2-way data flow] Evaluation of Behavior: can emit Performance info Evaluation may retrieve previous Performance info to assist Evaluation Stored in Learner Records Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

67 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 67 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Records [a Yourdon data store] Stores Performance information as Learner Entity history Retrieves and stores Preference information for the Learner Entity Retrieves and stores Learner Entity history records for Coach Records arent restricted to historical information, may be current lessons or future objectives Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

68 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 68 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Performance/Preference Info Received By Coach [a Yourdon 1-way data flow] Coach gets Learner Entity history by retrieving Performance information from (Learner Entitys) Learner Records Coach can retrieve Preference information, such as media preferences Coach can select strategies based on historical, current, or future Learner Records information Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

69 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 69 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Performance/Preference Info Stored By Coach [a Yourdon 1-way data flow] Coach can store Performance information: –historical information (e.g., results of lessons) info about past –suspends (incomplete sessions) info about present –certifications (milestones, completion of module) –objectives (outlines for future sessions) info about future Coach can update Preference information Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

70 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 70 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Assessment Information [a Yourdon 1-way data flow] Evaluation (process) can emit Assessments –Where there learner is at –information about the learners current state –used by the Coach to determine optimal learning experience Assessment information (data flow) –may be full and detail –have narrow scope determined by current context –but it is always related to the learners current activity Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

71 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 71 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t 1 Coach [a Yourdon data process] Sends, receives, and negotiates Learning Preferences (two-way data flow) with Learner Entity Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) 1 Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

72 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 72 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t 2 3 Coach [a Yourdon data process] Receives current Assessment information (input data flow), Preferences (input data flow), and Performance information (input data flow), e.g., history and objectives, for determining future learning experiences Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) 23 Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

73 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 73 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Coach [a Yourdon data process] Queries to the Learning Resources: –Queries (output control flow) sent to search for appropriate material –Catalog Info (input data flow), a.k.a. learning object metadata, returned as found Learning Content –Extracts (peels) the Locators (e.g., URLs) from the returned Catalog Info (learning content metadata) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) 4 4 Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

74 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 74 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t 5 Coach [a Yourdon data process] Locators (similar to web URLs) are sent to Delivery process to identify (but not transfer) Learning Content Note: –Delivery (process) is responsible for retrieving –Learning Resources (store) is responsible for transferring (emitting) Learning Content Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) 5 Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

75 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 75 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Query [a Yourdon 1-way control flow] Query specifies what to search for in Learning Resources Coach sends Queries (control flow) to search the Learning Resources (store) for appropriate Learning Content, based on: –Coach (e.g., learner-directed) –Learning Preferences –Assessment info –Performance and Preference info from Learner Records –Possibly, other information outside of LTSA Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

76 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 76 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Resources [a Yourdon data store] Database searched via Query Result of Query: Catalog Info of Learning Content matching the Query (input control flow) Catalog Info is also known as: –learning content cataloging information –learning object metadata Emits Learning Content (output data flow) based on Locator (input control flow) from Delivery (process) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

77 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 77 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Catalog Info (a.k.a. Learning Object Metadata) [a Yourdon 1-way data flow] Catalog Info is also known as: –learning content cataloging information –learning object metadata Search of Learning Resources (store) returns Catalog Info for Learning Content that matches Query Catalog Info (data flow) is similar to card catalog entries in a library Locators (e.g., URLs) can be extracted (peeled) from Catalog Info Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

78 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 78 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Locator Received By Delivery [a Yourdon 1-way data flow] Coach (process) extracts Locator from the Catalog Info for appropriate learning experience Locator (data flow) is similar to call number in a library, and similar to URL of the World Wide Web Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

79 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 79 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Locator Sent By Delivery [a Yourdon 1-way control flow] Delivery (process) sends Locator (control flow) to the Learning Resources (store) for pointing to Learning Content Locator sent by Delivery is not necessarily same as Locator received by Delivery Delivery might not request Learning Content is exactly the same order that was supplied by Coach Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

80 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 80 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Content [a Yourdon 1-way data flow] Learning Resources (store) returns Learning Content (data flow) to Delivery (process) as specified by Locator (control flow) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

81 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 81 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Delivery [a Yourdon process] Receives Locator (input data flow), e.g., URLs, that identify learning experiences desired by the Coach Uses Locator (output control flow) to request Learning Content from Learning Resources (store) Delivery (process) transforms Learning Content (input data flow) to interactive Multimedia (output data flow), which is sent to Learner Entity Sends Interaction Context (output data flow) to Evaluation (process) to give context of Learner Entitys Behavior Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

82 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 82 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Interaction Context [a Yourdon 1-way data flow] Delivery (process) sends Interaction Context (data flow) to Evaluation (process) to give context of Learner Entitys Behavior Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

83 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 83 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Multimedia [a Yourdon 1-way data flow] Delivery (process) generates interactive Multimedia (data flow) learning experience based on Learning Content Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

84 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 84 Functional vs. Actual Learning Technology Systems LTSA components identify functional boundaries and critical interfaces Actual systems integrate several components into individual products Functionality exists in actual systems but may be –embedded within larger system (several components combined), or –a single component is spread across several systems

85 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 85 LTSA Layer 3 Analogy: Stereo Component Architecture Well-defined components: tuner, CD-player, tape loop, pre-amp, amplifier, speakers Well-defined critical interfaces: media, phono jacks, unbalanced inputs, 4-16 ohm outputs Not all components need exist, e.g., stereo system without a CD-player Engineering/business rationale for highly integrated subsets (receivers, boom box), yet all have interoperability at critical interfaces, e.g., audio in (aux in), audio out (speakers), media (CDs)

86 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 86 Sample LTSA Mappings Shows Relationship Types: 1 1, 1 N, N 1 Web-based learning/training –Demonstrates tightly integrated components Flight simulator/flight instructor –Demonstrates shared component responsibility Home study course –Demonstrates student can have multiple roles Non-electronic, traditional classroom –Limiting case, no technology involved

87 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 87 Interaction Context Query Catalog Info (new) (history) Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences Learning Content Example Mapping #1: Web-Based Learning Demonstrates Tightly Integrated Components Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Human Human Interface e.g., X Windows Win95 Presentation Tool (browser) Courseware Database (web servers) Student Records (database) Learner Entity L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Human Learner Entity Abstraction Implementation

88 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 88 Interaction Context Query Catalog Info (new) (history) Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences Learning Content Example Mapping #1: Web-Based Learning Demonstrates Tightly Integrated Components Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Human Human Interface e.g., X Windows Win95 Presentation Tool (browser) Courseware Database (web servers) Student Records (database) Learner Entity L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Windowing System LTSA Multimedia And Behavior Abstraction Implementation

89 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 89 Interaction Context Query Catalog Info (new) (history) Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences Learning Content Example Mapping #1: Web-Based Learning Demonstrates Tightly Integrated Components Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Human Human Interface e.g., X Windows Win95 Presentation Tool (browser) Courseware Database (web servers) Student Records (database) Learner Entity L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Web Browser, Presentation Tools Packaged As Combination Of LTSA Evaluation, Coach, Delivery Abstraction Implementation

90 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 90 Query Catalog Info (new) (history) Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences Learning Content Example Mapping #1: Web-Based Learning Demonstrates Tightly Integrated Components Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Human Human Interface e.g., X Windows Win95 Presentation Tool (browser) Courseware Database (web servers) Student Records (database) Learner Entity L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Web Servers, Courseware Databases LTSA Learning Resources Interaction Context Abstraction Implementation

91 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 91 Query Catalog Info (new) (history) Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences Learning Content Example Mapping #1: Web-Based Learning Demonstrates Tightly Integrated Components Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Human Human Interface e.g., X Windows Win95 Presentation Tool (browser) Courseware Database (web servers) Student Records (database) Learner Entity L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Student Records Database LTSA Learner Records Interaction Context Abstraction Implementation

92 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 92 Interaction Context Query Catalog Info Learning Preferences Learning Content Example Mapping #1: Web-Based Learning Demonstrates Tightly Integrated Components Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Human Human Interface e.g., X Windows Win95 Presentation Tool (browser) Courseware Database (web servers) Student Records (database) Learner Entity * Note: Other mappings may co-exist. Performance/ Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Abstraction Implementation

93 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 93 Interaction Context (new) (history) Performance/ Preferences Query Catalog Info Learning Preferences Learning Content Example Mapping #2: Flight Simulator, Flight Instructor Demonstrates Shared Component Responsibility: Coach Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Flight Instructor Flight Simulator Pilots Logbook Pilot Learner Entity * Note: Other mappings may co-exist. L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Abstraction Implementation

94 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 94 Interaction Context (history) (new) Performance/ Preferences Query Catalog Info Learning Preferences Learning Content Multimedia A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Example Mapping #3: Home Study Course Demonstrates Student Can Have Multiple Roles/Responsibilities Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) School Home Study Course Student Learner Entity * Note: Other mappings may co-exist. L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Abstraction Implementation

95 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 95 Interaction Context (history) (new) Performance/ Preferences Query Catalog Info Learning Preferences Learning Content Multimedia A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Example Mapping #4: Non-Electronic, Traditional Classroom Limiting Case: No Technology Involved Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Teacher Report Cards, Transcript Student School Library Student Uses Library Teacher Points Student To Books (A Locator) Retrieves Teaching Materials Grades Learner Entity * Note: Other mappings may co-exist. L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Locator Abstraction Implementation

96 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 96 Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives Each stakeholder has a view, but not complete picture Show each stakeholder perspective within LTSA Stakeholder perspectives used to validate views and subsets of LTSA components Its in there! (if not, let us know!)

97 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 97 LTSA Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives Global Information Infrastructure (GII) Experience Common technology does not imply common architecture Stakeholder perspectives analyzed by: –Primary design issues: LTSA components that greatly affect design and implementation for stake holder (shown as red/bold) –Secondary design issues: LTSA components that affect design and implementation of stake-holder, but not critical (shown as blue/dash ---) –Other LTSA components: insignificant design issue or not applicable (no highlight/green fill)

98 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 98 LTSA Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives Consensus-Building Stakeholders, typically, have different and/or incompatible priorities Differing priorities: obstacles to consensus Non-technical (political, business) issues just as important as technical issues Recognizing technical/business/political priorities AND common technology can lead to common architecture Cataloging stakeholder perspectives is critical for building consensus

99 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 99 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Abstraction-Implementation: System Components Stakeholder/Design Perspectives Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Abstraction Implementation Various Stakeholder/Design Perspectives Examples: Learner, Assessment, Institution, Metadata, Intelligent Tutor, Mentoring, Collaboration, Curriculum, Developer, Task Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

100 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 100 Stakeholder Categories Isolated stakeholders Learner-Centered, Institution-Centered, Assessment-Centered, Records, Certifications, Task Model, School-to-Work, Content-Centered, Content Developers, Metadata, Ontologies, Expert Systems, Digital Libraries, Learning Objects, Multimedia Search/Retrieval, Collaboration, Peripheral Devices, Asynchronous Learning, Multiple Role, Team Learning, Icon Conventions Parallel stakeholders Parallel Sessions/Same Learner Student-Teacher Multi-Tier Process Improvement: principal teacher student Overlapping stakeholders Mentoring, Coaching, Electronic Performance Support Interactive Environment, Simulation Tool-to-Tool Communication, Sequencing, Pre-Requisites, Curriculum-Centered, Experimentation, Discovery, Intelligent Tutoring Tools, Distance/Distributed/Nomadic Learning Related Industries Human Factors/User Interfaces, Data Collection/Analysis, IT Decision-Support Applications, Expert Systems/Intelligent Systems, Entertainment/Multimedia Industry, Control/Feedback Systems

101 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 101 Isolated LTSA Stakeholders Isolated LTSA subsets -- little interaction with neighboring LTSA components Little overlap with other isolated stakeholders Relatively simple integration Can make use of isolated component standards Typical stakeholder examples: Records, Metadata, Multimedia Search/Retrieval

102 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 102 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner-Centered Primary design issues: learner keeps his/her records, learner has influence on negotiated learning preferences Secondary design issues: assessment info and performance info Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

103 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 103 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Assessment-Centered Primary design issues: educational standards, behavior, evaluation, assessment records, learner records reporting Secondary design issues: learning preferences, learner, process control (adaptive administration) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

104 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 104 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Records, Certifications Primary design issues: learner records, performance info, assessment info Secondary design issues: evaluation, coach Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

105 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 105 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Profiles Primary design issues: learner preferences, performance info, assessment info, learner records Secondary design issues: evaluation, coach Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

106 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 106 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Student Administration Systems Primary design issues: learner records, student registration, institution back office Secondary design issues: performance info Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

107 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 107 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Task Model, School-To-Work Primary design issues: learner records Secondary design issues: performance info Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

108 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 108 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Institution-Centered Primary design issues: system control, administration, records, reporting, negotiating (many times: asserting) learning preferences Secondary design issues: learner collaboration, teachers, evaluation (grading), delivery infrastructure (including multimedia and behavior observation correlated by learning content) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

109 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 109 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Content Cataloging, Metadata Primary design issues: query, catalog info (metadata), locator (e.g., URLs), and associating locators with catalog info Secondary design issues: knowledge organization, learning content (presentation) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

110 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 110 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Ontologies, Expert Systems Primary design issues: knowledge design and knowledge representation in learning resources, learning content (presentation) Secondary design issues: query, catalog info (metadata), and locator (e.g., URLs) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

111 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 111 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Digital Libraries Primary design issues: knowledge organization, query, catalog info (metadata), locator (e.g., URLs), and associating locators with catalog info, learning content (presentation) Secondary design issues: delivery, multimedia Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

112 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 112 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Objects Primary design issues: learning resources, query, catalog info (metadata), learning content (presentation) Secondary design issues: locator (e.g., URLs), delivery, coach, performance and preference info, assessment info Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

113 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 113 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Content Launch Primary design issues: coach, locator (e.g., URLs), delivery Secondary design issues: evaluation, performance info, assessment info, learning resources, catalog info (metadata), learning content (presentation) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

114 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 114 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Content-Centered Primary design issues: delivery, multimedia, invocation via locator (e.g., URLs), learning content format Secondary design issues: assessment, content search (query, catalog info), learning resources, learners user interface Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

115 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 115 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Content Objects Primary design issues: learning content, catalog info (metadata) Secondary design issues: coach, locator (e.g., URLs), delivery, learning resources Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

116 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 116 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Content Packaging Primary design issues: learning resources, catalog info (metadata), learning content (presentation) Secondary design issues: coach, locator (e.g., URLs), delivery Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

117 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 117 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Content Developer Primary design issues: coach, content search (query, catalog info), delivery, invocation via locator (e.g., URLs), learning content format, delivery, multimedia, Secondary design issues: learner collaboration, learner preferences, assessment info, performance info, learning resources, interaction context Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

118 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 118 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Digital Audio and Video Primary design issues: multimedia Secondary design issues: delivery Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

119 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 119 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Multimedia Search/Retrieval Primary design issues: delivery, multimedia, query, catalog info (metadata), locator (e.g., URLs), hardware limitations Secondary design issues: coach, learning resources, learning content format, behavior Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

120 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 120 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Peripheral Devices Primary design issues: behavior, delivery, multimedia Secondary design issues: learner Delivery \ Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

121 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 121 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Collaboration, Asynchronous Learning Primary design issues: communication among learners with same roles (learner entity), communication modes (multimedia), delivery tools, and differing time zones Secondary design issues: system control by coordinator/moderator, learning preferences negotiated among participants and coordinator/moderator Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

122 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 122 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learner Entity Multiple Role, Team Learning Primary design issues: communication among learners, but different roles (learner entity), communication modes (multimedia), delivery tools, and differing time zones Secondary design issues: system control by coordinator/moderator, learning preferences negotiated among participants and coordinator/moderator Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

123 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 123 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Icon Conventions Primary design issues: learner, learning content Secondary design issues: delivery, multimedia Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

124 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 124 Overlapping LTSA Stakeholders Concerns many, most, or all LTSA components Overlaps with other stakeholders Differing, conflicting designs priorities Relatively complex integration Potential non-technical, political, or business obstacles to consensus and interoperability Typical stakeholder examples: Experimentation, Intelligent Tutoring Tools, Distance Learning

125 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 125 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Mentoring, Coaching Primary design issues: learner and mentor/coach jointly perform evaluation and jointly choose direction Secondary design issues: tools and delivery support mentoring, coaching, experimentation, recordkeeping Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

126 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 126 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Electronic Performance Support Systems Primary design issues: coach chooses appropriate content based on learners environment, interaction context, behavior, evaluation, and assessment Secondary design issues: learner records, performance information, locator, delivery, multimedia Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

127 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 127 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Interactive Environment Primary design issues: learner specifies preferences, learner is observed, delivery is responsive to evaluation Secondary design issues: assessment info, coach, locator (e.g., URLs) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

128 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 128 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Simulation Primary design issues: delivery, multimedia, learning content to correlate multimedia and behavior, assessment info, coach, locator Secondary design issues: behavior, performance info, learner records Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

129 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 129 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Tool-To-Tool Communication Primary design issues: coach, evaluation, assessment info, query, catalog info (metadata), locator (e.g., URLs), delivery, invocation Secondary design issues: multimedia, learning preferences, performance info, learner records, learning resources, learning content Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

130 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 130 Learning Content Performance (current) (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Sequencing, Pre-Requisites, Co-Requisites Primary design issues: coach, evaluation, assessment info, query, catalog info (metadata), locator (e.g., URLs), delivery, invocation Secondary design issues: multimedia, learning preferences, performance info, learner records, learning resources, learning content Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

131 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 131 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Curriculum-Centered Primary design issues: evaluation, learner records, catalog info, learning resources, learning content format, delivery Secondary design issues: learner collaboration, assessment info, performance info, content search (query), invocation via locator (e.g., URLs), multimedia Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

132 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 132 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Content Management Systems, Entertainment Systems Primary design issues: learner, coach, locator (e.g., URLs), multimedia Secondary design issues: learning preferences, learner records, performance info,catalog info (metadata), learning resources, delivery Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

133 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 133 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Management Systems Primary design issues: performance info, assessment info, query, catalog info (metadata), locator (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary design issues: behavior, learner records, coach, learning resources, learning content, delivery Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

134 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 134 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Experimentation, Discovery Primary design issues: learner chooses direction, acquires knowledge during experimentation, learner, coach, query, catalog info (metadata) Secondary design issues: learner does self evaluation, tools and delivery support experimentation, behavior, assessment info, locator (e.g., URLs), delivery, multimedia Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

135 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 135 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Intelligent Tutoring Tools Primary design issues: learner/tutor choose direction, acquires knowledge during use of tutoring tool, learning resources may be implicit (not explicitly defined) in tutor Secondary design issues: tutor does evaluation, tools and delivery support experimentation Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

136 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 136 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Distance Learning, Distributed Learning, And Nomadic Learning Primary design issues: distributed and nomadic communication of all flows (behavior, performance, multimedia, etc.) Secondary design issues: processes and stores components NOTE: Take note of primary design issues (red/bold) –How does this slide differ from all others? –Answer: All flows are primary, everything else is secondary –A technical definition of distance/distributed learning: primary design issues concern flows, all other LTSA components are secondary Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

137 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 137 Parallel LTSA Stakeholders Integration of multiple sessions, each with differing learning experiences and interactions Synchronization of multiple sessions: starting, stopping, coaching, learner interfacing Integration, collaboration, and synchronization of feedback and coaching strategies Typical stakeholder example: Student Teacher

138 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 138 Parallel Sessions for Same Learner Primary design issues: multiple, simultaneous learning experiences; multiple flows of behavior, learning preferences, multimedia Secondary design issues: multiple evaluation, coach, and delivery processes Example: flight simulator -- simultaneous training of flying skills, navigation skills, communication skills, cockpit resource management Example: Aviate Example: Communicate Example: Navigate

139 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 139 Student Teacher Student Teacher Primary design issues: student teacher as a teacher Secondary design issues: student teacher as a learner entity

140 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 140 Principal Teacher Student Multi-Tiered Process Improvement Student is evaluated by teacher, teacher coaches student Teacher is evaluated by principal, principal coaches teacher Principal is evaluated by school board, school board coaches principal Teacher is also evaluated by performance of his/her students Principal is also evaluated by performance of his/her students

141 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 141 Related Industries LTSA Stakeholders Other industries overlap learning technology LTSA components described in terms of other industries Related industries represent significant portions of LTSA system components Related industries only identify common areas of technology, not common purpose. Examples: –Learning isnt just entertainment –Learning isnt just control/feedback systems –And so on... Related industries have architectures different from LTSA –LTSA is not a good architecture for describing generic IT decision support systems, data collection/analysis systems, user interfaces, and so on...

142 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 142 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Related Industries: Human Factors/User Interfaces The LTSA Top Half Primary design issues: human interfaces, human inputs (behavior), systems that interpret human inputs (evaluation), machine outputs (multimedia), systems that generate machine output (delivery) Secondary design issues: responsiveness (interaction context), adaptation (learning preferences) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

143 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 143 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Related Industries: Data Collection/Analysis The LTSA Bottom-Right Quadrant Primary design issues: repositories of information (learner records), information formats and their storage/retrieval (assessment info, performance info, preference info) Secondary design issues: application paradigms for accessing and processing information (coach, evaluation) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

144 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 144 Learning Content Performance (current) (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Related Industries: IT Decision-Support Applications The LTSA Bottom Half Primary design issues: processing of information (coach), supporting databases (learner records, learning resources), information formats and their storage/retrieval (learning preferences, assessment info, performance info, preference info, query, catalog info, locator) Secondary design issues: front-end, back-end, second-tier, and agent processing (evaluation, delivery, learning content) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

145 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 145 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Related Industries: Expert Systems/Intelligent Systems The LTSA Bottom-Left Quadrant Primary design issues: knowledge/expertise repositories (learning resources), access/usage methods (query, catalog info, locator, learning content) Secondary design issues: applications (coach, delivery) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

146 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 146 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Related Industries: Entertainment and Multimedia The LTSA Left Half Primary design issues: content (learning resources, learning content), delivery stream (delivery, multimedia) Secondary design issues: content selection (query, catalog info, locator), user/viewer/subscriber (learner entity) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

147 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 147 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Related Industries: Control/Feedback Systems The LTSA Center Primary design issues: system (learner entity), sensor (behavior, evaluation, assessment info), controller (coach), actuator (locator, delivery, multimedia) Secondary design issues: second-order/alternative feedback (interaction context, learning preferences) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

148 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 148 OLD: Related Standards/Specification Development Orgs In Education & Learning Technology LTSC (P1484) Specs submitted by Consortia/Fora IEEE, ANSI, ISO: Accredited Standards GEM PROMETEUS GESTALT Stds/ Specs

149 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 149 NEW: Related Standards/Specification Development Orgs In Education & Learning Technology LTSC (P1484) LTSC & JTC1/SC36: Close Collaboration ISO/IEC JTC1/SC36 GEM PROMETEUS GESTALT Current, existing Future possibilities Sampling of Organizations

150 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 150 Related Standards/Specification Development Orgs: Education & Learning Technology LTSC (P1484) LTSC & JTC1/SC36: Close Collaboration ISO/IEC JTC1/SC36 GEM PROMETEUS GESTALT Current, existing Future possibilities Sampling of Organizations

151 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 151 URLs For Accredited Standards Development Organizations ISO: International Standards Organization ANSI: American National Standards Institute IEEE: Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE LTSC (P1484): Learning Technology Standards Committee

152 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 152 IEEE LTSC (P1484) As A Stakeholder The LTSC Roadmap IEEE LTSC (P1484) working groups (WGs) and study groups (SGs) each involve certain areas of LTSA Some LTSA components should not be standardized, e.g., evaluation methods, delivery systems Some LTSA components should be standardized outside LTSC (P1484), e.g., multimedia, education standards, cultural adaptation Strategy: Standardize smallest, useful, doable specification that has technically feasibility, commercial viability, and widespread adoption

153 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 153 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Technology That Should Not Be Standardized Example: Evaluation Evaluation should not be standardized because: –Process/methods are not well-defined or agreed upon –Value-added feature of learning technology systems However... inputs and outputs should be standardized: –Behavior coding methods –Learning content formats –Performance information –Assessment information Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

154 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 154 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Technology That Should Not Be Standardized Example: Delivery Delivery should not be standardized because: –Value-added feature of learning technology systems –Commercial vendors provide implementation quality with delivery systems However... inputs and outputs should be standardized: –Multimedia formats –Learning content format –Locators and launch methods –Standards profiles for browsers Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

155 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 155 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Technology Should Be Standardized Outside LTSC Example: Multimedia Formats Multimedia formats should be standardized outside LTSC because: –Not specific to learning technology –Other committees have more expertise However... standards profiles (collections) should be identified: –Can point to collections of existing standards, e.g., JPEG, GIF, MPEG –Dont lock into a single format to allow varying implementation quality Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

156 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 156 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Technology Should Be Standardized Outside LTSC Example: Education Standards Education standards should be standardized outside LTSC because: –Not technology standards –Highly political process –Local, national, and regional preferences... unable to build consensus However... education stds should build on learning technology using: –Common indexes (query, content, locator) for search/retrieval –Common formats for exchanging assessment/performance info –Common learning content structures for prerequisites and content aggregation Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

157 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 157 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t Learning Technology Should Be Standardized Outside LTSC Example: Cultural Adaptation Cultural adaptation should be standardized outside LTSC because: –Not specific to learning technology, e.g., color blindness, language preference –Other committees have more expertise, e.g., ISO/IEC JTC1 SC35 –Local, national, and regional preferences... unable to build consensus However... learning preferences can be identified independently, e.g.: –Learning styles –Mentoring/coaching/hinting preferences And... LTSC should collaborate with cultural adaptation committees Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

158 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 158 LTSC Guidelines for Working Groups Choosing a new working group (WG): –smallest, useful, doable specification –technically feasibility –commercial viability –widespread adoption LTSA describes technology, not WG structure No grand framework for new WGs (not ISO OSI) Large number of WGs, but many small standards Quick schedule: WG formation draft standard

159 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 159 IEEE LTSC (P1484) Working/Study Groups General Activities Architecture and Reference Model Glossary Learner-Related Activities Learner Model Task Model Student Identifiers User Interfaces Quality System for Life-Long Learning Competency Definitions Content-Related Activities CBT Data Interchange Course Sequencing Content Packaging Data and Metadata Learning Objects Metadata Localization Semantics and Exchange Bindings Data Interchange Protocols HTTP Bindings Mgmt. Systems & Applications Computer Managed Instruction Platform and Media Profiles Tool/Agent Comm Enterprise Interfaces

160 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 160 IEEE LTSC (P1484) General Activities IEEE Architecture and Reference Model IEEE Glossary

161 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 161 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Architecture and Reference Model WG Primary design issues: all components Secondary design issues: none Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

162 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 162 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Glossary WG Primary design issues: none Secondary design issues: all components Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

163 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 163 IEEE LTSC (P1484) Learner-Related Activities IEEE Learner Model IEEE Task Model IEEE Student Identifiers IEEE User Interface Icons IEEE Quality System for Life-Long Learning IEEE Competency Definitions

164 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 164 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Learner Model WG Primary design issues: learner entity, learning preferences, evaluation, performance info, assessment info, coach Secondary design issues: behavior Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

165 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 165 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Task Model WG Primary design issues: learner records, performance info (history) Secondary design issues: performance info (current, new) Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

166 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 166 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Student Identifiers (SID) WG Primary design issues: performance info, learner records Secondary design issues: learner, coach Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

167 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 167 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : User Interfaces WG Primary design issues: multimedia, behavior Secondary design issues: learner entity, learning preferences Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

168 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 168 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Quality System For Life-Long Learning WG Primary design issues: learner entity, evaluation, performance info, assessment info Secondary design issues: learning preferences, coach, learner records Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

169 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 169 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Competency Definitions WG Primary design issues: performance info, assessment info, learner records Secondary design issues: learner entity, learning preferences, evaluation, coach Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

170 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 170 IEEE LTSC (P1484) Content-Related Activities IEEE CBT data interchange IEEE Course sequencing IEEE Content packaging

171 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 171 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : CBT Data Interchange WG Primary design issues: coach, performance info, assessment info, query, catalog info (metadata), locator (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary design issues: learning preferences, behavior, learner records, learning resources, learning content, delivery Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

172 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 172 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Course Sequencing WG Primary design issues: coach, performance info, assessment info, query, catalog info (metadata), locator (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary design issues: learning preferences, learner records, learning resources, delivery, learning content Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

173 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 173 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Content Packaging WG Primary design issues: learning content, catalog info (metadata) Secondary design issues: coach, locator (e.g., URLs), delivery, learning resources Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

174 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 174 IEEE LTSC (P1484) Data and Metadata Activities IEEE Learning Objects Metadata IEEE Localization IEEE Semantics and Exchange Bindings IEEE Data Interchange Protocols IEEE HTTP Bindings

175 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 175 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Learning Objects Metadata (LOM) WG Primary design issues: catalog info (metadata), locator (e.g., URLs) Secondary design issues: coach, query, learning resources, locator, learning content, delivery Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

176 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 176 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Localization WG Primary design issues: catalog info (metadata), learning resources, learning content Secondary design issues: coach, query, locator (e.g., URLs), delivery Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

177 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 177 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Semantics and Exchange Bindings (SXB) WG Primary design issues: performance info, assessment info, catalog info, query Secondary design issues: evaluation, learner records, coach, learning resources Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

178 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 178 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Data Interchange Protocols WG Primary design issues: performance info, assessment info, catalog info, query Secondary design issues: evaluation, learner records, coach, learning resources Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

179 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 179 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : HTTP Bindings WG Primary design issues: performance info, assessment info, catalog info, query Secondary design issues: evaluation, learner records, coach Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

180 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 180 IEEE LTSC (P1484) Mgmt. Systems and Applications Activities IEEE Computer Managed Instruction IEEE Platform and Media Profiles IEEE Tool/Agent Communication IEEE Enterprise Interfaces

181 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 181 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) WG Primary design issues: performance info, assessment info, query, catalog info (metadata), locator (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary design issues: behavior, learner records, coach, learning resources, learning content, delivery Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

182 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 182 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Platform Profiles WG Primary design issues: delivery, learning content, locator (e.g., URLs), multimedia, learner entity, behavior, learner entity Secondary design issues: learning preferences, evaluation, coach, query, catalog info (metadata), learning resources Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

183 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 183 Learning Content Multimedia (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Tool/Agent Communication WG Primary design issues: coach, behavior, evaluation, assessment info, performance info, learner records, query, catalog info (metadata), locator (e.g., URLs) Secondary design issues: query, catalog info (metadata), learning resources, delivery Delivery Evaluation Coach Learning Resources Query (new) Behavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

184 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 184 Learning Content (history) A s s e s s m e n t A s s e s s m e n t IEEE : Enterprise Interfaces WG Primary design issues: learning preferences, performance info, learner records Secondary design issues: learner entity, coach Delivery Evaluation Learning Resources Query (new) MultimediaBehavior Learner Records Performance (current) Learner Entity Coach Performance/ Preferences Learning Preferences L o c a t o rL o c a t o r Catalog Info Locator Interaction Context

185 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 185 Related Standards/Specification Development Orgs: Education & Learning Technology LTSC (P1484) LTSC & JTC1/SC36: Close Collaboration ISO/IEC JTC1/SC36 GEM PROMETEUS GESTALT Current, existing Future possibilities

186 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 186 URLs For Accredited Standards Development Organizations ISO: International Standards Organization ISO/IEC Joint Technology Committee 1, Information Technology, ANSI: American National Standards Institute, IEEE: Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers, IEEE LTSC (P1484): Learning Technology Standards Committee,

187 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 187 URLs For Related SDOs/Consortia/Fora/Orgs European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Information Society Standardization System (ISSS), Learning Technology (LT) Workshop AICC: Aviation Industry CBT Committee, IMS Project, ARIADNE: Alliance of Remote Instructional Authoring and Distribution Networks of Europe

188 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 188 URLs For Related Consortia/Fora/Orgs PROmoting Multimedia access to Education and Training in EUropean Society GESTALT: Getting Educational Systems Talking Across Leading-edge Technologies GEM Project: Gateway to Education Materials ADL: DoD Advanced Distributed Learning

189 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 189 CEN/ISSS/LT: Learning Technology Workshop European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Information Society Standardization System (ISSS), Learning Technology (LT) Workshop Related activities: CEN/ISSS/MMI (multi- media metadata information) More info:

190 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 190 CEN/ISSS/LT: Learning Technology Workshop Topics: –Reusability and Interoperability, Metadata, Taxonomies, Vocabularies, Bindings, Profiles, Internationalization, Structure of Learning Resources, Architectures, Rights Management, Data Protection and Privacy, Accreditation and Access

191 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 191 AICC: Aviation Industry CBT Committee Develops guidelines and recommendations for CBT in aviation applications Subject areas: Courseware Delivery Stations, Digital Audio, Digital Video, Operating Windowing System, CBT Peripheral Devices, Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), Courseware Interchange, Smart Graphics, Icon Standards More info:

192 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 192 IMS Project Main areas of current/past development: –Metadata: learning technology metadata –Enterprise Interfaces: back office integration –Question/Test Interoperability: common testing –Profiles: learner records –Content objects: learning content, course structure –Content launch: starting/invoking content –Content packaging: bundling content –Management systems: collaboration, reporting –External services: interface to institution More info:

193 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 193 ARIADNE (European Union) Alliance of Remote Instructional Authoring and Distribution Networks for Europe Telematics for education and training Tools and methodologies for producing, managing and reusing computer-based pedagogical elements Telematics-supported training curricula Learning technology metadata Working with IMS on metadata More info:

194 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 194 PROMETEUS PROmoting Multimedia access to Education and Training in EUropean Society Topics: –Interchange, reusability, and portability of multimedia education material –New way of corporate learning, using information and communication technologies –Organizational and cooperative learning –Higher education best practices

195 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 195 PROMETEUS Topics (contd): –Web-based open and distance learning –Broadcasting-based learning –Primary and secondary school learning environments based on information and communication technologies –How to create self-sustainable new learning service and businesses –Design of electronic learning environments –Interoperability of learning services

196 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 196 PROMETEUS: Further / Future Work Areas Multilinguality and multiculturablity Intellectual property rights Knowledge and skills assessment Quality methods Disabled, handicapped & elderly learning... any appropriate topic, through new SIG creation procedure More info:

197 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 197 GESTALT GESTALT: Getting Educational Systems Talking Across Leading-edge Technologies LOM and PAPI implementations More info:

198 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 198 GEM: Gateway to Education Materials Cataloging and Tools More info:

199 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 199 ADL: DoD Advanced Distributed Learning Research and development areas: –Scalable Content Object Reference Model (SCO-RM) –Promote widespread collaboration –Exploit Internet technologies –Develop next generation learning technologies –Create reusable content, and lower costs, with object-based tools More info:

200 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 200 Layer 5: Operational Components Common components that build the system Operational components may serve several functions Several system components may be implemented via the same operational components, e.g., performance info and learning content both coded as XML (an operational component)

201 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 201 Layer 5: Operational Components (contd) Operational components are identified by: –Systems, e.g., clients and servers –Connectors (interface protocols), e.g., HTTP, PPP –Busses (namespaces), e.g., URLs, telephone numbers Components (systems) on a bus can talk to each other via interface protocols

202 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 202 Layer 5: System Interoperability 120+ Stakeholder Perspectives/PrioritiesLayer 4 Human-Centered/Pervasive FeaturesLayer 2 Environment Interactions Layer 1 Learner/ Environment Interactions L L L Learner Entity Layer 3 LTSA System Components L CI LP B M PP P A D LE E C LR R IC Q LC L Layer 5 APIs, Codings, & Protocols Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics APIs Codings Protocols Calling Data Comm. Conv. Formats Layers

203 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 203 Methodology: Work Flow And Progressive Deliverables Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers The Steps of Building Successful Information Technology Standards/Specifications The work flow/steps promote (1) consensus-building, and (2) long-term stability, interpretation, maintenance of the standard/specification. Consensus-building is incremental. Interpretation/maintenance is stabilized: each level is dependent on higher levels.Interpretation Examples: - Ambiguities in bindings are resolved by interpreting the semantics; - Ambiguities in semantics are resolved by interpreting the conceptual model.

204 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 204 Requirements: User/Institution Needs and Desirables Informative, not part of standard => only conform to interoperability Examples: –Administration apps, e.g, campus directory –Learning content access to student info –Record grades Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers

205 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 205 Requirements: Sources and Influences Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers Requirements Functionality HL7, CORBAMED, TEPR, Z39.50 IMS, AICC, UK, CSU, UC, SIF, DoD/ATSC, NYS, UC, SPEEDE Various Vendors And Products Related Industries Industry-Specific Other Sources Requirements are gathered from industry- specific (application-related) organizations, related industries, and other sources. Requirements Requirements are only informative (improves reading the standard), not normative, i.e., not required by conforming implementations.

206 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 206 Functionality: What It Does Stores, retrieves, searches learning content Partition into functional areas Examples: –Partition into personal, preference, performance, portfolio info –Get/put values/records Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers

207 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 207 Functionality: Sources and Influences Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers Functionality Conceptual Model OMG, IETF, LDAP, VCard, DoD DMSO AICC, IMS, ARIADNE, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC35, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG11 Various Vendors, I18N, L10N, CAW Requirements Related Industries Industry- Specific Other Sources Functionality is based on requirements, with influences from industry-specific organizations, related industries, and other sources. Requirements Functionality

208 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 208 Conceptual Model: How A Virtual Implementation Works Theory of Operation Examples: –Application opens repository/mgmt system –Authentication –Scan/search for data –Read/write data –Multiple open sessions –Close sessions Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers

209 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 209 Conceptual Model: Sources and Influences Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers Conceptual Model Semantics Kerberos, FTP, SMTP, HTTP, Sandia NL, X12 ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC2/WG2, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG11, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG14 ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG20, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG21, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC32/WG2 Functionality Data Interchange Related Stds The conceptual model of a standard based on its functionality, with influences from data interchange and service standards/specifications, and related standards/specifications. Functionality Conceptual Model

210 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 210 Semantics: Detailed Meaning Of Operations/Transactions Assertions: sentences using shall, should, or may Inquiries: range of values Negotiations: heuristics Examples: –Array: list of elements of same type in regular structure –PutValue : replaces old object, in place Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers

211 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 211 Semantics: Sources and Influences Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers Semantics Bindings: APIs C, C++, SQL, LISP, Java, Javascript, POSIX, Tcl, APL FTP, HTTP, MIME, RFC 822, CORBA, W3C P3P ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG11, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC32/WG2, NCITS L8, NCITS T2 Conceptual Model Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Language-Related Protocols Related Stds A standards semantics are based on its conceptual model, protocols, programming languages, related standards/specifications. Conceptual Model Semantics APIs, Codings, Protocols

212 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 212 APIs, Codings, Protocols All Three Are Required [1/6] Semantics are bound to APIs, codings, and protocols Designing for all three produces more coherent, harmonized design Different stakeholders have different foci: –some want only APIs –some want only codings –some want only protocols –some want a combination APIs, codings, and protocols can re-use, re-target, or re-apply existing standards

213 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 213 APIs, Codings, Protocols All Three Are Required [2/6] Motivation for not standardizing APIs: –Only interested in system-to-system interoperability, i.e., focus is on codings or protocols What happens if APIs are not standardized? –Each application develops its own libraries –Code and application reusability is greatly decreased because no common API or API framework –Much effort is spent reinventing the wheel by building low-level subsystems that provide services normally supplied by APIs

214 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 214 APIs, Codings, Protocols All Three Are Required [3/6] Motivation for not standardizing codings: –Programmers only use (standard) APIs –Codings are not necessary because databases are proprietary –Too hard: vendor, user, institutional variants/extensions What happens if codings are not standardized? –Each application develops its own data model and representation –Exchanging data among systems becomes impractical because of data model incompatibilities –Data representation incompatibilities much data mediation and conversion

215 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 215 APIs, Codings, Protocols All Three Are Required [4/6] Motivation for not standardizing protocols: –Only (standard) APIs are necessary, protocols are vendors value-added feature, thus proprietary –Only (standard) codings are necessary... just point me to the data, protocols are lower implementation details What happens if protocols are not standardized? –Each (proprietary) implementation develops its own protocols to communicate across wide area networks –Proprietary solutions produce islands of interoperability –Wide area, multi-vendor solutions become impossible

216 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 216 APIs, Codings, Protocols All Three Are Required [5/6] Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols - Std APIs may be implemented via std or proprietary Protocols - Std Protocols may be accessed by std or proprietary APIs - Both std APIs/Protocols improve wide area interoperability - Std APIs may use std or proprietary Codings - Std Codings may be used by std or proprietary APIs - Both std APIs/Codings improve portable apps/data - Std Protocols may use std or proprietary Codings - Std Codings may be exchanged via std or proprietary Protocols - Both std Protocols/Codings improve system interoperability Harmonized standard APIs, Codings, and Protocols promote: - Application portability - Data portability - Multi-vendor, open solutions - Wide area, end-to-end interoperability

217 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 217 APIs, Codings, Protocols All Three Are Required [6/6] Common APIs: –Application portability –Separation of application and low-level implementation Common codings: –Representation of information –File/exchange formats, portable data Common protocols: –Necessary for multi-vendor and wide area networking –Internet relies on common protocols, not common APIs Common APIs, codings, protocols: –All are necessary

218 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 218 Codings vs. Encodings Codings: the structure and representation of information –Examples: XML, Tcl, tabbed, object-oriented, Java binding Encodings: the bit/byte representation and format –Examples: ASCII, ISO 10646, IEEE floating point, UNIX x86 calling conventions Both coding and encoding example: –The name shall be coded in XML as … … and encoded in ASCII.

219 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 219 Bindings: Mappings to Other Standards Frameworks Bindings to APIs Bindings to codings (information organization) Bindings to protocols Examples: –APIs: C/C++, VB, Perl, Java, Javascript –Codings: XML, TCL –Protocols: HTTP, DCTP Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers

220 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 220 Encodings: Bit/Octet Data Representation and Format Not to be confused with codings Examples: –POSIX/Win32 subroutine linkage –ASCII, ISO , UTF8 –IETF text format Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers

221 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 221 Bindings -> Encodings [1/6] Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers Bindings: APIs Encodings: Calling Conventions C/C++, VB, Perl, Java/Javascript, LISP, Tcl Sandia NL, Various Vendors and Products ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG11 LID, LIA, LIPC, OMG CORBA Semantics C/C++, JVM, RPC, RMI, RSH, RCMD, EDI POSIX, ELF, Win32, INETD Language-Related Other Related Stds Language/Protocol-Related OS-Related Semantics, programming languages, related standards and other specifications influence APIs... APIs are represented as calling conventions. Semantics APIs Calling Conventions

222 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 222 Bindings -> Encodings [2/6] APIs -> Calling Conventions APIs include... –Programming language interfaces –Command line interfaces –Remote procedure calls Calling Conventions include... –Subroutine/module linkage –Process environment –Name resolution, network transport

223 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 223 Bindings -> Encodings [3/6] Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers Bindings: Codings Encodings: Data Formats C/C++, LISP, Tcl, APL, tab-separated, COM, CORBA SGML, HTML, XML, XMI, ASN.1, CDIF, NCITS T2,T3,L8 ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC2, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC32, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC34 Semantics ISO , 10646, JIS X208, X209, Unicode, ASN.1 ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC2/WG2, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG14, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC35, IETF Related Stds/Specs Related Stds Stds Activity Related Stds Stds Activity Semantics, information codings, and related standards/specifications influence codings... codings are represented as data formats. Semantics Codings Data Formats

224 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 224 Bindings -> Encodings [4/6] Codings -> Data Formats Codings include... –Record structures –File structures –Directory/folder structures Data Formats include... –Character sets, character set extensions –Local, regional, remote pointers/linkage –Namespace, scoping, and syntax conventions

225 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 225 Bindings -> Encodings [5/6] Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Various Communication Layers CGI, AICC CMI, EDI, CORBAMED, DC, TELNET, FTP HTTP, DCTP, CORBA, WebDAV, IEEE , CeBus IETF, W3C, TIA, NCITS, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC6, ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC25 Semantics ISO OSI, TELNET, FTP, IEEE ASCII, ISO , ISO 10646, UTF8 Related Stds/Specs Stds/Specs Stds Activity Communication Features Octet Encodings Semantics, networking protocols, and related standards/specifications influence protocols... protocols are represented as various communication layers. Semantics Protocols Communication Layers

226 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 226 Bindings -> Encodings [6/6] Protocols -> Communication Layers Protocols include... –Application, presentation, session layers –Transaction sets –Network replication, publish/subscribe Communication Layers include... –Presentation, session, transport, network layers –Distributed object/data/process frameworks –Connectivity/reliability frameworks

227 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 227 A Framework for Harmonized/Consistent... Bindings: APIs, Codings, Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions, Data Formats, Communication Layers Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIsBindings: CodingsBindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers Topic-Specific Informative Wording Topic-Specific Normative Wording Cross-Topic Codings: XML Cross-Topic APIs Informative Wording Cross-Topic APIs: Normative Wording Java, JavaScript, C/C++, Perl, Tcl, VB Various Standards Cross-Topic Protocols e.g.: Session Layers Various Standards Requirements

228 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 228 LTSC Cross-Working Group Bindings for IEEE 1484.X: APIs & Codings: IEEE Protocols: IEEE , (IEEE 1484.X is:.2,.4,.6,.7,.8,.10., 11., 12.,.17) Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIsBindings: CodingsBindings: Protocols Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Various Communication Layers IEEE 1484.X Informative Wording IEEE 1484.X Normative Wording IEEE 1484.X, IEEE XML IEEE SDA Informative Wording IEEE 1484.X, IEEE SDA Normative Wording IEEE 1484.X, , And Other Standards IEEE DCTP, IEEE HTTP Various Standards Requirements

229 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 229 Summary of Five LTSA Abstraction-Implementation Layers 120+ Stakeholder Perspectives/PrioritiesLayer 4 Human-Centered/Pervasive FeaturesLayer 2 Environment Interactions Layer 1 Learner/ Environment Interactions L L L Learner Entity Layer 3 LTSA System Components L CI LP B M PP P A D LE E C LR R IC Q LC L Layer 5 APIs, Codings, & Protocols Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics APIs Codings Protocols Calling Data Comm. Conv. Formats Layers

230 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 230 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 1: –Learning experience: learners interacting with the environment –A learner entity (abstraction) may represent several learners (humans) –From information technology perspective, flow is one-way: environment ==> learner –Collaboration is within the learner abstraction

231 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 231 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 2: –Because the learner abstraction is implemented with humans (human learner), rather implemented with computers (machine learning), the nature of humans has pervasive effect on system design –Fundamental limits of human communication

232 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 232 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 2 (contd): –Humans arent reliable receivers of information: retransmission –Humans arent predictable receivers of information: different strategies –Humans learn differently (and over time): customizable, configurable

233 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 233 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 3: –System notation: process, store, flow –Human-centered feedback loop: learner, behavior, evaluation, assessment, coach, delivery, multimedia –More intelligence from learning content: need learner records and performance records –Learner has different teachers during his/her lifetime: learner records facilitates hand-off

234 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 234 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 3 (contd): –Humans each learn differently (and learn differently over time): rich learning resources required; queries and catalog info (metadata) make best use of learning resources –Learners and their surrogates (e.g, parent, mentor) negotiate learning preferences with coaches and their surrogates (e.g., institution, teacher, courseware developer)

235 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 235 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 4: –Stakeholders each have own, incomplete perspectives –All stakeholders perspectives are incorporated in LTSA system components diagram –IEEE 1484: working groups specifying critical interfaces; some technical standards outside of 1484; education standards are necessary but outside scope of 1484 and technical standards

236 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 236 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 5: –Bus notation: bus, connector, system –Operational components: actual implementation –One operational component (e.g., HTTP) might be used by several system components (e.g., learner records, learning resources) –One system component (e.g., delivery) might use several operational components (e.g., HTTP, HTML, MPEG)

237 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 237 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 5 (contd): –Bus may be used for several purposes –Systems on bus share common namespace, e.g., URLs, process IDs, object IDs –Systems may be connected, simultaneously, to several busses

238 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 238 LTSA Layer Summary (contd) Layer 5 (contd): –Systems dynamically connect, on-demand to other systems (e.g., clients to servers) –System connectivity is not pre-arranged –Connections (protocols) may serve several purposes (e.g., XML used for performance records and learning content; MIDI used for behavior and multimedia)

239 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 239 LTSA Conformance LTSA conforming products/services –provide the critical interfaces (functionality) that conform to one or more components of LTSA: Learner (Collaboration), Behavior, Evaluation, Performance, Learner Records, Coach, Query (search), Catalog Info (metadata), Locator (e.g., URLs), Learning Resources, Delivery, Multimedia –identify the protocols that describe the bus interface –identify the interface point

240 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 240 LTSA Conformance LTSA conforming products/services Measuring conformance: the system under test is called the implementation under test A system that conforms to the LTSA specification is called a conforming implementation A conforming implementation shall conform to all five layers.

241 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 241 LTSA Layer 1 Conformance Validating Learner-Environment interactions The implementation under test shall identify the boundaries of the Environment, the flows of Interactions, and the Learner Entity. The implementation under test shall identify the Learner Entity's relationship to human Learners. Examples of Learner Entity/Learner relationship: –Is the Learner Entity represented by more than one Learner? –Is there collaboration among the Learner?

242 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 242 LTSA Layer 2 Conformance Validating human-centered/pervasive features based upon human strengths and weaknesses The implementation under test shall identify the methods for addressing the human-centered/ pervasive features: –self-directed learning –unreliable learners –unpredictable and diverse learners –nomadic learners –learners influence on learning preferences

243 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 243 LTSA Layer 3 Conformance Validating decomposition into LTSA system components The implementation under test shall identify the available LTSA system components: Learner Entity, Learning Preferences, Behavior, Evaluation, Performance and Preference Info, Learner Records, Assessment, Coach, Query, Catalog Info, Locator, Learning Resources, Learning Content, Delivery, Multimedia, Interaction Context.

244 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 244 LTSA Layer 4 Conformance Identifying which LTSA subset (stakeholder) is applicable stakeholders can be any subset, not limited to the examples in the LTSA specification Mapping LTSA system components to actual implementation components The implementation under test shall identify the subset of applicable LTSA system components. The implementation under test shall identify the boundaries and mapping of LTSA system components.

245 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 245 LTSA Layer 5 Conformance Identifying the information busses bus protocols and topology not limited to examples in LTSA specification The implementation under test shall identify the information busses in use, their namespace, control protocols, and mapping to LTSA system components.

246 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 246 Open Issues Verifying/validating conformance clauses Conversion to IEEE style guide Ongoing verification/validation of existing/new frameworks Track comments/issues from related committees, such as: ADL, AICC, ARIADNE, CEN/ISSS/LT, GEM, GESTALT, IMS, PROMETEUS Write Rationale annex

247 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 247 Summary [1/2] Yourdon (systems notation): tried and true Bus notation used for larger number of component Five abstraction-implementation layers: –Learner and environment interactions –Human-centered/pervasive features –System components –Stakeholder perspectives –Operational components

248 IEEE , LTSA Presentation, F. Farance, ©1999 Edutool.Com 248 Summary [2/2] Wide range of implementations supported All identified stakeholders perspectives mapped to LTSA Reflects commercial systems


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