Presentation on theme: "UMTS and Beyond Prof. Hamid Aghvami"— Presentation transcript:
1UMTS and Beyond Prof. Hamid Aghvami Centre for Telecommunications Research - King’s College LondonWireless Multimedia Communications Ltd
2Mobile System Generations First Generation (1G) mobile systems were designed to offer a single service, i.e., speech.Second Generation (2G) mobile systems were also designed primarily to offer speech with a limited capability to offer data at low rates.Third Generation (3G) mobile systems are expected to offer high-quality multi-media services and operate in different environments.3G systems are referred to as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe and International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT2000) worldwide.
3UMTS“UMTS will be a mobile communications system that can offer significant user benefits including high-quality wireless multimedia services to a convergent network of fixed, cellular and satellite components.It will deliver information directly to users and provide them with access to new and innovative services and applications.It will offer mobile personalised communications to the mass market regardless of location, network and terminal used”.UMTS Forum 1997
4UMTS Main Requirements (3 Ms) Multi-mediaMulti-environmentMulti-operator Virtual operators
7First phase of UMTSEurope has decided to adopt an evolutionary approach for the UMTS core network based on migration from the GSM/GPRS infrastructure.For the actual air interface, a revolutionary approach has been chosen. That is a new radio air interface for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA).There is another parallel activity concerning the UMTS air interface using an evolutionary approach (an intermediate approach).
8Evolution approach based on GSM Infrastructure Public NetworkRadio AccessDual-modeEvolvedGSMRadio Access(GERAN)NSSAndGSN’sPSTNN-ISDNB-ISDNIP-basedNetworksNewRadio Access(UTRAN)Dual-modeEvolution approach based on GSM InfrastructureEvolution Approach
9Evolutionary approach for the GSM Air Interface In this approach the GSM air interface has evolved within GSM phase 2+ to support higher rate data services. The most important developments in this approach are:1. General Packet Radio Services (GPRS )2. High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD )3. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE )It is referred to GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN)
10.….. …… UMTS – Phase I PDN Internet PSTN HLR GGSN SGSN RNC RNC …. …. … GcCGGSNCircuit Switched(GSM)GMSCGrPacket Switched(GPRS)DGnGsSGSNSMSC/VLR.…..Iu,psIu,csIu,csIu,ps……RNCRNC….….UTRAN……Node BNode BNode BNode B
11Legacy mobilesignallingnetworkApplications& ServicesMultimediaIP networksSGWMhMmMsHSS(HLR)CSCFCxMgGiMrGiGrMRFGcTEMTGERANGiMGCFRUmMcIu-PSSGSNGGSNPSTN/legacy/externalGnGpGiMGWTEMTUTRANEIRRUuGfGnGGSNOther PLMNSGSNSignalling interfaceSignalling and data transfer interfaceSimplified architecture for the support of IP-based multimedia services in 3GPP release 5
12New Functional Entities for the All IP Architecture Call State Control Function (CSCF) executes the call control. It is based on theIETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).Media GateWay (MGW) provides an inter-connection from GGSN to legacycircuit-switched networks such as PSTN.Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) controls the MGW.Media Resource Function (MRF) performs multiparty call and multimediaconferencing functions.Signalling GateWay (SGW) performs signalling conversion to/from legacymobile signalling network.Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is an evolved HLR.
14What does “user controlled services” mean? 4G ConceptWhat does “user controlled services” mean?“ The user has freedom and flexibility to select any desired service with reasonable QoS and affordable price, anytime, anywhere using any device in a secure manner”
15What does “context-aware applications” mean? 4G ConceptWhat does “context-aware applications” mean?“ A context-aware application means the behaviour of the application adapts itself to user context changes. User context includes:-user profile and preferences.-user device and access network capabilities.-user environment and mobility. ”
16Reconfigurable Technology TechnologiesChallengesConvergence/integration/inter-working of all existing and emerging fixed and mobile (wired and wireless) networks including broadcastSimple to select and easy to use desired servicesUniversal and low cost terminalsIP TechnologyAgent TechnologyReconfigurable Technology
18Interworking/Integration For the design of next generation wireless networks two different approachesare currently being considered. They are:- Interworking with next generation Internet (tight coupling)- Integration within next generation Internet (very tight coupling)In the first approach, the access network and the core network use different IPprotocols and mechanisms and only the core network is considered as asub-network of the Internet.In the second approach, both the core and access networks use common IPbased protocols and mechanisms and the access network is considered as asub-network of the Internet.
20General architecture of the IP-based IMT network platform IntegrationApplicationsAP1AP2AP3APnMiddlewareService support sub-layerLocationAccounting/billingMedia conversionDistributionBasic network management sub-layerRRMMMC/SMSecurityQoSISDN/PSTNIP-based transport NWIPIPIPIPRadioInternetIPIPRadioIPRadioGeneral architecture of the IP-based IMT network platform
21Hierarchical coverage layers for 4G IP-based backboneGlobal coverageSatelliteRegional coverageDAB and DVB-T, DVB-SNational coverage2G, 3G and 4G CellularLocal area coverageWireless LANsPersonal area coverageWireless PANsVertical HandoverHorizontal Handover
22From a user prospective The complexity of the problem: user prospectiveFrom a user prospectiveMultiple Heterogeneous network operatorspart ofMultiple user environmentsaccessed usingMultiple heterogeneous devicesowned byheterogeneous users
23From a network prospective The complexity of the problem: network prospectiveFrom a network prospectiveMultiple Heterogeneous network operatorsprovidingMultiple servicesthroughmultiple access networkstousers with heterogeneous devices
30Inter-working examples user centricDelivery optionsNetwork provides device delivery optionsincluding cost and delivery timesUser selects desired destinationContent DeliveryNotificationContent: video clip(15MB)Service: Music ClipsCompany: MTVPlease select delivery optionsSend to PDA (5 eur) –15minSend to office PC (10 eur) –7minSend to STB (20 eur)-2minSlide:30-40
31Inter-working examples – network centric Load balancing i.e. Using DVB to multicast or broadcast to large number of usersHandovers i.e. Users in train moving outside the coverage of a networkSlide:31-40
32Network Selection Service Type Available Resources User Context Most Appropriate Network Selection CriteriaService Type- Data rate- QoSAvailable ResourcesUser Context- Environment (When and Where)- Mobility- User preferences
33Convergence of Cellular Mobile Networks and WLANs BenefitsFor cellular mobile operatorsHigher bandwidths.Lower cost of networks and equipment.The use of licence-exempt spectrum.Higher capacity and QoS enhancement.Higher revenue.For usersAccess to broadband multimedia services with lower cost and wheremostly needed (e.g. in Central Business Districts and BusinessCustomer Premises).Inter-network roaming.
34Convergence of Mobile Communications and Broadcasting DriversFrom broadcaster point of viewIntroducing interactivity to their unidirectional point-to-multipointbroadcasting systems. That is, a broadband downlink based onDAB/DVB-T and a narrowband uplink based on 2G/3G cellularsystems.From the cellular mobile operator point of viewProviding a complementary broadband downlink in vehicularenvironments to support IP-based multi-media traffic which isinherently asymmetrical.
35ConvergenceBenefitsBroadcasters will benefit from the use of cellular mobile systems toadapt the content of their multi-media services more rapidly inresponse to the feedback from customers.Cellular operators will benefit from offering their customers a range ofnew broadband multi-media services in vehicular environments.Users will benefit from faster access to a range of broadband multi-media services with reasonable QoS and lower cost.
37Additional IP Functions IP Layer Model for WLANsHigher LayersAdditional IP FunctionsMobility ManagementQuality of ServiceAAAIP SecAd-Hoc Routingetc.IP Network LayerNative IP Functions:RoutingAddressingPacket Formatting and HandlingData InterfaceError ControlBuffer ManagementQoS SupportSegmentation/ReassemblyHeader CompressionMulticast SupportControl InterfaceConfiguration ManagementAddress ManagementQoS ControlHandover ControlIdle Mode SupportSecurity ManagementIP Convergence LayerLower Layers
38IP Layer ModelThe functionalities and structure of the IP layer model are notsufficient and/or efficient to achieve the requirements of futureinter-worked or integrated networks.No fundamental changes have been made in the design of IPV6.The question is:“ Are some radical changes needed to the IP layer model inorder to offer better solutions to the convergence issue?” If yes,what are the consequences and implications?
39Agent Definition“ An agent is a software component (object) that is situated within an execution environment (e.g. computers) and acts autonomously on behalf of a user or process and has specific goal.”2G, 3GWLAN…APAP: Agent PlatformService Centre
40Agent Technology Mandatory features Reactive: senses changes in the environment andreacts in accordance.Autonomous: has control over its own actionsGoal-driven: is pro-activeOptional featuresCollaborative: communicates/negotiates with otheragentsMobile: travels from one host to anotherLearning: adapts in accordance with previousexperienceBelievable: appears believable to the end-user.
41Mobile vs. Static Agents requestrespondClientServerrequestrespondClientServer“Software components that can migrate under their own control from host to host in a network or between networks”
42Mobile Agents Mobile agents have already been used for network monitoring and service delivery including educationat a distance.In an ever-increasing world of service providers andservice packages, a user demands a simpleapproach to the selection of the desired service andits delivery mechanism in real-time with least effort.This can be achieved through the use of mobileagents.The use of mobile agents can also overcomethe constraints imposed on applications bythe limited processing power and speed ofmobile terminals.
43Agent Technology An open question: Static or mobile agents for wireless networks?What are the pros and cons?
44Re-configurable Technology What does Reconfiguration mean? “Reconfiguration refers to the software re-definition and/or adaptation of every element within each layer of the communication chain.”RF Front EndA/D ConverterD/A ConverterBaseband ProcessingUserData
45Re-configurable Technology BenefitsUsers- Select network depending on service requirements and cost.- Connect to any network – Worldwide roaming.-Access to new services.Operators- Respond to variations in traffic demand (load balancing).- Incorporate service enhancements and improvements.- Correction of software bugs and upgrade of terminals.- Rapid development of new personalised and customised servicesManufacturers- Single platform for all markets.- Increased flexible and efficient production.
46Re-configuration Procedures TriggerInitiated by network operator or userMode MonitoringMode IdentificationWhat networks are available?Mode NegotiationWhat is the most suitable network (based on QoS, user preferences etc.)?Mode Switch DecisionDecision on preferred modeDownload software modules that are required for the target modeSoftware DownloadReconfigure Terminal
47Re-configurable Technology CHALLENGESRegulatory and Standardisation issues.Business models.User preference profiles.Inter-system handover mechanisms and criteria.Software download mechanisms.Flexible spectrum allocation and sharing between operators.Enabling Technologies (RF and antenna elements, ADC/DAC etc.)
48Conclusion 4G Vision Reconfigurable IP Technology Technology Agent Technology