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UMTS and Beyond Prof. Hamid Aghvami

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Presentation on theme: "UMTS and Beyond Prof. Hamid Aghvami"— Presentation transcript:

1 UMTS and Beyond Prof. Hamid Aghvami
Centre for Telecommunications Research - King’s College London Wireless Multimedia Communications Ltd

2 Mobile System Generations
First Generation (1G) mobile systems were designed to offer a single service, i.e., speech. Second Generation (2G) mobile systems were also designed primarily to offer speech with a limited capability to offer data at low rates. Third Generation (3G) mobile systems are expected to offer high-quality multi-media services and operate in different environments. 3G systems are referred to as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe and International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT2000) worldwide.

3 UMTS “UMTS will be a mobile communications system that can offer significant user benefits including high-quality wireless multimedia services to a convergent network of fixed, cellular and satellite components. It will deliver information directly to users and provide them with access to new and innovative services and applications. It will offer mobile personalised communications to the mass market regardless of location, network and terminal used”. UMTS Forum 1997

4 UMTS Main Requirements (3 Ms)
Multi-media Multi-environment Multi-operator Virtual operators

5 Mobile Multimedia Services

6 Different Environments for UMTS

7 First phase of UMTS Europe has decided to adopt an evolutionary approach for the UMTS core network based on migration from the GSM/GPRS infrastructure. For the actual air interface, a revolutionary approach has been chosen. That is a new radio air interface for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA). There is another parallel activity concerning the UMTS air interface using an evolutionary approach (an intermediate approach).

8 Evolution approach based on GSM Infrastructure
Public Network Radio Access Dual-mode Evolved GSM Radio Access (GERAN) NSS And GSN’s PSTN N-ISDN B-ISDN IP-based Networks New Radio Access (UTRAN) Dual-mode Evolution approach based on GSM Infrastructure Evolution Approach

9 Evolutionary approach for the GSM Air Interface
In this approach the GSM air interface has evolved within GSM phase 2+ to support higher rate data services. The most important developments in this approach are: 1. General Packet Radio Services (GPRS ) 2. High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD ) 3. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE ) It is referred to GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN)

10 .….. …… UMTS – Phase I PDN Internet PSTN HLR GGSN SGSN RNC RNC …. …. …
Gc C GGSN Circuit Switched (GSM) GMSC Gr Packet Switched (GPRS) D Gn Gs SGSN SMSC/ VLR .….. Iu,ps Iu,cs Iu,cs Iu,ps …… RNC RNC …. …. UTRAN Node B Node B Node B Node B

11 Legacy mobile signalling network Applications & Services Multimedia IP networks SGW Mh Mm Ms HSS (HLR) CSCF Cx Mg Gi Mr Gi Gr MRF Gc TE MT GERAN Gi MGCF R Um Mc Iu-PS SGSN GGSN PSTN/ legacy/external Gn Gp Gi MGW TE MT UTRAN EIR R Uu Gf Gn GGSN Other PLMN SGSN Signalling interface Signalling and data transfer interface Simplified architecture for the support of IP-based multimedia services in 3GPP release 5

12 New Functional Entities for the All IP Architecture
Call State Control Function (CSCF) executes the call control. It is based on the IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Media GateWay (MGW) provides an inter-connection from GGSN to legacy circuit-switched networks such as PSTN. Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) controls the MGW. Media Resource Function (MRF) performs multiparty call and multimedia conferencing functions. Signalling GateWay (SGW) performs signalling conversion to/from legacy mobile signalling network. Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is an evolved HLR.

13 user controlled services context-aware applications
4G Concept Towards 4G User centric, user controlled services and context-aware applications

14 What does “user controlled services” mean?
4G Concept What does “user controlled services” mean? “ The user has freedom and flexibility to select any desired service with reasonable QoS and affordable price, anytime, anywhere using any device in a secure manner”

15 What does “context-aware applications” mean?
4G Concept What does “context-aware applications” mean? “ A context-aware application means the behaviour of the application adapts itself to user context changes. User context includes: -user profile and preferences. -user device and access network capabilities. -user environment and mobility. ”

16 Reconfigurable Technology
Technologies Challenges Convergence/integration/inter-working of all existing and emerging fixed and mobile (wired and wireless) networks including broadcast Simple to select and easy to use desired services Universal and low cost terminals IP Technology Agent Technology Reconfigurable Technology

17 Network Level Concepts
Inter-working Concept Integration Concept

18 Interworking/Integration
For the design of next generation wireless networks two different approaches are currently being considered. They are: - Interworking with next generation Internet (tight coupling) - Integration within next generation Internet (very tight coupling) In the first approach, the access network and the core network use different IP protocols and mechanisms and only the core network is considered as a sub-network of the Internet. In the second approach, both the core and access networks use common IP based protocols and mechanisms and the access network is considered as a sub-network of the Internet.

19 Context-aware information
Inter-Working Billing SIP Proxy Server Signalling Gateway ISP VHE WAP Accounting The Internet IP backbone Satellite FES Context-aware information Centre Broadcast Networks (DAB, DVB-T) GSM / GPRS IP-based micro-mobility UMTS Wireless LANs

20 General architecture of the IP-based IMT network platform
Integration Applications AP1 AP2 AP3 APn Middleware Service support sub-layer Location Accounting/billing Media conversion Distribution Basic network management sub-layer RRM MM C/SM Security QoS ISDN/ PSTN IP-based transport NW IP IP IP IP Radio Internet IP IP Radio IP Radio General architecture of the IP-based IMT network platform

21 Hierarchical coverage layers for 4G
IP-based backbone Global coverage Satellite Regional coverage DAB and DVB-T, DVB-S National coverage 2G, 3G and 4G Cellular Local area coverage Wireless LANs Personal area coverage Wireless PANs Vertical Handover Horizontal Handover

22 From a user prospective
The complexity of the problem: user prospective From a user prospective Multiple Heterogeneous network operators part of Multiple user environments accessed using Multiple heterogeneous devices owned by heterogeneous users

23 From a network prospective
The complexity of the problem: network prospective From a network prospective Multiple Heterogeneous network operators providing Multiple services through multiple access networks to users with heterogeneous devices

24 A Heterogeneous Network Architecture
UTRAN WLAN 4G RAN PAN Wireless Access Network Core Network Future Internet Intra - Cell PAN Ad hoc Network

25 Inter-working between two radio access networks
Open coupling

26 Inter-working between two radio access networks
Loose coupling

27 Inter-working between two radio access networks
Tight coupling

28 Inter-working between two radio access networks
Very tight coupling

29 Inter-working examples - caching

30 Inter-working examples
user centric Delivery options Network provides device delivery options including cost and delivery times User selects desired destination Content Delivery Notification Content: video clip(15MB) Service: Music Clips Company: MTV Please select delivery options Send to PDA (5 eur) –15min Send to office PC (10 eur) –7min Send to STB (20 eur)-2min Slide:30-40

31 Inter-working examples – network centric
Load balancing i.e. Using DVB to multicast or broadcast to large number of users Handovers i.e. Users in train moving outside the coverage of a network Slide:31-40

32 Network Selection Service Type Available Resources User Context
Most Appropriate Network Selection Criteria Service Type - Data rate - QoS Available Resources User Context - Environment (When and Where) - Mobility - User preferences

33 Convergence of Cellular Mobile Networks and WLANs
Benefits For cellular mobile operators Higher bandwidths. Lower cost of networks and equipment. The use of licence-exempt spectrum. Higher capacity and QoS enhancement. Higher revenue. For users Access to broadband multimedia services with lower cost and where mostly needed (e.g. in Central Business Districts and Business Customer Premises). Inter-network roaming.

34 Convergence of Mobile Communications and Broadcasting
Drivers From broadcaster point of view Introducing interactivity to their unidirectional point-to-multipoint broadcasting systems. That is, a broadband downlink based on DAB/DVB-T and a narrowband uplink based on 2G/3G cellular systems. From the cellular mobile operator point of view Providing a complementary broadband downlink in vehicular environments to support IP-based multi-media traffic which is inherently asymmetrical.

35 Convergence Benefits Broadcasters will benefit from the use of cellular mobile systems to adapt the content of their multi-media services more rapidly in response to the feedback from customers. Cellular operators will benefit from offering their customers a range of new broadband multi-media services in vehicular environments. Users will benefit from faster access to a range of broadband multi- media services with reasonable QoS and lower cost.

36 IP Layer Model Steve Deering - Cisco : Fifty-first IETF; London, England, August 5-10, 2001

37 Additional IP Functions
IP Layer Model for WLANs Higher Layers Additional IP Functions Mobility Management Quality of Service AAA IP Sec Ad-Hoc Routing etc. IP Network Layer Native IP Functions: Routing Addressing Packet Formatting and Handling Data Interface Error Control Buffer Management QoS Support Segmentation/Reassembly Header Compression Multicast Support Control Interface Configuration Management Address Management QoS Control Handover Control Idle Mode Support Security Management IP Convergence Layer Lower Layers

38 IP Layer Model The functionalities and structure of the IP layer model are not sufficient and/or efficient to achieve the requirements of future inter-worked or integrated networks. No fundamental changes have been made in the design of IPV6. The question is: “ Are some radical changes needed to the IP layer model in order to offer better solutions to the convergence issue?” If yes, what are the consequences and implications?

39 Agent Definition “ An agent is a software component (object) that is situated within an execution environment (e.g. computers) and acts autonomously on behalf of a user or process and has specific goal.” 2G, 3G WLAN AP AP: Agent Platform Service Centre

40 Agent Technology Mandatory features
Reactive: senses changes in the environment and reacts in accordance. Autonomous: has control over its own actions Goal-driven: is pro-active Optional features Collaborative: communicates/negotiates with other agents Mobile: travels from one host to another Learning: adapts in accordance with previous experience Believable: appears believable to the end-user.

41 Mobile vs. Static Agents
request respond Client Server request respond Client Server “Software components that can migrate under their own control from host to host in a network or between networks”

42 Mobile Agents Mobile agents have already been used for network
monitoring and service delivery including education at a distance. In an ever-increasing world of service providers and service packages, a user demands a simple approach to the selection of the desired service and its delivery mechanism in real-time with least effort. This can be achieved through the use of mobile agents. The use of mobile agents can also overcome the constraints imposed on applications by the limited processing power and speed of mobile terminals.

43 Agent Technology An open question:
Static or mobile agents for wireless networks? What are the pros and cons?

44 Re-configurable Technology What does Reconfiguration mean?
“Reconfiguration refers to the software re-definition and/or adaptation of every element within each layer of the communication chain.” RF Front End A/D Converter D/A Converter Baseband Processing User Data

45 Re-configurable Technology
Benefits Users - Select network depending on service requirements and cost. - Connect to any network – Worldwide roaming. -Access to new services. Operators - Respond to variations in traffic demand (load balancing). - Incorporate service enhancements and improvements. - Correction of software bugs and upgrade of terminals. - Rapid development of new personalised and customised services Manufacturers - Single platform for all markets. - Increased flexible and efficient production.

46 Re-configuration Procedures
Trigger Initiated by network operator or user Mode Monitoring Mode Identification What networks are available? Mode Negotiation What is the most suitable network (based on QoS, user preferences etc.)? Mode Switch Decision Decision on preferred mode Download software modules that are required for the target mode Software Download Reconfigure Terminal

47 Re-configurable Technology
CHALLENGES Regulatory and Standardisation issues. Business models. User preference profiles. Inter-system handover mechanisms and criteria. Software download mechanisms. Flexible spectrum allocation and sharing between operators. Enabling Technologies (RF and antenna elements, ADC/DAC etc.)

48 Conclusion 4G Vision Reconfigurable IP Technology Technology
Agent Technology

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