Presentation on theme: "UMTS and Beyond Prof. Hamid Aghvami Centre for Telecommunications Research - Kings College London Wireless Multimedia Communications Ltd."— Presentation transcript:
UMTS and Beyond Prof. Hamid Aghvami Centre for Telecommunications Research - Kings College London Wireless Multimedia Communications Ltd
Mobile System Generations First Generation (1G) mobile systems were designed to offer a single service, i.e., speech. Second Generation (2G) mobile systems were also designed primarily to offer speech with a limited capability to offer data at low rates. Third Generation (3G) mobile systems are expected to offer high-quality multi-media services and operate in different environments. 3G systems are referred to as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe and International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT2000) worldwide.
UMTS UMTS will be a mobile communications system that can offer significant user benefits including high-quality wireless multimedia services to a convergent network of fixed, cellular and satellite components. It will deliver information directly to users and provide them with access to new and innovative services and applications. It will offer mobile personalised communications to the mass market regardless of location, network and terminal used. UMTS Forum 1997
Europe has decided to adopt an evolutionary approach for the UMTS core network based on migration from the GSM/GPRS infrastructure. For the actual air interface, a revolutionary approach has been chosen. That is a new radio air interface for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA). There is another parallel activity concerning the UMTS air interface using an evolutionary approach (an intermediate approach). First phase of UMTS
Evolution approach based on GSM Infrastructure Evolution Approach New Radio Access (UTRAN) NSS And GSNs PSTN N-ISDN B-ISDN IP-based Networks Radio Access GSM Infrastructure Public Network Dual-mode Evolved GSM Radio Access (GERAN)
In this approach the GSM air interface has evolved within GSM phase 2+ to support higher rate data services. The most important developments in this approach are: 1. General Packet Radio Services (GPRS ) 2. High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD ) 3. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE ) It is referred to GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) Evolutionary approach for the GSM Air Interface
SMSC/ VLR GMSC PSTN HLR PDNInternet GGSN SGSN RNC Circuit Switched (GSM) Packet Switched (GPRS) UTRAN I u,ps I u,cs GsGs C GnGn GrGr GcGc UMTS – Phase I D RNC Node B I u,cs I u,ps …. … …….….. …. …
Applications & Services Legacy mobile signalling network Other PLMN Multimedia IP networks GGSN PSTN/ legacy/external SGSN HSS (HLR) GGSN EIR SGW MRF CSCF MGCF MGW Simplified architecture for the support of IP-based multimedia services in 3GPP release 5 Signalling interface Signalling and data transfer interface GnGn GpGp MhMh CxCx MmMm GiGi MgMg McMc GiGi GiGi MrMr GcGc MsMs GnGn GiGi GrGr GfGf TEMTGERAN TEMTUTRAN I u -PS UuUu UmUm R R
New Functional Entities for the All IP Architecture Call State Control Function (CSCF) executes the call control. It is based on the IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Media GateWay (MGW) provides an inter-connection from GGSN to legacy circuit-switched networks such as PSTN. Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) controls the MGW. Media Resource Function (MRF) performs multiparty call and multimedia conferencing functions. Signalling GateWay (SGW) performs signalling conversion to/from legacy mobile signalling network. Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is an evolved HLR.
4G Concept Towards 4G User centric, user controlled services and context-aware applications
What does user controlled services mean? The user has freedom and flexibility to select any desired service with reasonable QoS and affordable price, anytime, anywhere using any device in a secure manner 4G Concept
What does context-aware applications mean? A context-aware application means the behaviour of the application adapts itself to user context changes. User context includes: -user profile and preferences. -user device and access network capabilities. -user environment and mobility. 4G Concept
Technologies Challenges Convergence/integration/inter-working of all existing and emerging fixed and mobile (wired and wireless) networks including broadcast Simple to select and easy to use desired services Universal and low cost terminals IP Technology Agent Technology Reconfigurable Technology
Interworking/Integration For the design of next generation wireless networks two different approaches are currently being considered. They are: - Interworking with next generation Internet (tight coupling) - Integration within next generation Internet (very tight coupling) In the first approach, the access network and the core network use different IP protocols and mechanisms and only the core network is considered as a sub-network of the Internet. In the second approach, both the core and access networks use common IP based protocols and mechanisms and the access network is considered as a sub-network of the Internet.
The Internet IP backbone Billing VHE Signalling Gateway WAP Accounting UMTS Broadcast Networks (DAB, DVB-T) Satellite FES GSM / GPRS Context-aware information Centre IP-based micro-mobility Wireless LANs ISP SIP Proxy Server Inter-Working
General architecture of the IP-based IMT network platform Applications AP1 AP2AP3APn Middleware IP-based transport NW LocationAccounting/billingMedia conversionDistribution Basic network management sub-layer RRMMMC/SM Security QoS Service support sub-layer IP Radio IP ISDN/ PSTN Internet Integration
Global coverage National coverage Local area coverage Wireless LANs DAB and DVB-T, DVB-S 2G, 3G and 4G Cellular Personal area coverage Hierarchical coverage layers for 4G Satellite Regional coverage Wireless PANs Vertical Handover Horizontal Handover IP-based backbone
The complexity of the problem: user prospective From a user prospective Multiple Heterogeneous network operators part of Multiple user environments accessed using Multiple heterogeneous devices owned by heterogeneous users
From a network prospective Multiple Heterogeneous network operators providing Multiple services through multiple access networks to users with heterogeneous devices The complexity of the problem: network prospective
A Heterogeneous Network Architecture UTRAN WLAN 4G RAN PAN Wireless Access Network Core Network Future Internet Intra-Cell PAN Ad-hoc Network PAN
Inter-working between two radio access networks Open coupling
Inter-working between two radio access networks Loose coupling
Inter-working between two radio access networks Tight coupling
Inter-working between two radio access networks Very tight coupling
Inter-working examples - caching
Content Delivery Notification Content: video clip(15MB) Service: Music Clips Company: MTV Please select delivery options Send to PDA (5 eur) –15min Send to office PC (10 eur) –7min Send to STB (20 eur)-2min Delivery options Network provides device delivery options including cost and delivery times User selects desired destination Slide:30-40 Inter-working examples user centric
Load balancing i.e. Using DVB to multicast or broadcast to large number of users Handovers i.e. Users in train moving outside the coverage of a network Slide:31-40 Inter-working examples – network centric
Network Selection Most Appropriate Network Selection Criteria User Context Service Type Available Resources - Data rate - QoS - Environment (When and Where) - Mobility - User preferences
Convergence Convergence of Cellular Mobile Networks and WLANs Benefits For cellular mobile operators Higher bandwidths. Lower cost of networks and equipment. The use of licence-exempt spectrum. Higher capacity and QoS enhancement. Higher revenue. For users Access to broadband multimedia services with lower cost and where mostly needed (e.g. in Central Business Districts and Business Customer Premises). Inter-network roaming.
Convergence Convergence of Mobile Communications and Broadcasting Drivers From broadcaster point of view Introducing interactivity to their unidirectional point-to-multipoint broadcasting systems. That is, a broadband downlink based on DAB/DVB-T and a narrowband uplink based on 2G/3G cellular systems. From the cellular mobile operator point of view Providing a complementary broadband downlink in vehicular environments to support IP-based multi-media traffic which is inherently asymmetrical.
Convergence Benefits Broadcasters will benefit from the use of cellular mobile systems to adapt the content of their multi-media services more rapidly in response to the feedback from customers. Cellular operators will benefit from offering their customers a range of new broadband multi-media services in vehicular environments. Users will benefit from faster access to a range of broadband multi- media services with reasonable QoS and lower cost.
Steve Deering - Cisco : Fifty-first IETF; London, England, August 5-10, 2001 IP Layer Model
Additional IP Functions Mobility Management Quality of Service AAA IP Sec Ad-Hoc Routing etc. Native IP Functions: Routing Addressing Packet Formatting and Handling Lower Layers Higher Layers IP Network Layer IP Convergence Layer Data Interface Error Control Buffer Management QoS Support Segmentation/Reassembly Header Compression Multicast Support Control Interface Configuration Management Address Management QoS Control Handover Control Idle Mode Support Security Management IP Layer Model for WLANs
IP Layer Model The functionalities and structure of the IP layer model are not sufficient and/or efficient to achieve the requirements of future inter-worked or integrated networks. No fundamental changes have been made in the design of IPV6. The question is: Are some radical changes needed to the IP layer model in order to offer better solutions to the convergence issue? If yes, what are the consequences and implications?
An agent is a software component (object) that is situated within an execution environment (e.g. computers) and acts autonomously on behalf of a user or process and has specific goal. Agent Definition 2G, 3G WLAN … AP AP: Agent Platform AP Service Centre
Agent Technology Mandatory features – Reactive: senses changes in the environment and reacts in accordance. – Autonomous: has control over its own actions – Goal-driven: is pro-active Optional features – Collaborative: communicates/negotiates with other agents –Mobile: travels from one host to another – Learning: adapts in accordance with previous experience – Believable: appears believable to the end-user.
Mobile vs. Static Agents Client Server Client Server request respond request respond Software components that can migrate under their own control from host to host in a network or between networks
Mobile Agents Mobile agents have already been used for network monitoring and service delivery including education at a distance. In an ever-increasing world of service providers and service packages, a user demands a simple approach to the selection of the desired service and its delivery mechanism in real-time with least effort. This can be achieved through the use of mobile agents. The use of mobile agents can also overcome the constraints imposed on applications by the limited processing power and speed of mobile terminals.
An open question: Static or mobile agents for wireless networks? What are the pros and cons? Agent Technology
Re-configurable Technology What does Reconfiguration mean? Reconfiguration refers to the software re-definition and/or adaptation of every element within each layer of the communication chain. Baseband Processing User Data A/D Converter D/A Converter RF Front End
Re-configurable Technology Benefits Users Operators Manufacturers - Select network depending on service requirements and cost. - Connect to any network – Worldwide roaming. -Access to new services. - Respond to variations in traffic demand (load balancing). - Incorporate service enhancements and improvements. - Correction of software bugs and upgrade of terminals. - Rapid development of new personalised and customised services - Single platform for all markets. - Increased flexible and efficient production.
Re-configuration Procedures Reconfiguration Trigger Mode Identification Mode Negotiation Software Download Mode Switch Decision Mode Monitoring Reconfigure Terminal Initiated by network operator or user Download software modules that are required for the target mode What networks are available? What is the most suitable network (based on QoS, user preferences etc.)? Decision on preferred mode
Re-configurable Technology CHALLENGES Regulatory and Standardisation issues. Business models. User preference profiles. Inter-system handover mechanisms and criteria. Software download mechanisms. Flexible spectrum allocation and sharing between operators. Enabling Technologies (RF and antenna elements, ADC/DAC etc.)
Agent Technology Conclusion 4G Vision IP Technology Reconfigurable Technology