# + All about Electric Motors Building a Robot Arm Christopher Lester Yvonne Pelham Douglas Gorham Kapil Dandekar TISP: Montreal 15 – 16 May 2009.

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+ All about Electric Motors Building a Robot Arm Christopher Lester Yvonne Pelham Douglas Gorham Kapil Dandekar TISP: Montreal 15 – 16 May 2009

+ Christopher Lester IEEE Educational Activities Exercise 1: Electric Motors 2

+ All About Electric Motors Learn basic theory of electric motors Learn basic theory of electro-magnetic forces Apply theory to everyday uses of electric motors Build a working model of an electric motor Objectives for Students 3

+ All About Electric Motors Physical Science: Develop an understanding of motion and forces, transfer of energy Develop an understanding of the interactions between energy and matter Problem Solving: Develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving Principles & Standards for School Mathematics – 1 4

+ All About Electric Motors Personal and Social Perspectives: Learn about science and technology in society and through history Develop an understanding of the risks and benefits of technology Understand the abilities of science and technology Principles & Standards for School Mathematics – 2 5

+ All About Electric Motors Nearly every mechanical motion you interact with everyday is run by either a DC or AC electric motor Motors are everywhere! 6 Computers Cooling fans Furnaces Boilers Air conditioners Automobiles Washer/Dryer Elevators Refrigerator CD Player Printer Fax Machine Power Tools Cell Phone Vibrate Mode

+ All About Electric Motors Parts of the Electric Motor 7 6 Main Parts 1 2 3 4 5 6

+ North pole of magnetic field and armature repel each other South pole of magnetic field and armature repel each other Torque is generated in clockwise direction All About Electric Motors Operation of the Motor 8

+ Motor shaft rotates clockwise Torque continues to be generated in the clockwise direction All About Electric Motors Operation of the Motor 9

+ Armature poles reach the point where they are the furthest away from the same magnetic field. Rotational inertia keeps motor shaft moving until brushes swap sides of the armature All About Electric Motors Operation of the Motor 10

+ The brushes have moved to the opposite sides of the commutator: The south pole of the armature now becomes the north pole The north pole of the armature now becomes the south pole The cycle starts over All About Electric Motors Operation of the Motor 11 Images courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org

+ All About Electric Motors An Actual Toy Motor 12

+ Brushes inside the motor Transfer power from battery to commutator as the rotor shaft spins All About Electric Motors An Actual Toy Motor 13

+ The rotor shaft holds the armature and the commutator The armature is a set of electromagnets, in this case three The two ends of each wire (one wire for each pole) are soldered onto a terminal, and then each of the three terminals is wired to one plate of the commutator All About Electric Motors An Actual Toy Motor 14

+ Magnetic field provided by 2 curved permanent magnets All About Electric Motors An Actual Toy Motor 15 Images courtesy of HowStuffWorks http://howstuffworks.com

+ All About Electric Motors Build your own electric motor Wind the armature Wind the field coil Assemble the motor Materials provided in kit Assembly Instructions What Are We Going To Do? 16

+ All About Electric Motors Think about the classroom setting: What measure of performance could you introduce to quantify the success of the motor build? As you work… 17

+ All About Electric Motors Winding both the field coil and armature Use tape to hold pieces together as you wind Cut the tubing to size after you wind the armature coil to ensure proper alignment Keep the field coil windings as flat as possible to ensure the armature can spin freely A Few Helpful Tips 18

+ All About Electric Motors You are a consultant tasked with adapting your proprietary electric motor to be used in a hair dryer. What design modifications would you need to make? What materials would you change? What safety considerations would need to be addressed? Design Discussion 19

+ All About Electric Motors How would you quantify performance of the electric motor that students build? What properties would you measure? What additional materials would you need? What additional elements would you add to this activity? Application Discussion 20

+ Christopher Lester IEEE Educational Activities Exercise 2: Robotic Arm 21

+ Robot Arm We will build a robot arm from simple materials What will we do today? 22

+ Robot Arm Why is this experiment useful to teachers and students? 23 It teaches technological design It requires mathematical calculations for design It relates to the studies of motion and force It requires communication through writing (design) and orally (explaining the design principles)

+ Robot Arm Geometry: Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three- dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships Problem Solving: Recognize and apply geometric ideas in areas outside of the mathematics classroom Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies Communication: Communicate mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others Principles & Standards for School Mathematics 24

+ Canadarm 1, also known as Shuttle Remote Manipulator System Used on the space shuttle to maneuver loads of up to 29 tons Developed by SPAR Aerospace Ltd., out of Edmonton Robot Arm The Canadarm 25

+ Canadas primary contribution to the International Space Station Mobile Servicing Station Space Station Remote Manipulator Mobile Remote Servicer Base System Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator 17 meters fully extended Robot Arm The Canadarm 2 26 Dextre

+ Robot Arm We will build a robot arm from simple materials The arm must pick up a plastic cup from a distance of 45cm Lift the cup to a height of at least 15cm Bring the cup back to rest and release it Pick up cup upside down Building the Canadarm 3 27

+ Robot Arm You cannot get too close… You cannot get any closer than 45cm to the cup at any time Cup Student Robot Arm 45cm 28

+ Robot Arm Hanger Cardboard Clothespins Popsicles sticks Rubber bands Binder clips Paper clips Golf pencils Tape Paper fasteners Plastic bag Available Materials 29

+ Robot Arm Divide into teams of two (2) Review the requirements Discuss a solution and create a sketch of your design Build a model of your design with given materials Test your model Outline and Procedures 30

+ Robot Arm Discuss and agree upon a redesign If needed after testing, or to enhance the previous design Rebuild your robot arm Retest your model Answer reflection questions as a team Redesign after testing 31

+ Robot Arm 1. The arm must pick up a plastic cup from a distance of 45cm Lift the cup to a height of at least 15cm Bring the cup back to rest and release it 2. Lift and release the cup when it is upside down Design requirements 32

+ NEW DESIGN REQUIREMENT Lift and release the cup when it is full with weight, or water bottle Use materials on your table to fill cup (candy, pencils…) Robot Arm UPDATE FROM SPACE AGENCY 33

+ Robot Arm 1. The arm must pick up a plastic cup from a distance of 45cm Lift the cup to a height of at least 15cm Bring the cup back to rest and release it 2. Lift and release the cup when it is upside down 3. Lift and release water bottle Design requirements 34

+ NEW DESIGN REQUIREMENT Need a single device that can manipulate a cup as well as a pen. Device can use two different end manipulators Robot Arm UPDATE FROM SPACE AGENCY 35

+ Robot Arm 1. The arm must pick up a plastic cup from a distance of 45cm Lift the cup to a height of at least 15cm Bring the cup back to rest and release it 2. Lift and release the cup when it is upside down 3. Lift and release water bottle 4. Use the same design (possibly with a modified end manipulator) to lift a pen Design requirements 36

+ Robot Arm What was one thing you liked about your design? What is its main weakness? What is one thing you would change about your design based on your experience Are there algebraic and physical principles that can be applied to this activity? How would you modify the instructions to create a better experience for the participants? Reflection Questions 37

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