Presentation on theme: "Human Systems Integration (HSI) Program"— Presentation transcript:
1Human Systems Integration (HSI) Program Headquarters U.S. Air ForceFly – Fight – WinHuman SystemsIntegration (HSI) ProgramINCOSE Space Coast ChapterDr. Fran Greene forColonel Larry KimmAF Human Systems Integration OfficeOffice of the Vice Chief of Staff7 Feb 08
2What is Human Systems Integration? – and what it is not OverviewWhat is Human Systems Integration? – and what it is notPolicy overview for HSILink with SE and INCOSEHSI for the Air ForceExamples of HSI impactAir Force Human Systems Integration OfficeStructure and accomplishments
3Human Systems Integration Human factors?Human factors engineering?Human engineering?Applied behavioral psychology?Does Human Factors = Human Systems Integration ?
4HSI is more than Human Factors Where is the fuel doorin that rental car?Plugging hair dryer intohotel receptacleAt last! – a visual!Work Methods?FL DoT?More forklifts!
5Three Mile Island?Maybe not so much common sense in design, but in adaptation to bad design!Beer tap handles mounted atop similar-looking knobs in control room of a nuclear power plant to help operators distinguish between them.[Original photograph by Joseph L. Seminara, scanned from Norman [1988, page 95]
6What is HSI?Human Systems Integration: interdisciplinary technical and management processes for integrating human considerations within and across all system elements; an) essential enabler to systems engineering practice (INCOSE, 2007Integrates nine human-centered domains: manpower, personnel, environment, training, safety, human factors engineering, occupational health, survivability and habitability – single voice for the HUMAN
8Identify System Design Considerations We shape our buildings; thereafter, our buildings shape us Winston ChurchillFunctionality(performance)Political, Social &Tech feasibilityProducibilityMaintainabilitySuitabilityEnvironmentQualityDisposabilitySafetyEconomicFeasibilityOccupationalHealthSystem DesignConsiderationsManufactureHabitabilityFlexibility(growth potential)SurvivabilityHuman Factors( and Ergonomics)ReliabilitySupportabilityManpowerPersonnelTrainingSource: Blanchard & Fabrycky, Systems Engineering and Analysis, 2006, pp. 35
9What HSI Is........... HSI is part of the system engineering process Total Ownership costs must be Measure of Effectiveness in system trade-off studies vs. Acquisition costs [KPP – Lifecycle costs]Sub-systems must be designed with HSI before integrating the systemCompany/agency must be organized to implement systems engineeringTradition/Culture is an impediment to implementing HSI – culture change needed
10The Resurgence of Systems Engineering within the Department of Defense Cascades to IndustryIs Recognized by INCOSECreates a need for more SE – affects education and training of tomorrow’s Systems EngineersDoD is eager to develop Systems EngineersHSI executes within existing processes of Systems EngineeringWe need your support and help – Industry and Students
11Systems Engineering Revitalization Wynne policy memo, 2004, “...all programs responding to a capabilities or requirements document, regardless of acquisition category, shall apply a robust systems engineering approach that balances total system performance and total ownership costs within the family-of-systems, system-of-systems context.”
12Systems Engineering and Acquisition Codifies SE revitalization – DoDIDefense Acquisition Guide – Chapter 4, Best practices for “applied” SENew career field within DoD – Program Systems Engineer – 1 Oct 07Defense Acquisition University – courses to certify the PSE career field
13New AFPD 63/20-1 -Acquisition and Sustainment Life Cycle Management Paragraph Acquisition and sustainment activities shall apply Systems Engineering processes and practices throughout the life cycle, from the definition of concepts to meet user needs to disposal. Systems Engineering will be used to conceive, evolve, verify, deploy, monitor, support, and sustain the performance of fielded products and systems against achievable requirements developed in response to validated capability needs.
14New AFPD 63/20-1 -Acquisition and Sustainment Life Cycle Management (cont) Systems Engineering will provide for reliable, flexible, timely, and cost-effective support throughout the life cycle. Systems Engineering processes shall be used to continuously monitor, review, and assess systems, subsystems, and end items. All weapon systems and non-services programs shall have an approved Systems Engineering Plan (SEP) that is maintained and updated for the life of the system.
15HSI and Systems Engineering We execute WITHIN Systems Engineering – DoDI , Enclosure 7, Human Systems Integration:“The PM shall have a comprehensive plan for HSI in place early in the acquisition process ...ensure that the system is built to accommodate the characteristics of the user population that will operate, maintain, and support the system...
16HSI in INCOSE HandbookReferences to Human Systems Integration are throughout the new Version 3.1CSEP studying reveals all the links to Human in the latest HandbookAdded to Specialty Engineering – Chapter 9, Appendix M and throughout other chapters
17Current HSI Status: Policy DoDD“The Program Manager shall apply human systems integration to optimize total system performance (hardware, software, and human), operational effectiveness, and suitability, survivability, safety, and affordability.”DoDI“The purpose of the SDD phase is to … implement human systems integration (HSI)….”“The Program Manager shall have a comprehensive plan for HSI in place early in the acquisition process to optimize total system performance, minimize total ownership costs, and ensure that the system is built to accommodate the characteristics of the user …”
18Current HSI Status: Policy Overview Defense Acquisition Guide, Ver. 1.5, 2005Chapter 4 – Systems EngineeringChapter 6 – Human Systems Integration
19Human Systems Integration: "Why do HSI?" SustainmentConceptRefinementTechnologyDevelopmentSystemAnd DemonstrationProduction andDeploymentOperations andSupportPre-Systems AcquisitionSystems AcquisitionABCIOCFOCHuman Systems Integration ActivityHardware &Software CostsHuman Related Costs Usually ~ 67%of Total Ownership CostsHumanRelatedCostsHuman Related Costs1955-presentAs you can see from the outline of the acquisition process on the top, currently, the manpower issues probably don’t gain any light of day until after milestone C – or just as the system is being fielded and transitions into operations and support. There is where the wrong number of people, of the wrong kind will begin to be evident – but Manpower might not have been asked or didn’t have the right information soon enough to make an impact.We all know the cost of the human in the operations and support of any system. Long term costs as well, as these individuals retire and become eligible for retirement and possibly disability. The actual hardware is “cheap” compared to the “people” costs – including the training of operators, maintainers and sustainers1978-present
20Human Systems Integration: When to do HSI? COSTProcurementOps / SupportR&D / T&E65 %33 %Decisions made here...... and determine mission capability hereFY98FY02FY06FY10FY14FY24FY32FY40FY48Early Decisions Drive Total Ownership CostTIMElock in 80-90%of costs here...Life cycle cost profile for DDG-51* - Navy
21Good....and not so good – HSI examples Air Force has not had HSI program implemented to verify, trace or compute value addedRetrospective views of HSI – put on your HSI glasses to peer into some Air Force aviation programsSoon you’ll be convinced HSI is ubiquitous
22Human Systems Integration: HSI in Acquisitions F-22 RaptorConducted Maintenance AFSC structure studiesProposed ACC maintenance restructureTraining IssuesAppropriate AFSCsIntegrated TrainingMPT analyses offered three options for specialties:15, 10, or 7Max cost savings: 10Source: AF submission to 2007 HASC ReportF-22 Raptor is a success story for manpower, personnel and trainingEarly HSI analyses cut total manpower and personnel requirements
23Human Systems Integration: C-17 Refueling and Manpower C-17 GlobemasterFueling station design change reduced manpower required from three to oneEarly HSI analyses decreased cost by making the job easier and the people more effectiveDomains AffectedManpower, Personnel, TrainingHuman FactorsSafety
24Human Systems Integration: B-2 Maintenance Manpower B-2 Spirit"Maytag Repairman" SyndromeLow utilization of manpowerTask analysis / job structuring - appropriate?Initial B-2 manpower force template identical to B-52Low utilization rates = technicians "unemployed"Not cost effective or efficientMaintaining proficiency very difficultEarly HSI analyses not done, could raise utilization rates and cut total manpowerDomains AffectedManpowerPersonnelTraining
25Human Systems Integration: Real World Consumer Example Cellular TelephoneRequirements?Phone callsCameraTextingWeb accessMeasures of effectivenessTimeAccuracyKey strokesTradeoffs - features vs. costRequirementsadult vs. teenager vs. college studentSpeed of texting, ease of entering data, speech recognition, speed dial, camera, internet accessMetrics – size, weight, access, size of keys, ring tones, etc.or
26HSI is implemented in systems engineering – we need your help! INCOSE Top MessagesHSI is implemented in systems engineering – we need your help!INCOSE Working group ~ 140 participants2007 NM meeting - Accomplishments2007 June International MeetingJan 2008 NM meetingIntegrate Practices, Integrate Practitioners, Learn, Inform, Document, Develop repository, Educate, Socialize
28HSI in INCOSE SE Handbook, Version 3.1 August 2007 Working group submitted verbiage for HSI at INCOSE meeting, Jun 2007; Accepted and published, Aug 2007HSI found:4.3.5, Requirements Analysis Process;4.4.5, Architectural Design Process;4.5.5, Implementation Process;4.6, Integration Process;4.8, Implementation Process;8.10, Verification
29HSI in INCOSE SE Handbook, Version 3.1 August 2007 Handbook Paragraph 9.4, Human Systems Integration (Specialty Engineering Activities)Appendix G.1 – HSI shall be part of Systems Engineering Plan“... The approach and methods used to define the performance and functional requirements for the following areas of SE and Specialty Engineering should also be documented Human Systems Integration...”
31HSI in Systems Engineering HSI Working / Interest Group Formed – INCOSEINCOSE Vision 2020 recommended HSI involvementAF Center for Systems Engineering took team leadershipINCOSE Handbook section published Aug 2007HSI learning seminar hosted by INCOSE, June 2007Another seminar occurred at 2008 annual workshopIntegrating the Human in Every System - April 2008 INSIGHTOur recent Joint working group efforts, of which many of your people are a part, have accomplished much this past year. We now have a good working relationship with INCOSE, HFES, the AF Center for Systems Engineering and several of the working technical groups and panels.We believe we have formed a good working relationship to move HSI forward in helping our systems engineers. As each of you should be aware, Systems Engineering is being revitalized within the DoD and we believe we are providing good value added in this regard. A recently drafted Memorandum of Agreement between INCOSE and the HFES is in final coordination at the present time.
33SE and HSI – how do we work together? Continued Work with SESE and HSI – how do we work together?Education and Training – thoughts on SE curriculumBaseline study underwayMasters degrees in HSI?, Need for Certification?INCOSE WMA chapter meeting on HSIThis briefing to INCOSE Space CoastCSEP Certification – two staff members
35Human Systems Integration: Vision and Mission AF HSI OfficeUSAFAF HSI OfficeVisionIntegrate Air Force people and technology for total systems performanceMissionSupport the Human Weapons System by ensuring all AF warfighting systems are designed, built, operated, and sustained in a manner that optimizes human performance at every warfighter levelHuman Systems Integration: the integrated, comprehensive analysis, design and assessment of requirements, concepts and resources for system Manpower, Personnel and Training (MPT); Environment, Safety and Occupational Health (ESOH); Habitability, survivability and Human Factors Engineering.Systems Engineering: the disciplined application of management and engineering processes to integrate multiple functional specialties to design, engineer and field a system.AF HSIO mission: is to support the Human Weapon System by ensuring all Air Force war-fighting systems are designed, built, operated, and sustained at every warfighter level.
36Human Systems Integration: Program Objectives Integrate HSI into functional domainsInstitutionalize HSI as the way of doing businessSustain through collaboration with OSD, sister services, industry and academiaImprove our processes through feedback and lessons learnedOur four thrusts for this programCan probably just focus on the first and last ones – talk to how we can incorporate the topics and concerns for manpower, personnel and training EARLY into the acquisition process. The last bullet – we are here to talk to you and get your feedback and lessons learned about your communities of interest – what we can do for you
37AFHSI – Office Structure and Accomplishments Policy and Guidance – our charter, given need for oversight of the HSI program in the Air Force (Air Staff responsibility)Research, Development, Test, and Engineering – professionals must have a toolkitEducation and Training – recruit, train, retainImplementation and Execution – boots on the ground, making HSI a reality
38AFHSIO Pillars and Activity Policy and GuidanceAFPD 63/20-1, Acquisition and Sustainment Life Cycle Management in final coordinationDraft AFI 63-XXXX, Human Systems IntegrationInitial draft complete and under reviewSend for formal coordination in April 2008AFI , Capabilities Based Test and Evaluation and AF Operational Test and Evaluation Guidebook under review for HSI updates
39AFHSIO Pillars and Activity Research, Development, Test, and EngineeringIndustry SE and HSI Tool AnalysisDoD laboratory technology analysisNASA and DoD standards reviewsFunctional needs analysis to define HSI requirements for toolsMAJCOM test center and Logistics Center project looking at tools and processesINCOSE and NDIA collaborationHSI communication tools—Wiki and website
40AFHSIO Pillars and Activity Education and TrainingBaseline study underwayHSI in courses or be added – Systems Engineering and Human Factors degree programs – Jun 2008Workshop with thought leaders – Jul/Aug 08KSAs for HSI ProfessionalsCareer path for HSI ProfessionalsTraining continuumPipeline within academia/service academiesIssue of CERTIFICATIONWorking with INCOSE on ABET* accreditation*Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
41AFHSIO Pillars and Activity Implementation and ExecutionFormed Field level working group for HSIAF HSI Integrated Product Team and Board of Advisors namedLeading Tri-Service HSI Working GroupBuilding Joint Strategy with Field UnitsFutures Study underway – Potomac InstituteAF HSI Primer available at this meeting upon requestAir Staff briefed / trainedThree HSI workshops planned and fundedAF HSI report in Joint report to OSD & HASCSystems Engineering Plans being written for AF programs
42AF Human Systems Integration Top 5 Issues EconomicsEducation and TrainingFuture Concepts – Integration in SECommon TerminologyTools and MethodologiesLet me conclude with a brief overview of the research challenges facing HSI policy and guidance.The first is the lack of effective tools for HSI practitioners, whether they be design engineers who want to follow HSI tenets, systems engineers putting the moving parts together and making trade-offs for optimum system function, or program managers making milestone decisions. Engineers use a great many tools now, and we are just starting to break ground on making HSI an integral part of the available arsenal. The tools and methodologies will shape the way requirements can be stated for acquisition professionals and system designers.We are commissioning a future concepts study to help ascertain where HSI will have the most impact in future systems and missions, and where HSI may have too little value added to make it worth while to focus our limited resources. This study will also help with the essential problem of translating HSI tenets into requirements for acquisition professionals.The economics piece of the puzzle is foundational. There is no point in spending more money in the design and initial acquisition phase if there’s no payoff in performance and life-cycle cost. A sound foundation based on the real cost and the real gain of institutionalizing HSI will enable critical decision making and those proactive tradeoffs mentioned earlier.Finally, we need to develop the education and training plan that will satisfy the needs of the very diverse group of people whose jobs intersect with HSI. With the Navy’s growing program as a starting point, we are in good shape, but there is a lot of work to be done to define and integrate HSI education and training for the Air Force and the Joint Force, from modules for Defense Acquisition University to a basic concept understanding for developmental education, to an informed consumer level for our senior leaders.
43What does HSI mean outside DoD? Industry/Government partnershipsHSI certification, if implemented, may affect you – we need your input and issuesSystems Engineering Education and Training issues, both for degree programs and courses in HSIWe all need professionals – GS, Military, Contractors –we will all work togetherWe have to recruit, train and educate HSI professionalsHSI makes sense for all products!
44Putting it All Together “Integration is Key” Multiple Players 1 Voice SYSTEMSYSTEMSMISSIONSSOFTWAREHARDWARETotal Force IntegrationHUMANSLean ProcessesLethalityReliabilityAvailabilityMaintainabilitySupportabilityInteroperabilityUsabilitySuitabilitySustainabilitySurvivabilitySafetyAffordabilityEngineeringSystemsHuman System Integration (HSI)ManpowerTrainingPersonnelHuman Factors EngrOccupational HealthSurvivabilitySafetyHabitabilityEnvironmentSystems Engineering is not merely the engineering of a system. It is a comprehensive, integrating, interdisciplinary process that addresses the top down synthesis and development of a system that is focused on optimally satisfying the full range of requirements of the system. Human Systems Integration is only one of many other processes that work within the systems engineering construct. Total system design includes the full range of the HSI domains. We must address all of these issues to ensure the acquisition process delivers combat capability that is affordable, effective and leverages the tremendous potential of our people. Human Systems Integration works the human domains with the hardware, software and the environment and all of the associated interfaces.You note from the left side of this chart the many ilities that must be considered in designing a system. There are certainly many more, but the very important, and overarching ones are Usability, Operational Suitability, Sustainability, Survivability and Life Cycle Affordability. Each of these will reveal how well you have integrated the human with the systems we are developing.
45SummaryHSI is in Policy – flow down to all levels within DoD and Industry – you will DO HSIFY08 NDAA language means accountability at high levelHSI is more than just human factors engineering – HUMAN voiceHSI certification is possible requirementWe have many challenges and need your participation and support
46AF Human Systems Integration Dr Rick Drawbaugh, PrincipalHuman SystemsIntegrationHSI Team:Col Larry KimmLt Col Alvis HeadenLt Col Valerie MartindaleMaj Scott NemmersMr Larry CarrDr Fran GreeneMs Gretchen LizzaMs Stephanie SimperMr Jeff SventekContact: