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Human Systems Integration (HSI) Program

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1 Human Systems Integration (HSI) Program
Headquarters U.S. Air Force Fly – Fight – Win Human Systems Integration (HSI) Program INCOSE Space Coast Chapter Dr. Fran Greene for Colonel Larry Kimm AF Human Systems Integration Office Office of the Vice Chief of Staff 7 Feb 08

2 What is Human Systems Integration? – and what it is not
Overview What is Human Systems Integration? – and what it is not Policy overview for HSI Link with SE and INCOSE HSI for the Air Force Examples of HSI impact Air Force Human Systems Integration Office Structure and accomplishments

3 Human Systems Integration
Human factors? Human factors engineering? Human engineering? Applied behavioral psychology? Does Human Factors = Human Systems Integration ?

4 HSI is more than Human Factors
Where is the fuel door in that rental car? Plugging hair dryer into hotel receptacle At last! – a visual! Work Methods? FL DoT? More forklifts!

5 Three Mile Island? Maybe not so much common sense in design, but in adaptation to bad design! Beer tap handles mounted atop similar-looking knobs in control room of a nuclear power plant to help operators distinguish between them. [Original photograph by Joseph L. Seminara, scanned from Norman [1988, page 95]

6 What is HSI? Human Systems Integration: interdisciplinary technical and management processes for integrating human considerations within and across all system elements; an) essential enabler to systems engineering practice (INCOSE, 2007 Integrates nine human-centered domains: manpower, personnel, environment, training, safety, human factors engineering, occupational health, survivability and habitability – single voice for the HUMAN

7 The Voice for the Human - HSI

8 Identify System Design Considerations
We shape our buildings; thereafter, our buildings shape us Winston Churchill Functionality (performance) Political, Social & Tech feasibility Producibility Maintainability Suitability Environment Quality Disposability Safety Economic Feasibility Occupational Health System Design Considerations Manufacture Habitability Flexibility (growth potential) Survivability Human Factors ( and Ergonomics) Reliability Supportability Manpower Personnel Training Source: Blanchard & Fabrycky, Systems Engineering and Analysis, 2006, pp. 35

9 What HSI Is........... HSI is part of the system engineering process
Total Ownership costs must be Measure of Effectiveness in system trade-off studies vs. Acquisition costs [KPP – Lifecycle costs] Sub-systems must be designed with HSI before integrating the system Company/agency must be organized to implement systems engineering Tradition/Culture is an impediment to implementing HSI – culture change needed

10 The Resurgence of Systems Engineering within the Department of Defense
Cascades to Industry Is Recognized by INCOSE Creates a need for more SE – affects education and training of tomorrow’s Systems Engineers DoD is eager to develop Systems Engineers HSI executes within existing processes of Systems Engineering We need your support and help – Industry and Students

11 Systems Engineering Revitalization
Wynne policy memo, 2004, “...all programs responding to a capabilities or requirements document, regardless of acquisition category, shall apply a robust systems engineering approach that balances total system performance and total ownership costs within the family-of-systems, system-of-systems context.”

12 Systems Engineering and Acquisition
Codifies SE revitalization – DoDI Defense Acquisition Guide – Chapter 4, Best practices for “applied” SE New career field within DoD – Program Systems Engineer – 1 Oct 07 Defense Acquisition University – courses to certify the PSE career field

13 New AFPD 63/20-1 -Acquisition and Sustainment Life Cycle Management
Paragraph Acquisition and sustainment activities shall apply Systems Engineering processes and practices throughout the life cycle, from the definition of concepts to meet user needs to disposal. Systems Engineering will be used to conceive, evolve, verify, deploy, monitor, support, and sustain the performance of fielded products and systems against achievable requirements developed in response to validated capability needs.

14 New AFPD 63/20-1 -Acquisition and Sustainment Life Cycle Management (cont)
Systems Engineering will provide for reliable, flexible, timely, and cost-effective support throughout the life cycle. Systems Engineering processes shall be used to continuously monitor, review, and assess systems, subsystems, and end items. All weapon systems and non-services programs shall have an approved Systems Engineering Plan (SEP) that is maintained and updated for the life of the system.

15 HSI and Systems Engineering
We execute WITHIN Systems Engineering – DoDI , Enclosure 7, Human Systems Integration: “The PM shall have a comprehensive plan for HSI in place early in the acquisition process ...ensure that the system is built to accommodate the characteristics of the user population that will operate, maintain, and support the system...

16 HSI in INCOSE Handbook References to Human Systems Integration are throughout the new Version 3.1 CSEP studying reveals all the links to Human in the latest Handbook Added to Specialty Engineering – Chapter 9, Appendix M and throughout other chapters

17 Current HSI Status: Policy
DoDD “The Program Manager shall apply human systems integration to optimize total system performance (hardware, software, and human), operational effectiveness, and suitability, survivability, safety, and affordability.” DoDI “The purpose of the SDD phase is to … implement human systems integration (HSI)….” “The Program Manager shall have a comprehensive plan for HSI in place early in the acquisition process to optimize total system performance, minimize total ownership costs, and ensure that the system is built to accommodate the characteristics of the user …”

18 Current HSI Status: Policy Overview
Defense Acquisition Guide, Ver. 1.5, 2005 Chapter 4 – Systems Engineering Chapter 6 – Human Systems Integration

19 Human Systems Integration: "Why do HSI?"
Sustainment Concept Refinement Technology Development System And Demonstration Production and Deployment Operations and Support Pre-Systems Acquisition Systems Acquisition A B C IOC FOC Human Systems Integration Activity Hardware & Software Costs Human Related Costs Usually ~ 67% of Total Ownership Costs Human Related Costs Human Related Costs 1955-present As you can see from the outline of the acquisition process on the top, currently, the manpower issues probably don’t gain any light of day until after milestone C – or just as the system is being fielded and transitions into operations and support. There is where the wrong number of people, of the wrong kind will begin to be evident – but Manpower might not have been asked or didn’t have the right information soon enough to make an impact. We all know the cost of the human in the operations and support of any system. Long term costs as well, as these individuals retire and become eligible for retirement and possibly disability. The actual hardware is “cheap” compared to the “people” costs – including the training of operators, maintainers and sustainers 1978-present

20 Human Systems Integration: When to do HSI?
COST Procurement Ops / Support R&D / T&E 65 % 33 % Decisions made here... ... and determine mission capability here FY98 FY02 FY06 FY10 FY14 FY24 FY32 FY40 FY48 Early Decisions Drive Total Ownership Cost TIME lock in 80-90% of costs here... Life cycle cost profile for DDG-51* - Navy

21 Good....and not so good – HSI examples
Air Force has not had HSI program implemented to verify, trace or compute value added Retrospective views of HSI – put on your HSI glasses to peer into some Air Force aviation programs Soon you’ll be convinced HSI is ubiquitous

22 Human Systems Integration: HSI in Acquisitions
F-22 Raptor Conducted Maintenance AFSC structure studies Proposed ACC maintenance restructure Training Issues Appropriate AFSCs Integrated Training MPT analyses offered three options for specialties: 15, 10, or 7 Max cost savings: 10 Source: AF submission to 2007 HASC Report F-22 Raptor is a success story for manpower, personnel and training Early HSI analyses cut total manpower and personnel requirements

23 Human Systems Integration: C-17 Refueling and Manpower
C-17 Globemaster Fueling station design change reduced manpower required from three to one Early HSI analyses decreased cost by making the job easier and the people more effective Domains Affected Manpower, Personnel, Training Human Factors Safety

24 Human Systems Integration: B-2 Maintenance Manpower
B-2 Spirit "Maytag Repairman" Syndrome Low utilization of manpower Task analysis / job structuring - appropriate? Initial B-2 manpower force template identical to B-52 Low utilization rates = technicians "unemployed" Not cost effective or efficient Maintaining proficiency very difficult Early HSI analyses not done, could raise utilization rates and cut total manpower Domains Affected Manpower Personnel Training

25 Human Systems Integration: Real World Consumer Example
Cellular Telephone Requirements? Phone calls Camera Texting Web access Measures of effectiveness Time Accuracy Key strokes Tradeoffs - features vs. cost Requirements adult vs. teenager vs. college student Speed of texting, ease of entering data, speech recognition, speed dial, camera, internet access Metrics – size, weight, access, size of keys, ring tones, etc. or

26 HSI is implemented in systems engineering – we need your help!
INCOSE Top Messages HSI is implemented in systems engineering – we need your help! INCOSE Working group ~ 140 participants 2007 NM meeting - Accomplishments 2007 June International Meeting Jan 2008 NM meeting Integrate Practices, Integrate Practitioners, Learn, Inform, Document, Develop repository, Educate, Socialize

27 INCOSE SE Handbook, Version 3.1, Aug 07

28 HSI in INCOSE SE Handbook, Version 3.1 August 2007
Working group submitted verbiage for HSI at INCOSE meeting, Jun 2007; Accepted and published, Aug 2007 HSI found: 4.3.5, Requirements Analysis Process; 4.4.5, Architectural Design Process; 4.5.5, Implementation Process; 4.6, Integration Process; 4.8, Implementation Process; 8.10, Verification

29 HSI in INCOSE SE Handbook, Version 3.1 August 2007
Handbook Paragraph 9.4, Human Systems Integration (Specialty Engineering Activities) Appendix G.1 – HSI shall be part of Systems Engineering Plan “... The approach and methods used to define the performance and functional requirements for the following areas of SE and Specialty Engineering should also be documented Human Systems Integration...”

30 Appendix M – 11 pages Human Systems Integration

31 HSI in Systems Engineering
HSI Working / Interest Group Formed – INCOSE INCOSE Vision 2020 recommended HSI involvement AF Center for Systems Engineering took team leadership INCOSE Handbook section published Aug 2007 HSI learning seminar hosted by INCOSE, June 2007 Another seminar occurred at 2008 annual workshop Integrating the Human in Every System - April 2008 INSIGHT Our recent Joint working group efforts, of which many of your people are a part, have accomplished much this past year. We now have a good working relationship with INCOSE, HFES, the AF Center for Systems Engineering and several of the working technical groups and panels. We believe we have formed a good working relationship to move HSI forward in helping our systems engineers. As each of you should be aware, Systems Engineering is being revitalized within the DoD and we believe we are providing good value added in this regard. A recently drafted Memorandum of Agreement between INCOSE and the HFES is in final coordination at the present time.

32 2009 INCOSE International Symposium

33 SE and HSI – how do we work together?
Continued Work with SE SE and HSI – how do we work together? Education and Training – thoughts on SE curriculum Baseline study underway Masters degrees in HSI?, Need for Certification? INCOSE WMA chapter meeting on HSI This briefing to INCOSE Space Coast CSEP Certification – two staff members

34 Our AFHSI Office

35 Human Systems Integration: Vision and Mission
AF HSI Office USAF AF HSI Office Vision Integrate Air Force people and technology for total systems performance Mission Support the Human Weapons System by ensuring all AF warfighting systems are designed, built, operated, and sustained in a manner that optimizes human performance at every warfighter level Human Systems Integration: the integrated, comprehensive analysis, design and assessment of requirements, concepts and resources for system Manpower, Personnel and Training (MPT); Environment, Safety and Occupational Health (ESOH); Habitability, survivability and Human Factors Engineering. Systems Engineering: the disciplined application of management and engineering processes to integrate multiple functional specialties to design, engineer and field a system. AF HSIO mission: is to support the Human Weapon System by ensuring all Air Force war-fighting systems are designed, built, operated, and sustained at every warfighter level.

36 Human Systems Integration: Program Objectives
Integrate HSI into functional domains Institutionalize HSI as the way of doing business Sustain through collaboration with OSD, sister services, industry and academia Improve our processes through feedback and lessons learned Our four thrusts for this program Can probably just focus on the first and last ones – talk to how we can incorporate the topics and concerns for manpower, personnel and training EARLY into the acquisition process. The last bullet – we are here to talk to you and get your feedback and lessons learned about your communities of interest – what we can do for you

37 AFHSI – Office Structure and Accomplishments
Policy and Guidance – our charter, given need for oversight of the HSI program in the Air Force (Air Staff responsibility) Research, Development, Test, and Engineering – professionals must have a toolkit Education and Training – recruit, train, retain Implementation and Execution – boots on the ground, making HSI a reality

38 AFHSIO Pillars and Activity
Policy and Guidance AFPD 63/20-1, Acquisition and Sustainment Life Cycle Management in final coordination Draft AFI 63-XXXX, Human Systems Integration Initial draft complete and under review Send for formal coordination in April 2008 AFI , Capabilities Based Test and Evaluation and AF Operational Test and Evaluation Guidebook under review for HSI updates

39 AFHSIO Pillars and Activity
Research, Development, Test, and Engineering Industry SE and HSI Tool Analysis DoD laboratory technology analysis NASA and DoD standards reviews Functional needs analysis to define HSI requirements for tools MAJCOM test center and Logistics Center project looking at tools and processes INCOSE and NDIA collaboration HSI communication tools—Wiki and website

40 AFHSIO Pillars and Activity
Education and Training Baseline study underway HSI in courses or be added – Systems Engineering and Human Factors degree programs – Jun 2008 Workshop with thought leaders – Jul/Aug 08 KSAs for HSI Professionals Career path for HSI Professionals Training continuum Pipeline within academia/service academies Issue of CERTIFICATION Working with INCOSE on ABET* accreditation *Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology

41 AFHSIO Pillars and Activity
Implementation and Execution Formed Field level working group for HSI AF HSI Integrated Product Team and Board of Advisors named Leading Tri-Service HSI Working Group Building Joint Strategy with Field Units Futures Study underway – Potomac Institute AF HSI Primer available at this meeting upon request Air Staff briefed / trained Three HSI workshops planned and funded AF HSI report in Joint report to OSD & HASC Systems Engineering Plans being written for AF programs

42 AF Human Systems Integration Top 5 Issues
Economics Education and Training Future Concepts – Integration in SE Common Terminology Tools and Methodologies Let me conclude with a brief overview of the research challenges facing HSI policy and guidance. The first is the lack of effective tools for HSI practitioners, whether they be design engineers who want to follow HSI tenets, systems engineers putting the moving parts together and making trade-offs for optimum system function, or program managers making milestone decisions. Engineers use a great many tools now, and we are just starting to break ground on making HSI an integral part of the available arsenal. The tools and methodologies will shape the way requirements can be stated for acquisition professionals and system designers. We are commissioning a future concepts study to help ascertain where HSI will have the most impact in future systems and missions, and where HSI may have too little value added to make it worth while to focus our limited resources. This study will also help with the essential problem of translating HSI tenets into requirements for acquisition professionals. The economics piece of the puzzle is foundational. There is no point in spending more money in the design and initial acquisition phase if there’s no payoff in performance and life-cycle cost. A sound foundation based on the real cost and the real gain of institutionalizing HSI will enable critical decision making and those proactive tradeoffs mentioned earlier. Finally, we need to develop the education and training plan that will satisfy the needs of the very diverse group of people whose jobs intersect with HSI. With the Navy’s growing program as a starting point, we are in good shape, but there is a lot of work to be done to define and integrate HSI education and training for the Air Force and the Joint Force, from modules for Defense Acquisition University to a basic concept understanding for developmental education, to an informed consumer level for our senior leaders.

43 What does HSI mean outside DoD?
Industry/Government partnerships HSI certification, if implemented, may affect you – we need your input and issues Systems Engineering Education and Training issues, both for degree programs and courses in HSI We all need professionals – GS, Military, Contractors –we will all work together We have to recruit, train and educate HSI professionals HSI makes sense for all products!

44 Putting it All Together “Integration is Key” Multiple Players 1 Voice
SYSTEM SYSTEMS MISSIONS SOFTWARE HARDWARE Total Force Integration HUMANS Lean Processes Lethality Reliability Availability Maintainability Supportability Interoperability Usability Suitability Sustainability Survivability Safety Affordability Engineering Systems Human System Integration (HSI) Manpower Training Personnel Human Factors Engr Occupational Health Survivability Safety Habitability Environment Systems Engineering is not merely the engineering of a system. It is a comprehensive, integrating, interdisciplinary process that addresses the top down synthesis and development of a system that is focused on optimally satisfying the full range of requirements of the system. Human Systems Integration is only one of many other processes that work within the systems engineering construct. Total system design includes the full range of the HSI domains. We must address all of these issues to ensure the acquisition process delivers combat capability that is affordable, effective and leverages the tremendous potential of our people. Human Systems Integration works the human domains with the hardware, software and the environment and all of the associated interfaces. You note from the left side of this chart the many ilities that must be considered in designing a system. There are certainly many more, but the very important, and overarching ones are Usability, Operational Suitability, Sustainability, Survivability and Life Cycle Affordability. Each of these will reveal how well you have integrated the human with the systems we are developing.

45 Summary HSI is in Policy – flow down to all levels within DoD and Industry – you will DO HSI FY08 NDAA language means accountability at high level HSI is more than just human factors engineering – HUMAN voice HSI certification is possible requirement We have many challenges and need your participation and support

46 AF Human Systems Integration
Dr Rick Drawbaugh, Principal Human Systems Integration HSI Team: Col Larry Kimm Lt Col Alvis Headen Lt Col Valerie Martindale Maj Scott Nemmers Mr Larry Carr Dr Fran Greene Ms Gretchen Lizza Ms Stephanie Simper Mr Jeff Sventek Contact:


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