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Systems Engineering Research Taking Systems Engineering to the Next Level Cihan H Dagli, PhD Professor of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "Systems Engineering Research Taking Systems Engineering to the Next Level Cihan H Dagli, PhD Professor of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 Systems Engineering Research Taking Systems Engineering to the Next Level Cihan H Dagli, PhD Professor of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering Founder and Boeing Coordinator of Systems Engineering Graduate Program INCOSE and IIE Fellow MISSOURI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Rolla, Missouri, U.S.A.

2 Outline Introduction – Need for Systems Architecting and Engineering – DoD Systems Engineering Vision 2020 Academia Needs Missouri S&Ts Approach – Smart Systems Architecting – Courses – Industry Cooperation Future Of Systems Architecting

3 Research Collaborators Renzhong Wang (Current SysEng PhD Student, INCOSE Doctoral Award Recipient) Dr. Atmika Singh (Former SysEng PhD Student, Researcher at Clearway Holding) Dr. Jason Dauby (Former SysEng PhD Student, INCOSE Doctoral Award Recipient, Researcher at Naval Surface Warfare Center) Dr. Nil Kilicay Ergin (Former SysEng PhD Student, Faculty at Pen State University)

4 Introduction The Dynamically Changing Operating Environment – We are increasingly a networked society: Trans-national mega military systems Asymmetrical threats vs. rapid reaction forces Trans-national enterprises Trans-national manufacturing Globally distributed services and production – We are increasingly dependent on these networks.

5 Effectiveness Survivability Vulnerability Mission Success Advanced Supportability Supply Chain Mgt. Maintenance Mgt. Analysis Supply Mgt. Analysis Operational C4ISR Communications Dynamic Systems System of Systems Visualize Scenarios Immerse Man in Loop Decision Analysis Voice of Customer Customer Requirements Expert Judgment LCC/TOC Design to Cost Best Value Introduction Courtesy of Dr. Mike McCoy

6 Introduction (Adopted from An Overview of Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), Stefan Falke, Geospatial Intelligence Operating Unit, Northrop Grumman Corporation)

7 Introduction Super-Efficient, Eco-Friendly, and People Friendly Trans-national Manufacturing

8 Need for Systems Architecting and Engineering Systems Engineering: An interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. Systems Engineering considers both the business and the technical needs of all stakeholders with the goal of providing a quality product that meets the user needs. System Architecture: The aggregation of decomposed system functions into interacting system elements whose requirements include those associated with the aggregated system functions and their interfaces requirements/definition INCOSE (International Council of Systems Engineers)

9 *Source: INCOSE Systems Engineering Center of Excellence SECOE INCOSE 2003; & Honour, E. Understanding Value of Systems Engineering, INCOSE Conference, June 20-24, 2004 Cost and Schedule Performance as a Function of Systems Engineering Effort Need for Systems Architecting and Engineering

10 Performed by NDIA in conjunction with the SEI in Surveyed 64 projects at defense contractors to assess: Data was collected anonymously to encourage honest and accurate reporting. Results published at: ocuments/08.reports/08sr034.html ocuments/08.reports/08sr034.html *Source: Presentation of Joe Elm from Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University

11 Need for Systems Architecting and Engineering *Source: Presentation of Joe Elm from Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University 39% 46% 15% 29% 59% 12% 31% 13% 56% Best Performance ( x > 3.0 ) Moderate Performance ( 2.5 x 3.0 ) Lower Performance ( x < 2.5 ) Lower Capability ( x 2.5 ) N = 13 Moderate Capability ( 2.5 < x < 3.0 ) N = 17 Higher Capability (x 3.0 ) N = 16 Gamma = 0.32 p = PROJECT PERFORMANCE vs. TOTAL SE CAPABILITY

12 Need for Systems Architecting and Engineering *Source: Presentation of Joe Elm from Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University

13 Need for Systems Architecting and Engineering *Source: Presentation of Joe Elm from Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University

14 Need for Systems Architecting and Engineering Architectures are fundamental to the success of the program Architecture selection is a search process based on ambiguous information and data Architecture selection requires assessment methods based on ambiguous key performance parameters to identify compromise architecture Architecting process is reduction of ambiguity hierarchically

15 DoD Systems Engineering Vision 2020 Design Principles – Platform Based Engineering Using a common core platform to develop many related systems/capabilities – Trusted System Design Developing trusted systems from untrusted components

16 DoD Systems Engineering Vision 2020 Design Framework – Model Based Engineering Using modeling and simulation for rapid, concurrent, integrated system development and manufacturing

17 DoD Systems Engineering Vision 2020 Adaptable DoD Systems – Capability on Demand Real-time Adaptive Systems Rapidly Reconfigurable Systems Pre-planned Disposable Systems

18 Academia Needs Systems Architecting Laboratory: Real Engineering Problems and Customer Environment to demonstrate, value of systems engineering and new systems architecting approaches on real systems of various size Close cooperation with industry honoring propriety nature of information and data Dissemination channels for new research

19 Missouri S&Ts Approach Systems Architecting Research

20 Smart System Architecting How can we assess architectures? How can we represent architectures? How can we generate architectures? How can we reduce ambiguity hierarchically? How can we test architectures for correctness? What are the tools of architect?

21 Smart Systems Architecting C. H. Dagli, A. Singh, J. P. Dauby, R. Wang, Smart systems architecting: computational intelligence applied to trade space exploration and system design, Systems Research Forum,Vol. 3, No. 2 (2009) 101–119

22 DoD Systems Engineering Vision 2020 Design Framework – Model Based Engineering Using modeling and simulation for rapid, concurrent, integrated system development and manufacturing

23 Smart Systems Architecting 1.What constitutes the best in architecture? 2.What is the measure for comparing architectures? 3.We can search for the best architecture, as long as we can define best 4.Can we associate an aggregate value in evaluating functional architectures? 5.How can we deal with the ambiguity of need requirements and performance measures in the search process? 6.Is there a way to mathematically represent functional architectures? 7.Can we generate architectures through a evolutionary process? 8.Can we integrate the architect in evolutionary architecting process? C. H. Dagli, A. Singh, J. P. Dauby, R. Wang, Smart systems architecting: computational intelligence applied to trade space exploration and system design, Systems Research Forum,Vol. 3, No. 2 (2009) 101–119

24 PERFORMANCE SCHEDULE RISK PERCEPTIONS COST FACTS What is the measure for comparing architectures? Smart Systems Architecting

25 Adaptability Affordability Survivability Robustness Flexibility Reliability What is a reasonable approach to find and aggregate measure for comparing architectures? Smart Systems Architecting

26 Super-Efficient, Eco-Friendly, and People Friendly Top level system attributes Smart Systems Architecting

27 Smart Systems Architecting (SSA) SSA Approach Fuzzy Assessment and Computing with words Evolutionary Algorithms for Architecture Canonical Decomposition Fuzzy Comparison (CDFC) Self Organizing Maps for Clustering Architecture Families Models for Behavior Modeling C. H. Dagli, A. Singh, J. P. Dauby, R. Wang, Smart systems architecting: computational intelligence applied to trade space exploration and system design, Systems Research Forum,Vol. 3, No. 2 (2009) 101–119

28 Fuzzy Assessment and Computing with Words A. Singh and C. H. Dagli, "Computing with words" to support multi-criteria decision making during conceptual design, Systems Research Forum, vol. 04, no. 01, p. 85, Modern large-scale systems are comprised of many interacting subsystems and components and exhibit complex behavior. This nonlinear behavior cannot be analyzed using traditional modeling approaches. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps based methodology can be for assessing the inherent value of candidate architectures early in the design lifecycle.

29 Fuzzy Assessment and Computing with Words A. Singh and C. H. Dagli, "Computing with words" to support multi-criteria decision making during conceptual design, Systems Research Forum, vol. 04, no. 01, p. 85, The system and its components are represented in the form of a directional graph where the nodes represent system components and the arcs represent their interactions. This modeling approach makes use of the computing with words (CW) paradigm to use human experience to assign linguistic weights to the arcs based on the strength of influence between connected nodes. An overall value measure for a system can be derived by simulating the resulting graph. Such an approach will facilitate the selection of the best set of architectures or component technologies during the nascent design stages based on the value delivered to the stakeholder.

30 Evolutionary Algorithms for Architecture Once architecture options have been identified using FCM and CW, evolutionary algorithms can be employed to find the right combination of technologies to utilize in a system design. Functional architecture chromosome

31 Canonical Decomposition Fuzzy Comparison (CDFC) The CDFC methodology is a new architecture assessment approach offering increased objectivity, fidelity, and defensibility in comparison to traditional approaches. The methodology consists of four elements: Extensible modeling – facilitates the exchange of data between model resolution levels. Canonical design primitives – basic representations of system-component technologies. Comparative analysis – comparison between heuristic and canonical embodiments. Fuzzy inference – a mapping from system response features to fuzzy sets describing the architecture assessment. J. P. Dauby, Assessing system architectures: the canonical decomposition fuzzy comparative methodology, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Eng. Management and Sys. Eng., Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, 2011.

32 Canonical Decomposition Fuzzy Comparison (CDFC) Architecture assessment for airborne wireless systems in conjunction with a potential Acquisition Category (ACAT) ID program for the Department of the Navy J. P. Dauby, The canonical decomposition fuzzy comparative approach to assessing physical architectures, INSIGHT, vol. 13, no. 3, pp , Oct

33 Self Organizing Maps for Clustering Architecture Families Architecture solution candidates are described by functional, logical, or physical properties including integration sensitivity. The set of properties for each candidate are used as the input vector to a variety of SOM algorithms. The SOM output can identify design features and group potential architectural concepts into families based on common features, sensitivities, or tendencies. This approach facilitates the development of architecture families that exhibit similar behavior as well as identify combinations of technologies that work well together.

34 Models for Behavior Modeling Motivation Introduce dynamic model analysis into architecture modeling. Facilitate system behavior, performance, and effectiveness analysis, architecture evaluation, and functionality verification and validation. Renzhong Wang and Cihan H. Dagli, Executable System Architecting Using Systems Modeling Language in Conjunction with Colored Petri Nets in a Model Driven Systems Development Process. Journal of Systems Engineering, Vol. 14(3), 2011

35 Models for Behavior Modeling Renzhong Wang and Cihan H. Dagli, Executable System Architecting Using Systems Modeling Language in Conjunction with Colored Petri Nets in a Model Driven Systems Development Process. Journal of Systems Engineering, Vol. 14(3), 2011 Modeling Requirement Analysis and Specification Requirements Analysis Formal Model SysML Diagrams Executable model CPN Simulation Interactive GUI Architecture Analysis and Evaluation Architecture refinement & reconfiguration Functionality verification Behavior analysis Start End Model Transformation Behavior as modeled Desired Behavior Refinement External Application

36 OMG (Object Management Group), Semantics of a Foundational Subset for Executable UML Models, Version 1.0 Beta 3, ptc/ , 2010a Foundational UML Reference Implementation, – Specify and demonstrate the semantics required to execute activity diagrams and associated timelines per the SysML v1.0 specification – Specify the supporting semantics needed to integrate behavior with structure and realize these activities in blocks and parts represented by activity partitions Models for Behavior Modeling Renzhong Wang and Cihan H. Dagli, Executable System Architecting Using Systems Modeling Language in Conjunction with Colored Petri Nets in a Model Driven Systems Development Process. Journal of Systems Engineering, Vol. 14(3), 2011

37 Behavioral Formalism refers to a formalized framework for describing behavior, such as state machines, Petri nets, data flow graphs, etc. – UML/SysML, modeling language weak in executable semantics – Supplemented by Semantics of a Foundational Subset for Executable UML Models Software that implemented behavioral formalism – CORE, IBM Rational Rhapsody, CPN Tools, etc. Models for Behavior Modeling Renzhong Wang and Cihan H. Dagli, Executable System Architecting Using Systems Modeling Language in Conjunction with Colored Petri Nets in a Model Driven Systems Development Process. Journal of Systems Engineering, Vol. 14(3), 2011

38 Combined usage of related tools. – Three basic functions of a model: Specification (of a system to be built), – UML and SysML Presentation (of a system to be explained to other people, or ourselves), – DoDAF products Simulation. – Petri nets, DEVS (Discrete Event Specification System – xUML, X T UML, VM, Business Process Modeling Notation/Business Process Execution Language BPMN /BPEL Extract key information from simulation to support architecture evaluation and analysis. Refine the architecture design based on analysis results. Models for Behavior Modeling Renzhong Wang and Cihan H. Dagli, Executable System Architecting Using Systems Modeling Language in Conjunction with Colored Petri Nets in a Model Driven Systems Development Process. Journal of Systems Engineering, Vol. 14(3), 2011

39 DoDAF 2.0 Architecture Viewpoints and DoDAF-described Models DoD Architecture Framework Version 2.0 Volume I

40 Architecture Presentation Techniques DoD Architecture Framework Version 2.0 Volume I

41 Architecture Analytics DoD Architecture Framework Version 2.0 Volume I

42 Executable Modeling Formalisms The chosen of executable modeling language depends on the system to be modeled, the abstraction level to work on, and the system behavior of interest. Many modern distributed systems can be best specified by discrete event models because – The behavior of these systems is driven only by events that occur at discrete time points. Discrete-event models* represent the operation of a system as a chronological discrete sequence of events. Each event occurs at an instant in time and marks a change of state in the system. An executable architecture is a dynamic model that defines the precise event sequences, the conditions under which event is triggered and information is produced or consumed, and the proprieties of producers, consumers and other resources associated with the operation of the system. * Banks, J. Discrete-event System Simulation. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

43 Colored Petri Nets (CPNs) Places carry makers, called tokens, which mark the state of a system. Transitions describe the actions of the system Arcs tell how actions modify the state and when they occur 1.Combining a well-defined mathematical foundation, an interactive graphical representation, and the capabilities to carry out simulations and formal verifications. 2.The same models can be used to check both the logical or functional correctness of a system and for performance analysis. 3.CPNs are very flexible in token definition and manipulation. 1 1`data When certain conditions hold, transitions will be fired, causing a change in the placement of tokens and thus the change of system states.

44 Executable Semantics EventConditionsEffects Transition Place (w tokens) Place (w tokens) Transition State CPN Discrete Event System Specification System Output Data/Information Control signals Resources Other Time Delay Post conditions Input Data/Information Control signals Resources Other Action / Activity (a set of actions) Relationships between CPN Artifacts, System Entities and Discrete Event System Specifications

45 G I G Net-Centric Architecture Robust Interoperable Adaptable Flexible Modular System 1 Meta-Architecture Dynamically Changing Meta-Architecture for Complex Systems System 2 System 3 System 4 System n System n-1 Models for Behavior Modeling

46 For modeling the meta-architecture – Multi-agent based modeling Agents Environment Interactions For modeling sub-system architectures – Cognitive architectures N. Kilicay-Ergin Architecting System of Systems: Artificial Life Analysis of Financial Market Behavior, PhD Dissertation Dept. Eng. Management and Sys. Eng., Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, 2007 Models for Behavior Modeling

47 Swarm Intelligence Reinforcement Learning Genetic Algorithm Neural Networks Computational Intelligence Toolbox Short-term memory Long-term Associative memory Attention filter Bias Imitation Mechanism Modules Reactive Mechanism Deliberative Reasoning Meta-management Perception Action Agent 1= System 1Agent 2= System 2Agent 3= System 3Agent n= System n Cognitive Level* Agent Level Environment Level System Level Behavior Learning Classifiers Dynami cs SemanticsSelection Criteria System-of-Systems Meta-architecture Sub-system architectures *Slomans H-Cogaff architecture, 2000

48 Missouri S&Ts Approach Degrees and Graduate Certificates

49 Systems Engineering Degrees MS in Systems Engineering – Architected based on a need statement of invited Boeing RFP in – Since the inception of the program on Spring 2000 semester 410 engineers have received their M.S. degrees. – Ten courses – six core and four engineering specialization- are required for the degree. PhD in Systems Engineering – One graduate from Boeing Seattle out of four graduates since 2006 – Fifteen students currently in the program

50 CurriculumCore Courses Systems Systems Architecture SysEng 469 – Systems Architecting Systems Engineering and Analysis SysEng 368 – Systems Engr. and Analysis I Systems Engineering – Information Based Design SysEng 468 – Systems Engr. and Analysis II Complex Systems Management Economic Decision Analysis SysEng 413 Economic Analysis for Systems Engineering Systems Engineering Mgt. SysEng 412 Complex Engineering Systems Program Mgt. Organizational Behavior and Management SysEng 411 Systems Engineering Capstone Systems Engineering MS Degree

51 Systems Engineering Graduate Certificates Systems Engineering Graduate Certificate Network Centric Graduate Certificate Computational Intelligence Graduate Certificate Model Based Systems Engineering Graduate Certificate (In Approval Process ) Software Architecting and Engineering Graduate Certificate

52 SysEng 368 Systems Engineering and Analysis I SysEng 468 Systems Engineering and Analysis II SysEng 413 Economic Analysis for Systems Engineering SysEng 469 Systems Architecting Students completing these four courses with a minimum grade of B in each course are admitted to the M.S. degree program in Systems Engineering without taking the GRE. Systems Engineering Graduate Certificate

53 Network Centric Systems Graduate Certificate Core Courses: SysEng/CpE 419 Network-Centric Systems Architecting and Engineering CpE/SysEng 449 Network-Centric Systems Reliability and Security Communications Engineering Elective Courses (select two): CpE 317 Fault Tolerant Digital Systems CpE 319 Digital Network Design CpE 349 Trustworthy, Survivable Computer Networks CpE/SysEng 348 Wireless Networks CpE /SysEng 443 Wireless Adhoc and Sensor Networks CpE 448 High Speed Networks CS 483 Computer Security CS 486 Mobile and Sensor Data Management

54 Core Courses: CpE 358/EE367/SysEng 367 Computational Intelligence and select one of the following: CS 347 Introduction to Artificial Intelligence CS 348 Evolutionary Computing SysEng 378/CS 378/EE 368 Introduction to Neural Networks and Applications Elective Courses (Select two courses not taken as a core course): EE/CpE/Sys Eng 301 Evolvable Hardware CS 347 Introduction to Artificial Intelligence CS 348 Evolutionary Computing CS 447 Advanced Topics in Artificial Intelligence CS 448 Advanced Evolutionary Computing SysEng/CpE/EE 458 Adaptive Critic Designs CS/SysEng/CpE 404 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery EE 337 Neural Networks for Control SysEng 378/CS 378/EE 368 Introduction to Neural networks and Applications CpE/SysEng/EE 457 Markov Decision Processes SysEng 478 Advanced Neural Networks Computational Intelligence Graduate Certificate

55 SysEng 433 Distributed Systems Modeling SysEng 435 Model Based Systems Engineering SysEng 479 Smart Engineering Systems Design Emgt 374 Engineering Design Optimization Model Based Systems Engineering Graduate Certificate

56 CS 308 Object Oriented Analysis and Design Cs 309 Software Requirements Engineering SysEng 435 Model Based Systems Engineering SysEng 470 Software Intensive Systems Architecting Software Architecting and Engineering Graduate Certificate

57 Research Cooperation DARPA Manufacturing Experimentation and Outreach (MENTOR) Program supplier to Boeing Research and Technology- Awarded, Duration: One year Department of Defense Systems Engineering Research Center- University Affiliated Research Center SERC-UARC at Stevens Institute of Technology Project Agile Systems Engineering: Experiential and Active Learning Approach, Duration: 05/15/2010 to 7/31/2011 Department of Defense University Affiliated Research Center for Systems Engineering Research Joint Proposal with Stevens Institute of Technology, University of Southern California and other participating universities. October 2008 – October 2013 The Boeing Company, Systems Engineering MS Degree Program for Italian Engineers: Under Industrial Return Project Italian 767 Tanker Transport, BOEING Industrial Participation Program Duration: 2006 – 2009

58 1. As an integrated global society, we depend on complex, distributed engineering systems that can adapt to the dynamically changing needs of society. 2.These systems are seen in health care, infrastructure, transportation, energy, defense, security, environmental, manufacturing, communications and supply chain systems, among others. 3. Adaptability within these systems is critical. We need to push the boundaries of research in Complex Adaptive Systems and respond to the continuous global change in systems needs. Future Research Needs

59 Recent Publications 1.Renzhong Wang and Cihan H. Dagli, Executable System Architecting Using Systems Modeling Language in Conjunction with Colored Petri Nets in a Model Driven Systems Development Process. Journal of Systems Engineering, Article first published online: 4 March Dauby, J. P. Dagli, C. H., "The Canonical Decomposition Fuzzy Comparative Methodology for Assessing Architectures," Systems Journal, IEEE, vol.5, no.2, pp , June Aaron A. Tucker, Gregory T. Hutto and Cihan H. Dagli Application of Design of Experiments to Flight Test: A Case Study Journal of Aircraft Vol. 47, No.2,March-April Atmika Singh and Cihan H Dagli Computing with words to Support Multi-Criteria Decision-Making During Conceptual Design Systems Research Forum Vol. 4, No. 1 (2010)

60 Recent Publications C.H. Dagli, Atmika Singh, Jason P. Dauby and Renzhong Wang Smart Systems Architecting: Computational Intelligence Applied to Trade Space Exploration and System Design, Systems Research Forum Vol. 3, No. 2 (2009) 101–119. A.A. Tucker and C.H. Dagli, "Design of Experiments as a Means of Lean Value Delivery to the Flight Test Enterprise, Journal of Systems Engineering, volume 12, Number 3, Pp M. Rao, S. Ramakrishnan, and C. Dagli, Modeling and simulation of net centric system of systems using systems modeling language and colored Petri-nets: A demonstration using the global earth observation system of systems, Systems Engineering, vol. 11, 2008, pp

61 Most biological systems do not forecast or schedule They respond to their environment quickly, robustly, and adaptively As engineers, let us dont try and control the system. Design the system so that it controls and adapts itself to the environment created by dynamically changing needs Concluding Remarks

62 Are we there yet?


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