Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Radio Yves LaCerte Rockwell Collins (952) 826-0080."— Presentation transcript:
Cognitive Radio Yves LaCerte Rockwell Collins (952)
System Integration 814/20082Yves LaCerte Topics What is System Integration? An Example - Cognitive Radio Integration Trends
What is System Integration? 814/20083Yves LaCerte INCOSE SE Handbook…. …establishment of system interfaces, internal and external… …emphasis on risk management and continuous verification… The process of putting a system together, with techniques to ensure all the parts work as a whole.
Integration is Hard 814/20084Yves LaCerte Generally, the main contractor for the project is responsible for systems integration. The sub-contractors will usually be part of the integration team. Integration is one of the most costly and time-consuming activities in the systems engineering process. For large and complex systems, up to 40% of the development effort may be used in this activity, mostly in system testing.
Cognitive Radio 814/20085Yves LaCerte A Non-traditional System Integration Challenge Scientific American, February, A Public Safety Cognitive Radio Node A Policy Proposal to Enable Cognitive Radio for Public Safety and Industry in the Land Mobile Radio Bands,
Scenarios Urban agencies need to communicate with each other New York City police and fire departments during 9/11 were not successful Federal, state and local level responders need to communicate Katrina response was less than successful 814/2008Yves LaCerte6
The Problem Spectrum is regulated (e.g. FCC) Assigned/licensed to users On a long term basis For large regions like whole countries 814/2008Yves LaCerte7
A Solution Cognitive Radio Senses and is aware of its environment Dynamically adapts to utilize changing radio resources Maintains connectivity with its peers Does not interfere with licensed users and other CRs 814/2008Yves LaCerte8
Timeline 814/2008Yves LaCerte10
CR Architecture 814/2008Yves LaCerte11 Basic Non-Cognitive Radio Architecture : Cognitive Radio architecture:
Integration Challenge I 814/2008Yves LaCerte12 Multi-disciplinesMajor Domains Wireless communications Location-aware sensors Radio engineering Wide band antennas Machine learning Spectrum regulations Application service Etc. Policy domain Radio domain User domain
Machine Learning 814/2008Yves LaCerte13 Some tasks cannot be defined well except by example. Discovers important relationships and correlations in large data sets. The working environment is not be completely known at design time. Mitola, Cognitive Radio for Flexible Mobile Multimedia Communications, IEEE Mobile Multimedia Conference, 1999, pp3-10 Orient Establish Priority Plan Normal Generate Alternatives (Program Generation) Evaluate Alternatives Register to Current Time Decide Alternate Resources Initiate Process(es) (Isochronism Is Key) Act Learn Save Global States Set Display Send a Message Observe Receive a Message Read Buttons Outside World New States The Cognition Cycle Prior States Pre-process Parse Immediate Urgent Infer on Context Hierarchy
Advantages 814/2008Yves LaCerte14 Flexibility A more flexible radio over classic radio systems. Software makes it easier to upgrade for better performance…. And upgrade for new performance…. Cheaper RF Front-End Design One problem with classic RF design is the complexity and the labor in developing a reliable design. With the design of a reliable Software Defined Radio (SDR), the quality and performance of the SDR can be enhanced by the digital hardware in order to reduce the complexity (and therefore the cost) of the RF front-end. Digital Signal Processor (DSP), Field Programmable Gate-Array (FPGA), General Purpose Processor (GPP) Smaller Parts Count With a less complicated RF front-end, the total parts needed is simplified. With digital components like the DSP and FPGA taking the place of many passive and active components, the list is smaller and cheaper.
Integration Challenge II Unlike traditional interferers, cognitive radios adapt their operation in response to their perceived interference environment. When numerous cognitive radios are collocated, this interference environment may be constantly changing as the cognitive radios adapt to the other cognitive radios adaptations. Because of this recursive process, serious concerns are introduced: Under what conditions will the recursions settle down to a steady state? What is that steady-state? Will the resources be hoarded by a single radio/link or will they be equitably shared among the radios? Will the cognitive radios actually make use of available spectrum without impinging on other radios spectrum rights? How much bandwidth will be consumed with signaling overhead and how much bandwidth will actually be used for data transfer? 814/2008Yves LaCerte16
A Typical Integration Example 814/200818Yves LaCerte Collect Hardware Components Integrate Hardware Platform Collect Software Components Integrate Software on Target Hardware Test System Interfaces Configurations Stress User Acceptance Test Resolve Issues Factory Acceptance Human Systems Integration
Integration Trends 814/200820Yves LaCerte Integrated Modular Architecture Each supplier generally has proprietary hardware (LRU) increasing cost of supply / repair chain and aircraft weight All software in a LRU/card must be developed to the same safety level even, if this is not strictly necessary, and is dedicated to that LRU If the hardware platform changes the whole product needs to re-verified by licensing authority
Integration Trends 814/2008Yves LaCerte21 Integrated Modular Architecture Uses spare computing capacity to run multiple independent applications in a central processing network – fewer equipment racks therefore less weight Application software is independent of an open architecture core executive – therefore it is platform and location independent Application software can be validated independently of the core executive and hardware Application software is location independent of the IO (Desirable but not always the case)
Integration Trends 814/200822Yves LaCerte Micro and Nano Technologies The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big. Richard Feynman, Theres Plenty of room at the bottom: An invitation to enter a new field of physics, Engineering and Science, Feb. 1960,
InductanceBehaviors OpticalThermal Integration Trends 814/200823Yves LaCerte Micro and Nano Technologies Systems engineering will become a key enabler for the successful commercialization of multi-functional, micro and nano technologies (MNT). Systems engineering delivers the methodologies, processes and tools to enable the efficient integration and exploitation of these disruptive technologies. MechanicalFluidic MEMS Design Flow AnalogMaterials CMOSDigital BiPolarParasitics VLSI Design Flow Integration
Integration Trends 814/200824Yves LaCerte HW / SW Codesign Increasing behavioral complexities… requires design optimization many functions, great variability, high flexibility heterogeneous target systems - processors, ASICs, FPGAs, systems-on-chip, … many design goals performance, cost, power consumption, reliability,...
Integration Trends 814/200825Yves LaCerte HW / SW Codesign Systems engineering will become a key enabler for the successful commercialization of complex embedded software intensive systems. Systems engineering delivers the methodologies, processes and tools to enable the efficient integration and exploitation of these disruptive technologies.
Enterprise Integration 814/200826Yves LaCerte
Enterprise Integration 814/200827Yves LaCerte
Business integrationdesign and modeling of business processes Presentation integrationintegration of corporate knowledge and business processes Data integrationhow data is modeled and the meaning of the data Control integrationmessaging between applications Application integrationdifferent applications work together using mechanisms such as automatic event notification, flow control, and content routing Enterprise Integration 814/200828Yves LaCerte
Integrating Two Systems 814/200829Yves LaCerte Exploration Why is the information needed? What information is needed? Information Management How will the information be used? How will the information be stored? What is the human role in the required activities? Constraints What are the constraints? Effectiveness How will the integrated system continue to be effective? Technology What technology will facilitate the required activities?
Integration is Hard High degree of uncertainty Design for integrability Integration strategies Emergent properties 814/2008Yves LaCerte31
Uncertainties System components are not available on time Duration of integration is longer than planned Cost of testing facilities is higher than planned 814/2008Yves LaCerte32
Integration Planning 814/200833Yves LaCerte Requirements Specification System Specification System Design Detailed Design Factory Acceptance Test System Integration Test Sub-system Integration Test Factory Acceptance Test Plan System Integration Test Plan Sub-system Integration Test Plan User Acceptance Test Plan User Acceptance Test Component Implementation Component Test
Design for Integrability Integration tends to be more successful with low coupling between components Partitioning decisions are made early, often without integration in mind Hardware software co-design Merged integration approach 814/2008Yves LaCerte34
Integration Strategies Strategies Big bang or Incremental Horizontal or Vertical Order of integration impacts efficiency First come first integrated? Foundational components with long lead time? 814/2008Yves LaCerte35
Integration Strategy Incremental integration Scheduling and staging strategy Components are developed at different times or rates, and integrated as they are completed The alternative to incremental development is to develop the entire system with a "big bang" integration 814/2008Yves LaCerte36
Integration Strategy 814/200838Yves LaCerte Sub-system 1Sub-system 2 Component 1 Sub-system n Sub-system 2 Component 2 Component m Component 1
Emergent Properties A new component is introduced and problems are found Is it due to the relationship between the new component and the existing system? Or does the new component cause the existing system to be used in a different way? Did problems with the system exist BEFORE the component was added? 814/2008Yves LaCerte39
The State of Our Knowledge 814/200840Yves LaCerte System C We know quite a lot about integrating components (over which we may have little or no control) to form systems. We know something about integrating individual systems (over which we may have little or no control) into systems of systems. System B We know very little about integrating an interoperable network of systems…the key distinction being that the network is unbounded (or very loosely bounded) and has no single controlling authority. System A SYSTEM D Unplanned, unexpected, emergent behavior here…
Unbounded Systems 814/200841Yves LaCerte E.g. Large-scale communication networks Incompletely and imprecisely defined Distributed administrative control No central authority Limited global effect Emergent algorithms Predict global effects based on local activities Integration challenges What guarantees can be provided that the results of integrating systems into larger systems, when the interfaces are not completely known, will be acceptable? This is often addressed as the interoperability problem.
Interoperability 814/200842Yves LaCerte Integration: the act of forming, coordinating, or blending into a functioning or unified whole. Interoperation: The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged. Interest in integration of current stand-alone systems to meet future system requirements. Driven by advances in communication technology recognition of common areas of functionality in related systems increased awareness of how enhanced information access can lead to improved capability
Interoperability Challenges 814/200843Yves LaCerte Communication Media Wireless (WiFi, WiMax, cellphones) Secure? Reliable? Messaging and Security Across different equipment from different vendors: – Cyber security –security by obscurity is no longer feasible – Network management – will the data get where it needs to go in a timely manner? – Protocol standards – agreement on standardized interfaces between systems Data Management Across different equipment, vendors, customers – Vast amounts of data, data discovery – how to manage this data? – Data mining, data consistency, data privacy – how to find and validate data? – Conversion of data into information – how to use effectively? – Data modeling standards – ability for self-healing Computer Applications Real-time analysis? – Automated controls – what and where should they be implemented? – System reliability, efficiency, service, safety, compliance?
Game theory Does the algorithm have a steady state? What are those steady states? Is the steady state(s) desirable? What restrictions need to be placed on the decision update algorithm to ensure convergence? Is the steady state(s) stable? 814/2008Yves LaCerte44