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Analyzing System of Systems for Integration W. Clifton Baldwin.

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Presentation on theme: "Analyzing System of Systems for Integration W. Clifton Baldwin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Analyzing System of Systems for Integration W. Clifton Baldwin

2 Bio W. Clifton Baldwin PhD Candidate in Systems Engineering at Stevens Institute of Technology Graduate Student in the Systomics Laboratory Senior Systems Engineer at the FAA WJHTC CSEP – INCOSE PMP – PMI

3 Problem Domain Integration of a System of Systems (SoS) The Science of Togetherness

4 Traditional System – Definition complexes of elements in interaction to which certain system laws can be applied (Bertalanffy 1951, 307) a set of interrelated elements (Ackoff 1971, 662) a set of interrelated components working together toward some common objective or purpose (Blanchard and Fabrycky 1998, 2) an aggregation of end products and enabling products to achieve a given purpose (EIA 1999, 68) consists of many subsystems and is capable of performing a wide range of functions to address an operational need or mission (Shenhar 2001, 399) a combination of interacting elements organized to achieve one or more stated purposes" - INCOSE Handbook (Haskins 2007, sec. 1.5)

5 Traditional System – Definition A set of elements acting and interacting to achieve some common goal(s)

6 SoS – Definition a compilation of distributed, complex component systems (Kotov 1997, 1) heterogeneous systems integrated for the purpose of working effectively together (Carlock and Fenton 2001) autonomous and diverse component systems interacting for a global goal (Keating et al. 2003, 41) multiple, independent systems that interact for the purpose of a global goal (Crossley 2004) the different systems within a SoS can achieve results together that they would not be able to do alone (Krygiel 1999, 33), INCOSE Handbook (Haskins 2007, 2.2) collection of systems functioning together to achieve a common purpose (Shenhar and Sauser 2009, 126).

7 SoS – Definition A type of system composed of traditional systems and distinguished by the dynamic properties of autonomy, belonging, connectivity, diversity, and emergence (Boardman and Sauser 2006)

8 Autonomy in a SoS the union of different individual systems forms a new SoS with a different function than any one of the individual systems (Kang and Mavris 2005). each individual system has its own purpose beside the SoS (Lane and Boehm 2008, 82) the ability to complete ones own goals within limits and without the control of another entity

9 Belonging in a SoS Colloquially, belonging implies possession or acceptance as a member Derived from the SoS descriptions: synergism (Bar-Yam 2004, 9; Lane and Valerdi 2007, 301; Manthorpe 1996, 309) interdependent (DAU 2006, 100) interoperable (Lane and Valerdi 2007, 301) effectively working together (Carlock and Fenton 2001, 245) the contribution of the parts to the capabilities of the whole (DAU 2006, 100) functioning together for a common purpose (Shenhar 2001, 399)

10 Belonging in a SoS Belonging is the acceptance ability and need to make a valued contribution to the goal(s) of another entity

11 Connectivity in a SoS Derived from the SoS descriptions: geographically distributed (Maier 1998) distributed (Kotov 1997, 1) dependent on linkages (DeLaurentis and Callaway 2004, 831) connected (DAU 2006, 100; Haskins 2007, 2.2; Krygiel 1999, 32 connections are self-organizing and adaptive (Bar- Yam 2004, 9) connections are dynamic or possess evolutionary development (Maier 1998, 269) The capability to form connections as needed to benefit the entity

12 Diversity in a SoS Diverse or heterogeneous systems Varied capabilities of a system Preserved in part by multiple system actions

13 Why? We want to model SoS in order to develop integration strategies 1) Do the proposed characteristics model a SoS? If the answer is yes, then 2) Can altering the input govern the SoS integration?

14 Model Foundation Let set S i represent a system, which contains subsets of system actions A i, system goals G i, and other elements such as connectors C i S i = {A i, C i, G i } Let S* represent a system of systems, where traditional systems interact for a global goal S* = {S 1, … S n, G*}, G*, n>1

15 How? Mathematically model SoS characteristics Simulate the model Validate simulation against biological SoS Extrapolate findings to technical SoS

16 Example – Birds SystemSoS AutonomyBirds are independent e.g. territory and mating Sacrifice independence to join a flock BelongingBirds may share an environment Each bird contributes to the flock in exchange for aerodynamics ConnectivityMay communicateGeographically joined and coordinating DiversityEvery bird is uniqueFlock benefits from variety of different birds, e.g. leadership and strength EmergenceFlock provides protection while migrating

17 Questions

18 Backup Example – E. Coli SystemSoS AutonomyOrganisms are independent e.g. swim for food Sacrifice speed and independence to join the swarm BelongingOrganisms share an environment Each individual contributes to the swarm in exchange for safety ConnectivityMay communicate via chemicals Physically joined and coordinating DiversityAn organism has its own genetic material Swarm benefits from the variety of genetically different organisms EmergenceSwarm provides protection and improved foraging for food

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