6 Provisions of Education Three systems were operating in parallel:Traditional schools and colleges ( 书院, shuyuan）New schools (学堂, xuetang), and universitiesMissionary schools and universities
7 Traditional Schools and Colleges Classical curriculum;Learning of Confucianism;Civil servant examination;Anti-Western learning;Orthodox and wide popularity until the civil servant exam was abolished in the last few years of Qin Dynasty.
8 New Schools and Universities New schools, some coming from the reformed old-style traditional schools;New universities (e.g. 京师大学堂, now Peking U，国立北洋大学, i.e. now Tianjing U.）Supported by reform-minded officials;English was the primary FL being taught;In the early years, foreign language schools were set up to train interpreters and translators;In the later schools and universities, FL was the compulsory subject.
9 Missionary Schools and Universities Missionary schools: up to 1914, reaching about 4000; (charity)Universities: about 13 or more;English was the compulsory subject to be taught and learned;
10 The Republic ( )New national curriculum: to produce citizens of a republic, not subjects of an emperor;Traditional curriculum abolished;Confucianism no longer taught;Junior, senior middle schools and universities appearedFL (EL the most important) was compulsory;10
11 Look at with hindsight -- 1 English was taught either from the outside, or from the top, but not from the bottom;English had never been taught for the sake of the language, but remained instrumental to all the parties involved;A fundamental change occurred to the status of English after the national curriculum reform in the late Qin and the early Republic. It became an academic subject to be learned, at least during the school or university years.Individual learners were generally not motivated by themselves to learn English.
12 Look at with hindsight -- 2 Tensions always had existed between:Chinese and foreign;Chinese learning and Western learning;ELL at the primary and ELL at the secondary;ELL at the junior and ELL at the senior;English as both an academic subject and as an instructional medium.
13 ELL in China: From 1949 to the Present 2ELL in China:From 1949 to the Present
14 An Outline Chronically speaking: 1949 to 1966; 1966-1976; 1978- 2009 ELL in the primary and secondary educationELL in the tertiary educationELL and mass mediaELL and globalization
15 Chronically speaking This period (1949-1966) witnessed Primacy: English to Russian, and back to English;The Great Cultural Revolution ( ):The period 1978 up to the present:English as the primary FL well established;This reflects the impact the political atmosphere has on FL in China.
17 FL (Russian or English) In the early years of New China, national curriculum kept being revised over when FL should be taught:Throughout the secondary educationStarting from Grade 3;Only during the senior middle school;
18 English Replacing Russian NC (1959): Junior English back againEnglish for Primary Education (1962): experimental in good schools;By 1963, English in practice replaced Russian as the most taught FL
19 ELL and Foreign Language Schools Foreign language schools: starting from 1958;By 1965, there had been 14 foreign language schools.
20 ELL and Teacher Training NC (1978): from Grade 3 all the way to the Senior Middle School; in practice, only the Senior Middle;Teacher training for JMS and SMS in 1983: the British Council Projects (personally involved)
21 The latest debate (in Chinese way) The junior vs. senior: more or less settled --- both;Grade 3: depends on local conditions;Pre-school children: should they start learning English? No authority has ever said yes. But the impetus is building up from the bottom, and reinforced by the invisible market force, particularly by the publishers, and profit-driven training programmes.This triggers a question raised by some skeptics of whether it is worthwhile learning English in the first place.
23 Two General Divides English as major English as non-major --- now officially known as College English
24 English as Major: the latest trend In the past: English as Major == Language and literature;Now English (as language) plus … appears as a general trend.In other words, English is becoming an instructional medium.Qualified staff is in big demand.
25 English as Non-Major Curriculum: debated for a decade: Literacy vs. oracy;Core English vs. ESP;Two years or four years;Are the time and efforts worthwhile?Oversized classes --- what to do?
26 ELL and Technology English as Non-Major --- the majority of learners; Shortage of qualified staff;CALL: considered to be a viable supplement;Nearly all colleges and universities are required to have some sort of CALL component in ELT
27 ELL and Globalization Joint ventures; Tourism Overseas investments International exchange programmesAll these create a massive demand for in-service training.
28 Studies overseasFrom 1982 to the early 1990’s --- selected and sent by the State authoritiesSince 2000, students privately paid increased drastically;The latest trend: senior middle school graduates choose to have college education abroad.
29 Test-driven trainingTraining for TOEFL and IELTS proves to be an inexhaustible market;New Oriental is a well-known case;The latest trend: college entrance exams such as SAT boom, which reflects the trend of SMS graduates going to college overseas.
30 ELL and Mass MediaMass Media has always been considered to be the most cost-effective way to teach FL;Popularization of English owes a great deal to mass media.
31 ELL in China: the Future 3ELL in China:the Future
32 ReflectionsThere are a wide range of factors, which can be grouped into two general groups:Visible hand:Government policiesNational curriculumNational economy and GDPInvisible hand:Market forcesNationalism in joint venturesInternational environmentGroups of interests (e.g. organizations, stakeholders)
33 Areas of tension EL in Pre-school EL in primary education The way EL is being taught and learned in secondary and tertiary educationsEL and its connection with job promotion and careerEL and nationalism in joint ventures (Korean being required in Korean joint ventures)
34 Fundamental changesIndividual space and resources privately owned have changed beyond imagination;More and more individuals’ motivation for learning English becomes a matter of personal choice;
35 Intellectually speaking EL as an academic subject will remain carved in the curriculum;EL as a window to the outside world will remain open to Chinese intellectuals for ever (e.g. access to academic works is wanted by every intellectual)
36 Chinese vs. /& English in the global context The Chinese languageAs a medium of social interaction (increasing steadily)As a medium of academic works (very limited outside China)As a medium of instruction (limited outside China)As a medium of history (confined to a very few sinologists)
43 ELL and EducationNational Curriculum for Middle School (1950) (junior) 4 (senior), for 6 years, Russian or EnglishNCMS (1954, 1955), no FL for junior;NCMS (1956), English replacing Russian becoming the first FLNCMS (1957): English for both Junior and SeniorNCMS (1958): English for Senior only.
51 English was taughtRobert Morrison (1807) arrived in China. According to his memoir, he was allowed to teach math and English.Missionary schools, particularly schools for girls.Two distinctive features:The Biblical subjectsNo fees paid, but even providing subsidies. (school of charity)
52 English as instructional language Curriculum: English literacy
55 English was learned京师同文馆（School of Combined Learning, Beijing 1862, Shanghai 1863, Guangzhou 1864），English was the first subject to be provided;The first intake: 10; they were virtually bought to learn it by the government.
56 Schools for Foreign Affairs (1866-1898) There were 29 schools founded all over China, the primary objective of which was to teach foreign learning;English was the most important of all foreign languages taught.
58 Grahame Bilbow Director of English British Council China
59 Demand for English Language Services in China April 2009
60 Methodology Qualitative research: In-depth interviews, conducted face-to-faceEach interview up to 30 minutes long5 interviews with English language teachers, mix of schools/universities5 interviews with leading employers, HR Director level or equivalent, mix of national companies serving the domestic market only and those who are ‘going global’, range of sectorsBeijing and Shanghai, 13 – 22 April 2009NOTE: care must be taken in interpretation of these qualitative results due to the small number of interviews
61 Methodology Quantitative research: Face-to-face interviewsEach interview up to 20 minutes long200 interviews, 50 each with adult learners, potential adult learners, parents of young learners and parents of potential young learnersChengdu and Qingdao, April 2009Comparisons also made with quantitative research conducted for the BC in 2007 by United Research China (URC) on English Language Teaching Market1,535 central location test interviews in six cities, 1-16 April 2007, adult learners and parents of young learners with ELT schools666 telephone interviews in six cities, 1 April – 9 May 2007, adults learners and parents of young learners
62 Desk research sourcesReport on English Language Teaching Market in China by United Research China, for the British Council, 2007Social Survey Institute survey 2005Online-education, September 2008 (www.online-edu.org)People’s Daily, May 2008 (www.people.com.cn)China Education Investment Institute, December 2008 (www.ceif.cn)
64 A growing marketExperts in 2005 predicted an annual growth rate of around 15% up to 2010Based on China’s accession to the WTO, the 2008 Olympic Games and 2010 Shanghai Expo(note: this was before the global economic downturn)Data Source: Survey Results Published by Social Survey Institute of China, 2005
65 ELT dominated by private institutes Social Survey Institute of China, 2005:Approx 50,000 ELT institutes in ChinaChina Education Investment, 2008:Over 90% are private institutesUniversities act as an effective supplementary providerSolely foreign invested and joint venture institutes positioned at high endmainly concentrate on economically developed areas and cities open to the outside world, like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzen
66 Focus on large developed cities China Education Investment, 2008:Major markets for ELT in East China, North China and South China, particularly in large developed cities like Beijing, Shanghai, GuangzhouDemand increasing quickly, particularly in more developed coastal areas
67 Market dominated by adult learners The projection of English learner population between 7-45 years old in six surveyed cities, 2007:total learners aged 7-45 (Unit: 1,000)Beijing3,814.2, of whom = 7-15Shanghai2,047.8, of whom 86.4 = 7-15Guangzhou1,502.1, of whom = 7-15Shenyang822.3, of whom = 7-15Chengdu1,110.3, of whom 93.2 = 7-15Wuhan902.7, of whom 59.5 = 7-15Total10,199.4, of whom =7-15Source: China Statistical Yearbooks, 2007
68 But growth among younger and older learners People’s Daily, 2008:Approx 300 million ELT consumersMainly aged 20-40Also growth at both ends of age spectrum – children and older people:ELT for children began early 1990s, but still in its early stageBy end of 2007 there were 350 million children of school age – so huge market potentialMany pre-school training institutes established – eg EF Small Stars programmeForeign invested institutes expanding in this areaGrowth in older learners – particularly for some vocational English courses and high-end programmes which appeal to students in their 40s
69 Career advancement key driver of demand People’s Daily, 2008 – key drivers of demand:Improve English communications skills, particularly in work context, to expand social circle and improve career prospectsFocus on practical use of English through listening and speaking practiceWill become the main driving force of market demand in the futurePrepare for English tests for study abroad or enrolment in schoolsFocus on test techniques rather than practical use of English (eg TOEFL, GRE, IELTS and CET 4/6 etc)Get professional qualifications, eg oral interpretation certificatesAgain, focus is on test techniques
70 Three main types programme in terms of cost HighSmall % of marketDeveloped citiesMainly foreign invested institutes (eg Wall Street)Entry level = at least 6 programmes, costing around RMB20,000Learners are high income, mainly white collar, mid/senior managementMediumMainstream marketDeveloped large and medium citiesOne programme costs RMB 1,000 – 4,000Each class hour costs RMB 20-50LowMainstream marketMainly supplementary to school educationLearners are mainly studentsOne programme costs RMB 100 – 500Data Source: China Education Investment, 2008
71 Mainly traditional methods but online growing Small ClassMainly foreign teachers/text booksFocus on listening and speaking10-20 students per classOnlineStill at early stage, but showing fast growthLow cost, cheap, flexible timetableMany online training providers now use Voice Interaction Technology so can provide a ‘face-to-face’ learning environment similar to a real classroomLarge ClassUsing self-compiled or state-recognised text booksLocal teachers30-50 students per classTraditional teaching methodsWidely used in test preparation trainingComputer-aidedCombines computer-aided programmes with lectures delivered by teachersData Source: China Education Investment, 2008
72 Some key players New Oriental School: Founded 1993 2006 New Oriental Education and Technology Group listed on NYSEServices include English and other foreign language training, overseas and domestic test preparation courses, primary and secondary school education, educational content and software and online educationEnd of 2008 – 41 schools, 400 learning centres and 6 subsidiaries in 39 cities in ChinaGiven 7 million training programmesTest preparation courses are a particular strength – estimated that nearly 50% of Chinese students studying abroad took the NOS course2008 – opened 8 elite learning centres in Beijing – use multi-media software (DynEd) and aimed at professionals and elite entrepreneurs
73 Some key players Wall Street Institute*: Entered China in 2000 15 training centres in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and ShenzhenFocuses on ELT to adultsMid/high end positioningProgrammes include Introduction to English, English Online and Premier EnglishTargets civil servants, managers, and university studentsHas a Corporate English Training Department and over 300 corporate clients in China* Recently acquired by Pearson
74 Some key players English First (EF) Education: Entered China in 1996 2000 – opened language schools in Guangzhou and Shanghai, now has schools in 54 citiesAdopts ‘Communicative’ method of English training – encourages students’ involvement through talking and listeningMajor programmes include comprehensive English, teens/kids English, business English, practical English for overseas living/studying and IELTS
75 Will more study overseas in economic downturn? China Education Investment & People’s Daily, 2008:Depreciation of foreign currencies in global economic downturn reduces cost of study abroadSpeculation that this will result in more studying overseasEspecially as companies slim down work force and it becomes more important to strengthen personal skills
77 Increased propensity to learn, esp. among young Do you think you/your child are more likely or less likely to learn English (outside school) than you were 6 months ago?Don’t know 2%Less likelyNo real difference compared to 6 months agoMore likelyMuch more likelyParent of potential learner36%Parent of current learner28%Adult potential learner22%Adult learner14%Base: All respondents, China (200), parent of potential learner (50), parent of current learner (50), adult potential learner (50), adult learner (50)
78 ELT schools are preferred method for parents Is your child currently studying English in any of these ways?Would you like your child to study English in any of these ways?Preferred for child/renChild/ren currently useAt schoolELT schoolOther kind of organisationPersonal teacherfor one-to-one tuitionOnline training courseNone of theseBase: All parents, China (113)
79 Group tuition preferred, but possible unmet demand for one-to-one tuition In which of these ways, if any, would you prefer (your child) to learn English / are you/your child currently using to learn English (outside school)?PreferredUsed by current learnersTop mentionsGroup or classroom tuition‘Teach Yourself’ guides – text bookOnline courses‘Teach Yourself’ guides – audio/visualOne-to-one tuitionBase: Preferred - All respondents, China (200), Current – All adult learners/parents of current learner, China (100)
80 UK ELT would be considered, esp. by parents And, in the next 2-3 years, how likely is it that you/your child will study English at a UK English language learning institute, assuming one was based in your city?Don’t knowCertain toAdult learnerPotential adult learner20%12%Parent of current learnerParent of potential learner54%50%Certain toCertain not toVery unlikelyVery likelyFairly unlikely2007 URC survey:Lower figures – 45% said they or their children likely to study in UK ELT instituteFairly likelyBase: All likely to study at an ELT Institute in the next 2-3 years, China (182) , adult learner (46), adult potential learner (39), parent of current learner (49), parent of potential learner (48)
81 Price = key obstacleWhy do you say you/your child would not study at a UK English language institute?Top mentionsToo expensiveLearning US English more helpfulLearning a more general form of ‘international’ English more helpfulUK has an image of being old- fashioned/not innovative enoughLearning ‘local’ English more helpfulDon’t knowBase: All unlikely to study at a UK ELT in the next 2-3 years, China (30)
82 Majority would consider online learning; few certain to How likely are you to consider learning English online in the next 2-3 years/choosing an online English learning course for your child?Certain to/ Very Likely/Fairly likelyAdult learnerAdult potential learnerParent of current learner62%78%65%Parent of potential learnerDon’t knowCertain toCertain not toVery likelyVery unlikelyFairly unlikely2007 URC survey:Also showed majority would consider onlineFairly likelyBase: All not currently learning English via an online course, China (195), adult learner (47), adult potential learner (50), parent of current learner (48), parent of potential learner (50)
83 Low access to ELT courses at work Does your company offer English language training courses for employees?Don’t knowI am unemployed1%Yes (8 out of 100)I am a studentCourses offered:Business(4 out of 8)Basic(3 out of 8)Vocational(2 out of 8)Professional(1 out of 8)All 8 likely to participate mainly because better geared to their needsNoBase: All current/potential adult learners, China (100)
84 Type of English important, especially to parents of potential learners How important or unimportant to you is the type of English learnt?Don’t know 2%Not important at all2007 URC survey:55% thought original country of origin of ELT importantDifference in question wording may account for some of the difference between this result and the current resultsVery importantNot very importantFairly importantAdult learnerAdult potential learnerParent of current learnerParent of potential learnerVery important26%44%Base: All respondents, China (200), adult learner (50), adult potential learner (50), parent of current learner (50),parent potential learner (50)
85 US English most popular Which if any of these different types of English would you choose to learn/for your child to learn?2007 URC survey:Country of origin of ELT – 52% preferred UK, 36% USSuggests preferences changingBase: All respondents, China (200)
86 Overseas materials generally preferred When it comes to materials for English language learning, do you generallyprefer those produced locally or by overseas organisations or do you have no preference?Don’t knowNo preferenceLocallyPrefer overseas materialsAdult learnerPotential adult learner52%46%Parent of current learnerParent of potential learner32%42%OverseasBase: All respondents, China (200), adult learner (50), adult potential learner (50), parent of current learner (50), parent potential learner (50)
87 UK materials the same or better than others Do you think that materials produced by UK organisations for Englishlanguage learning are generally better or worse than those from otheroverseas organisations or are they about the same?Don’t knowBetterWorseBetterAdult learner/Adult potential learner25%Parent of current learner/Parent of potential learner37%About the sameBase: All respondents, China (200), adult learner/adult potential learner (100), parent of current learner/parent of potentiallearner (100)
88 Quality & ease of use are strengths Why do you say that materials from UK organisations are better?Better quality/more reliableClearer/easier to usePrefer UK EnglishUK materials have a better reputationHave a generally positive image of the UKBase: All who think materials from UK organisations are better, China (62)
89 The market among English language teachers* * These findings are based on just 5 qualitative interviews, so are indicative only
90 Public sector tied to approved materials Public sector schools and universitiesObliged to use the textbook compiled by the local Education CommissionE-courseware is tied to the text bookEg textbook for West District is ‘New Starting Point’ and the E-courseware is provided by Golden Sun CompanyAdditional training exercises also usedIdeas coming from journals, newspaper, the Internet etcUsually identified via word of mouth among teachers circlesUsage determined by English department of school“I have no choice in the textbook, which is forced on us by the local Education Commission. Current textbooks are better than before, however, some key points still need to be highlighted and, as a result, I will prepare some additional materials…the E-courseware helps me prepare some games”
91 More choice of material in private sector Private schoolsFlexible to choose any material which suits their students’ needsTend to use textbooks produced overseas:More ‘native’ in terms of thinking and expression of languageBetter for those preparing to study abroadSourced from Foreign Language Bookstore, Hong Kong or original country’s publisher“The materials from English speaking countries are more true to life than what we make”
92 Public sector textbooks of variable quality Key challenge = quality of textbooks:Accuracy - compiled and edited by local Chinese, resulting in ‘Chinglish’Not geared towards practical application of English – not relevant to students or arouse their interests, cannot be applied in everyday life“Fundamentally, the textbook we use is produced by Chinese…there are always cultural differences and we don’t have an English environment in which students can learn like native speakers”“One frequent problem is that students understand the meaning of some words but find it hard to use in their life or other contexts besides in the textbook”
93 Need for interesting, practical, up-to-date material Interesting to students – relevant, able to stimulate interestPractically-oriented – can easily be applied in students’ real lifeMore video/audio materialsParticularly if can be downloaded from Internet – more up-to-date and flexible in terms of choice of topics“How to stimulate students’ interest is a big issue. If the resources can resonate with students, they will be compelled to learn it on their own”
94 Need to constantly improve their own skills Teachers need to constantly improve their own skills:Maintain their own skills with daily practiceKeep up-to-date with changes in current English usageKeep ahead of their own students, particularly in higher level classes“Nowadays, students get knowledge from many different channels and they can compare with the school curriculum, so teachers feel easily challenged if we are not familiar with the latest language trends and update ourselves”
95 Development opportunities felt to be limited Current opportunities felt to be very limited, though an number of examples mentioned:Internal seminars – for teachers to share experiencesDiscussion Forum organised by local Education Commissions – to go through text book and hot topics likely to be covered in examsSubscriptions to English journals – eg English newspapers, China DailyExchange programmes with overseas universitiesSome schools encourage teachers to study abroad – schools typically pay 50% of costsSome private schools use external organisations to train teachers
96 Limited awareness of UK-based organisations “I never heard of any UK-based organisation providing teaching resources, maybe there are many, but I am not aware of them”British Council – high awareness of organisation, but no awareness of what it can offer teachersBBC – high awareness; some university teachers use audio clips from its web site for class materialsPublishers – only aware of Longman. Dictionary well knownIELTS – high awareness. Seen as passport to study abroadUK universities – Aware of Cambridge, Oxford, LSE, Warwick. Would search Times ranking of UK universities for othersExamining and assessment bodies, UK language schools, websites – no awareness
97 The market among leading employers* * These findings are based on just 5 qualitative interviews, so are indicative only
98 English is a ‘must-have’ for new recruits English seen as a ‘must-have’ qualification, regardless of sectorCET 4 and 6 are basic requirements. For some CET 6 is the minimum requirement for a new employeeIELTS, GRE, GMAT and other English certificates not required, but a high score will help potential employees stand out from the crowdPotential employees also need to pass English written and oral tests, designed and administered internallyFor jobs which require more regular contact with foreigners, only graduates with an English major will be considered“My company attaches a high importance to English. We use a very strict process to screen their English ability. It is an important criterion which will show their ability”
99 But on-going ELT often not offered to staff Many do not provide on-going English training or assessment for their staff*Because recruitment process screens for suitable skill levelWorking language internally is ChineseTraining can conflict with workload commitmentsOverall performance seen as more important“English is not the only way to demonstrate one’s ability; if it was, we would recruit all employees with an English major…they all pass examinations so we believe that they do not have any problem to use English in their job. We review their performance, but not their English”“In general, a day release course will last for 1-3 months, and it means the staff cannot work during that period.”* Confirmed by quantitative research, just one in ten learners/potential learners in employment said their company offered such training
100 Limited awareness of UK-based organisations Only two mentioned as possible UK providers:EF:Felt to be well known in the English training market for general publicBritish Council:Seen as providing opportunities for company employees to study for an MBA in the UKSuch MBAs felt to be useful way of improving English performance“I know very little about the UK-based English training organisations…was it EF that is from the UK? I guess so; it is a large enterprise providing training services. Also, one of my colleagues attended a programme held by the British Council. It seems that the British Council cooperates with UK universities to offer opportunities to leading national organisations only”
101 Future demand for more business English training Economic crisis means training budgets dramatically cut in 2009ELT not a priorityLonger term, companies want ELT to be combined with business or management-related skillsWork-related English training is more practicalEnglish learnt at school/university is not geared to business EnglishEnglish training combined with management or other business-related topics is deemed more efficientEmployees can improve professional skills and English skills at the same time“TIP is not simply English training; it covers a lot of information besides spoken English, like management and EQ topics. With the training, our employees also develop their minds”
103 Summary & Implications Strong and growing market, particularly in main cities and more developed coastal areas, so good potential for UK providersEspecially as English increasingly seen as a ‘must have’ in the larger, outwardly facing companiesCurrently, market dominated by adult learners, but strong growth in the young learners market, which offers huge market potentialEspecially since teaching in the public sector still lags behind that available in private sector (in terms of practical application of skills and quality of learning materials)Market seemingly unaffected by economic downturn; indeed some speculation that it may increase the importance of learning English as competition for jobs becomes more intense
104 Summary & Implications ELT institutions remain main way of learning English outside schoolHuge number of such institutions of varying size, cost and qualityUK providers of ELT and learning materials have a good reputationAssociated with quality and high levels of credibility with potential employersBut, UK ELT also associated with high price (the flip side of quality?) – look for lower cost options to offer in addition higher cost/quality options?Also interviews with teachers suggest UK organisations have a low profile in China, meaning there is a need to build this profileFurthermore, US English preferred to UK English, which represents a potential obstacle
105 Summary & Implications Online learning still at an early stage, but growing force in the market, and therefore could represent an important opportunity for UK organisationsParticularly if Voice Interaction Technology can overcome some of downsides related to practising oral skills and interacting with othersIn-company training still quite low, except in larger companiesIn the short-term, limited opportunities for external organisations to help with in-company training, due to budget cutsBut in the medium/longer term, opportunities lie in a focus on:Business English, combined English & business training, exchange/visit study programmes to organisations in the UK
106 Summary & Implications Key opportunities for UK organisations in terms of:Materials design – more accurate English, with better feel for UK/US cultureExpanded online offer, with downloadable exercises from the internet geared to different language skills and different age groups/abilitiesTeacher development activitiesProvision of more opportunities for teachers to practise their English skills with native speakers and learn more about the culture
107 Summary & Implications But:Other than in private schools, Education Commissions are often the dominant decision maker on what is used (text books and E-courseware)Teachers have limited information on external providers and do not have time to proactively search for this informationTherefore UK providers need to:Build closer relationships with local Education Commissions – eg in terms of help with compiling textbooks, E-courseware,Provide downloadable resources for teachersRaise the profile of UK providers and what they can do – regular E-newsletter to schools?
108 Joanna Burke Regional Director British Council China
109 The British Council in China: context and overview
110 The British Council in China First office in China opened in Re-opened in Beijing in 1979.Cultural and Education Section of the British Embassy in BeijingCultural and Education Section of the British Consulates-General in Shanghai, Guangzhou and ChongqingBritish Council in Hong Kong (since 1948)450 full-time staff across ChinaThe British Council is the United Kingdom’s international organisation for cultural and educational relations founded in Overthe past 75 years, we have been engaged in building relationships between individuals and organisations in the UK and those inthe 110 countries and territories where we are based.Our first office in China opened in Chongqing in 1943, and we worked in China for nine years. We have now been operating inmainland China continuously since In mainland China we operate as the Cultural and Education Section of the BritishEmbassy in Beijing, and the Cultural and Education Section of the British Consulates-General in Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chongqing.
111 The external environment in China One Country, two SystemsGrowing international profile and national prideRapid urbanisationEconomic growth (still!)Internet access and usageNeed for skills developmentCrowded marketplace of international products and services (including education and culture)Increased buying power of government at all levelsHong Kong and mainland China.United by increasing economic convergence, development of their knowledge economies, a focus on education and a growing concern for environmental issues.Separated by diverging legal and regulatory frameworks (to 2047), business culture and historyInward mainland migration to Hong Kong is changing the demographicInternational profile and national prideGrowing interest in China and learning of Chinese in UKGrowing awareness that a rich China (like the West) will not necessarily behave like the WestIncreasing engagement with China from the overseas diasporaRapid urbanisationMass rural/urban Mainland/Hong Kong migration, set back in south by economic crisis so not at same rate but still growingGreatly increased mobility (demise of Hukou system)Large numbers of new cities with population of over 1mNew middle classes with an increased demand for comfort and for cultural and educational opportunitiesEconomic growth slower but continuingImproved living standards at a cost- environmental degradationEast/west, urban/rural, extreme wealth/extreme poverty gapsFinancial crisis/unemployment (inc. for the first time, graduates)Rising costs for businesses and individualsSocial stability AND economic growth? Social stability without economic growthOn January 14, 2009 as confirmed by the World Bank the NBS published the revised figures for 2007 financial year in which growth happened at 13 percent instead of 11.9 percent (provisional figures). China's gross domestic product stood at US$3.4 trillion while Germany's GDP was USD $3.3 trillion for This made China the world's third largest economy by gross domestic product. Based on these figures, in 2007 China recorded its fastest growth since 1994 when the GDP grew by 13.1 percent. China may have already overtaken Germany even earlier as China's informal economy (including the Grey market and underground economy) is larger than Germany's.  Louis Kuijs, a senior economist at World Bank China Office in Beijing, said that China's economy may even be (as of January 2009) as much as 15 percent larger than Germany's. According to Merrill Lynch China economist Ting Lu, China is projected to overtake Japan in "three to four years".Social and economic indicators have improved since various recent reforms were launched, but rising inequality is evident between the more highly developed coastal provinces and the less developed, poorer inland regions. According to UN estimates in 2007, around 130 million people in China—mostly in rural areas of the lagging inland provinces—still lived in poverty, on consumption of less than $1 a day. About 35% of the Chinese population lives under $2 a day.In the medium-term, economists state that there is ample amount of potential for China to maintain relatively high economic growth rates and is forecasted to be the world's largest exporter by 2010. Urbanization in China and technological progress and catch-up with developed countries have decades left to run. But future growth is complicated by a rapidly ageing population and costs of damage to the environment.China launched its Economic Stimulus Plan. It has primarily focused on increasing affordable housing, easing credit restrictions for mortgage and SMEs, lower taxes such as those on real estate sales and commodities, pumping more public investment into infrastructure development, such as the rail network, roads and ports.Major natural disasters of 2008, such as the 2008 Chinese winter storms, the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and the 2008 South China floods mildly affected national economic growth but did do major damage to local and regional economies and infrastructure.Internet access and use220m in Feb 2008 and growingBut only 17% of total population and used primarily by urban under 30sIncreasingly a Chinese language webRestrictive environmentChina leads in mobile phone use, 3G arrived in 2009SkillEnglish is now a basic skill at all levelsTeaching quality/communicative skills poor outside major citiesQualifications at all levels key to career developmentUKA prosperous future for the UK is increasingly dependent on a stable and internationally committed China and a prosperous future for China.China at the top of international priorities for many UK organisations Increased learning of Chinese.Internationalisation of young people agenda
112 Creative and Knowledge Economy Intercultural Dialogue Climate Change A diverse range of workCreative and Knowledge EconomyIntercultural DialogueClimate ChangeWe run a wide range of programmes in the arts, education, science, sport, society & development, and English language including examinations, principally through large scale projects which are delivered across the region.) Our work aims to build dialogue and respect, stimulate the creative and knowledge economy in the UK ’ and helping China’s population address the impact of globalisation at the personal and organisational levels, we aim to address pressing global issues, including climate change. There is increasing coherence across sectors – an example of which is Premier Skills (Sport and English
113 Market PenetrationThe first slide shows you where we have offices – this one shows some of the cities where we are working in China. Still predominantly Eastern seaboard as this is where markets for overseas education, populations with more international outlook etc. But the picture is changing with increasing number of cities with significant audiences looking for skills, materials and education opportunities from overseas.
114 Our China Strategy Making the most of new technologies Working in more effective partnershipsIn order to:Reach new urban audiences across China in new locationsDouble the number of people in leadership positions and influencers we work withTriple the number of young internationally minded people we reach
115 Our goals for EnglishEnsure that every teacher and learner of English in China has access to quality language services from the UKIncrease the value to the UK of its share of the market for international educationEnhance the UK’s reputation as a source of expertise and a partner for skills developmentIncrease the UK’s contribution to international co-operation in research and innovation.There are an estimated 299 million learners of English and 1 million teachers of English in China
116 English projects in China in 2009 (policy-makers) Engaging with a growing number of policy-makers in China in order to support and strengthen English language learning and teaching policy and practice in China.In our English work, in order to have meaningful impact, we engage with three groups simultaneously. These are decision-makers, teachers of English and learners of English. These three groups are clearly interrelated, and our engagement with them similarly interrelated. Decision-makers are responsible for making decisions that affect deeply the professional activities of teachers; and, for their part, teachers are responsible for affecting the learning experiences of learners in their classes.With policy -makers, this year we plan to engage with a growing number of influencers in order to support and strengthen English language learning and teaching policy and practice in China. We shall achieve this through policy dialogue, joint symposia and other forms of collaboration. Earlier this year we year we ran a joint symposium on English and technology and plan a series of such symposia in partnership with the Ministry of Education.
117 English projects in China in 2009 (teachers) Engaging with approximately 100,000 teachers of English throughout China through our Teaching English website (www.teachingenglish.org.uk), teacher workshops, conferences and training courses in a range of cities.Teachers of English are central to our work in English in China. This year, we plan to engage with approximately 100,000 teachers of English, by providing practical support and professional guidance through our exciting new Teaching English website, regular teacher workshops, high-impact conferences and a range of training courses in a number of Chinese cities.
118 English projects in China in 2009 (learners) Engaging with up to 20 million learners of English through our English learning website (www.englishonline.org.cn), mobile technology (eg Nokia) and newspapers (eg China Daily).Last but not least, Learners of English are also at the heart of our work in English in China. We have a large teaching centre in Hong Kong, but in the mainland we do not directly teach English. Instead, we engage with learners through our English learning website, through mobile technology and through newspapers. This year, we plan to engage with up to 20 million learners of English in these various ways.For the past three months we have piloted a new facility using VOIP (voice over internet protocol) to provide over 3,000 young Chineseprofessionals from international joint venture companies in banking, finance (e.g. HSBC, JP Morgan, Citi bank, KPMG etc. )with one-to-one tuition from teachers in British Council across the world, and from other qualified teachers in China. We are now evaluating this exciting pilot.
119 English: Assessment IELTS - Recognised by more than 6000 organisations;- 265,130 candidates (32% increases compared to 2007)- 31 centres across the countryProfessional exams and other exams- 70,000 candidates (22% increase )- BULATS recognised by over 100 companies and organisationsFor many young people in China, their first experience of the British Council is at our test centres, where they take UK academicand specialist examinations. The best known exam we manage is IELTS. Over 6000 organisations (including 2000 inthe USA) recognize IELTS as a reliable indicator of a candidate’s ability to communicate in English. In ,130candidates took IELTS tests in China and increased by 32% comparing to We also open a new test centre in Suzhou,making a total of 31 centres across and making IELTS exam more accessible.Apart from IELTS, we also organise other English language and professional exams. The exams in include Test of Legal EnglishSkills, Cambridge ESOL exams, Business English certificates, various professional and vocational examinations as well as schooland university exams. In ,000 took these exams. The BULATS is recognised by more than 100 companies in China, whichinclude fortune 500 and governmental organizations such as EU WTO.2008 UK Professional Qualifications Campus Tour was successfully held in East China. The theme of the event is “CareerSuccess through UK Qualifications”, aiming to help university understand how international professional qualifications can helpwith their career development and improve their employability in the job market.The eight international professional institutions participating in this big event covering fields of, finance, accounting, securities,corporate secretaries, logistics etc. This is the first time for such a leading group to gather together and introduce an almostnew concept to college students: professional qualifications play an important role in your career developmentExplosive growth in IELTS over last three years, but also strong growth in demand for UK professional and educational exams.Our interpretation = growth in personal disposable income, increasing value of the RMB and growing aspirations of the millions of Chinese parents for the children to participate in the global economy has created a massive explosion in demand for overseas education.Australia the single largest destination but IELTS has an genuine international appeal.The USA is the fastest growing destination and in the space of three years has become the fourth largest single country destinationIELTS recognised by Chinese government as having had a strong positive effect on standards of English learning and teaching in China
120 Examinations: IELTS19-22 remains the largest age group – 57% of total; followed by (17%) and under 18 (15%).This reflects the primary demand for IELTS in China - as a means to access educational opportunities overseas.Only around 10% of our candidates use IELTS for immigration or work purposes.Note also the strong under 18 group which suggest a growing interest in accessing overseas secondary school education among the aspiring Chinese middles class.
121 Summer School Programme Campus presentations Agent Conference Education MarketingSummer School ProgrammeCampus presentationsAgent ConferenceAgent WorkshopMedia Tour to the UKMini Career FairAlumni Career Development WorkshopThe above highlights some of the the various activities that we run.In 2008, we reached over 167,000 audiences through all our direct f-2-f events.Aside from promotional activities to the public, we run various activities to support our front line soldiers and influencers.Our Summer School programme in 2008 attracted over 2000 students across mainland China and we worked with 42 BC Accredited English schools in partnership with local agents. Most of these events are done in partnership with local business partners, agents, media or local institutions.For our recent agent conference ENGLISH UK as well as Accreditation UK came and represented the sector.Agents are definitely our key partners. According to Ministry of Education in China, over 60% of students going overseas apply through agents. They are therefore crucial in our recruitment and marketing strategy.We run agent conference annually in partnership with the MoE and a minimum of 4 workshops across different cities in China to engage and keep the agents informed on updates in UK educationAside from that, agent as well as media tours are conducted to familiarise the groups with the UK. We have just recently completed an agent tour and over 45 agents joined this tour of Scotland, Wales as well as England.Finally, our most important advocates are the returned alumni. We have an alumni UK network with over 15,000 members. Aside from running social activities such as alumni annual ball to keep in touch with these graduates, the Alumni UK network is a professional platform that links employers and career opportunities for our members. We run a mini career fair and professional workshop annually in partnership with the China HR association. We are also in partnership with the British Chamber of Commerce to run the annual British Business Awards to reward the achievements of our alumni via the Alumna of the Year award.Of the 25K to 27K new visas issued to students annually, over 45% will require pre-sessional English of between 4 to 20 weeks. In addition, visa section issue between 7K to 8K short term visas for summer school programmes annually. Numbers have remained steady for the past few years. BC summer school programmes increased around 15% to 18% in the past three years annually, but we might see dip this year due to swine flu. There is demand for summer school but we will not see high growth rate in individuals going to study language, the cost is too high and there are too many local opportuntiesi. BC’s promotional aims for this sector are its annual summer school programme the aim is to link new agents in new provinces to elt schools NOT to foucs on pure numbers. We want more agents to know about uk elt sector and to devlope professionalism in the agents to work with the UK.
122 Other English projects in the region in 2009 Continuing to manage the Peacekeeping English Project in China, a project designed to enhance the English language skills of Chinese peacekeeping staff around the world.Slightly outside our mainstream work, but just as important, the British Council are also responsible for managing the Peacekeeping English Project in China, part of the global network of PEP projects.This project has involved working closely with our Chinese partners at the China Peacekeeping Police Training Centre at Langfang and in the Ministry of Public Security, and our partners at the Ministry of Defence, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Department for International Development in the UK. Since 2007, we have established a self-access learning centre and provided related staff and learner training, developed a group of well-trained and well-resourced local teachers at the Centre, and developed a bank of materials and resources for teaching English language relevant to peace support operations contexts.
123 Other English projects in the region in 2009 Continuing to run our DPRK teacher education project, which involves collaboration with the North Korean Ministry of Education, and three of the country’s most prestigious universities.Again, in addition to our mainstream work in China, the British Council is working closely with the North Korean Ministry of Education on the DPRK teacher education project, a project which involves close collaboration with three of North Korea’s most prestigious universities, Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, and Kim Hyong Jik Teachers’ University.Our work in North Korea focuses primarily on English teacher development, and curriculum and materials design in English. Our aim is to help raise the standards of North Korean language education, not only in higher education, but also in secondary and primary education.