Presentation on theme: "H. S. GAUR Dean & Joint Director (Edu.) Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi ROSANE CURTIS."— Presentation transcript:
H. S. GAUR Dean & Joint Director (Edu.) Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi ROSANE CURTIS Principal Scientist Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts., UK Multitrophic interactions in the rhizosphere and the management of nematode pests and diseases
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India Prof. Hari S. Gaur Dr. Uma Rao Dr. Anil Sirohi Dr. Pankaj Dr. Sharad Mohan Strong nematology research and teaching programme Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK Prof. Brian Kerry Dr. Keith G. Davies Dr. Rosane Curtis Dr. Penny Hirsch Dr. Tony Miller Strong soil function and rhizosphere biology programme UKIERI Standard Award, 2007 Multitrophic interactions in the rhizosphere and the management of nematode pests and diseases Partners
India Population: 1200 million Food production: 230 m tonnes Population engaged in agriculture: 60% Share of GDP from Agriculture: 18% Wide range of agroclimate and soils: –Temperate – Sub-tropical - Tropical –Arid - Sub-humid - humid –Sandy – Loam - Clay Wide variety of crops and farming systems Multiple cropping, intensive cultivation Many pest and disease problems including nematodes
National Agricultural Research System of India Indian Council of Agricultural Research –4 National institutes: Deemed Universities – IARI, IVRI, NDRI, CIFE –80 research institutes and national research centres –75 All India Coordinated Research Projects –46 State Agricultural Universities Focus- Research: Fundamental and applied Education: UG, PG and Doctoral Extension: Transfer of technology
INDIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE New Delhi Premier agricultural research institute Established in 1905 at Pusa, BiharShifted to Delhi in 1936 Post-graduate teaching since 1923 Deemed to be University since 1958: Grants M.Sc. & Ph.D. Degrees in 23 subjects
Indian Agricultural Research Institute The Flagship Institute The seat of Green Revolution Led India from Paucity to Plenty 400 Scientists, 700 Technicians, 700 Supporting Staff, 400 Administrative Staff 19 Divisions, 7 Units, 5 Multidisciplinary Centres 650 Post-Graduate students, 200 Research Fellows/ Associates
Schools and Centres of Excellence Basic SciencesCrop Improvement Natural Resource Management Crop Protection Social Sciences BiochemistryGeneticsAgronomyPlant Pathology Agri. Extension Plant Physiology Fruit ScienceSoil Science & Agri.Chemistry EntomologyAgri. Economics BiotechnologyVegetable Science Microbiology Nematology CATAT Molecular Biology Floriculture & Landscaping Environment Science Agricultural Chemicals KVK Agricultural Physics Post-Harvest Technology Agricultural Engineering NRCPB & Plant Genome Centre National Phytotron Facility Water Technology Centre NCCU Blue Green Algae Agricultural Statistics Computer - Applications Nuclear Research Lab. National Agri. LIBRARY Simulations & Informatics Unit Advanced Virology Centre Plant Genetic Resources
Old relationship between IARI and Rothamsted 1964: International Nematology Training Programme at IARI: Helped by Dr. F.G.W.Jones of Rothamsted & : Dr. H.S. Gaur worked as a Visiting Scientist at Rothamsted Research under Commonwealth, Royal Society and RI Felloships. 1995: Dr. Rolo Perry visited IARI. 1996: Dr. Keith Davies, visited IARI : Dr. Sharad Mohan worked at Rothamsted 2002 & 2006: Prof. Brian Kerry visited IARI Motives: Both research Institute had active research programmes in nematology and rhizosphere interactions involving plant, nematodes and fungal/bacterial biocontrol organisms. Interaction was ad-hoc. UKIERI provides opportunity for structured interaction.
Complementarities India has several nematode problems of economic importance in crop production, and a team of nematologists involved in applied research. Rothamsted research has an excellent fundamental research programme on nematode plant interactions and biological control. The two institutions and teams of scientists form a nice complementary group.
Relevant research interests of collaborating scientists Prof. Hari S. GaurNematode ecology, physiology and integrated nematode management Dr. Uma RaoMolecular diagnostics and host plant resistance Dr. Anil SirohiMolecular basis of plant-nematode interaction Dr. PankajBiological control and plant resistance Dr. Sharad MohanBiological control, entomopathogenic nematodes and bacteria, eg. Pasteuria and Photorhabdus
Rothamsted Research Nematode Interactions Unit UKIERI Root Health – Water and nutrient use efficiency in crops in view of predicted climate change
Relevant research interests of collaborating scientists Prof. Brian KerryBiological control (Fungi) and nematode management Dr. Keith G. DaviesInvertebrate pathology, Biological control (Bacteria) Dr. Rosane CurtisMolecular basis of plant-nematode interaction, host recognition Dr. Penny HirschSoil microbial biodiversity, metagenomics Dr. Tony MillerPlant physiology, nutrient uptake and transfer in nematode infected plants
UKIERI Project: Objectives Understanding host recognition processes and identify novel targets for selective chemical and genetic intervention. Determine the role of diversity in the rhisosphere microbial community in supporting plant growth and identify key groups, processes and/or genes that underpin soil quality and the biological control of nematodes and root diseases. Investigate the impact of soil amendments on the diversity of microbial agents in the rhizosphere and thier impact on plant parasitic nematodes. Develop sustainable management strategies for soil borne nematode pests. Main Focus: Root-health – Water and nutrient use efficiency in crops under predicted climate change
Exchanges of scientists and students begun Dr. Keith Davies visited IARI three times in Prof. H.S. Gaur is currently visiting Rothamsted for 4 weeks from 15 November, Designed experiments to test the attraction of the nematodes M. graminicola and M. incognita to the roots of different host plants. Mr. Junaid Ali Khan, UK Ph.D. student posted to work at IARI, New Delhi starting 29th October, Mr. Jagadeesh Patil, Indian Ph.D. student posted to work at Rothamsted Research, UK, starting 15 November, More exchanges have been scheduled.
Ph.D. students research Mr. Junaid Ali Khan investigates the host specificty of the bacterium Pasteuria penetrans, which has potential to be developed into a biocontrol agent of plant parasitic nematodes. Mr Jagadeesh Patil, studied effect of Meloidogyne graminicola infection on the metabolism and nutrient uptake of rice plants at IARI, New Delhi. At Rothamsted he will develop these studies further and using electro- physiological techniques will study the effect of nitrogen and its uptake in rice in the presence of nematodes. Mr. Tushar Dutta, will study differences in interaction of M. incognita and M. graminicola on rice and tomato.
Initial Research Results Xenorhabdus spp. of bacteria that have an association with insect pathogenic nematodes have been shown to be able to control soil borne root pests. Isolates of these bacteria have been collected from soils in India and antibodies raised against Xenorhabdus bacteria have been tested for recognition of different Xenorhabdus bacterial isolates from the entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema spp. from Indian soils to look at the diversity of types.
The effect of synthetic peptides has been studied against root-knot nematodes with some initial interesting results.These peptides could reduce the reproductive potential of root-knot nematode. Effect of, root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola infection on the metabolism and nutrient uptake of rice plants and on grain quality has been investigated at IARI. Data indicate reduction in photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and poor resource use efficiency due to nematode infection. The protein and amylose content in grain was also reduced. The degree of reduction was negatively correlated to the level of nematode infection. Initial Research Results Contd.
Activities after completion of the first phase A preliminary meeting was held between the RCUK official at New Delhi and the leaders of this UKIERI project to discuss future course. Possibilities of further extending the research collaboration will be explored after analysis of the findings under this project. A bilateral dialogue between, IARI & ICAR, India and Rothamsted Research, BBSRC and RCUK would help in ensuring future sustainability.
Viewing other activities in future Opportunities for collaboration on certain other aspects of nematode plant interactions. Opportunities of developing similar collaborative activities between some other disciplines including Microbiology, plant pathology, crop improvement, genomics, biotechnology, bioinformatics etc.
Benefits of the UKIERI project The project has enabled the formation of cohesive teams at the two collaborative institutes Strategic research partnership has been established to address scientific issues related to interactions among the plant, root parasitic nematodes and biocontrol organisms in the rhizosphere, Results will have implications on crop productivity and help in development of mechanisms to ameliorate some of the damage caused by the nematodes to the crops of economic importance and relevant to food security. Key staff exchanges have been identified and programmed to build capacity and develop the research collaboration.
Delays and difficulties The start of actual research programme and exchange of students took longer than expected to commence, due to administrative procedures, Extension of the duration of the project by one year will be required, without additional funds. Involvement of the collaborating scientists and students in other activities/commitments. In future projects, a provision to appoint temporary workers like Research/Post-Doc Fellows will be helpful. Due to rising prices, funds are very small.
Early Lessons An initial project implementation workshop between the two groups would facilitate greater clarity and smoother start. RCUK and relevant authorities in India should negotiate rapid and simple procedures to set up Material Transfer Agreements, which enable the ready interchange of scientific materials required to underpin the research collaboration, whilst protecting IP rights of both parties.