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SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Systems Basics Throughout the Life Cycle.

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Presentation on theme: "SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Systems Basics Throughout the Life Cycle."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Systems Basics Throughout the Life Cycle Jim Armstrong SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVIT Y CONSORTIUM

2 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Engineering Defined Problem Technology SolutionEngineering …the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience, and practice is applied with judgement to develop ways to utilize, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind. -Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology

3 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Cycle Tasks View Systems Analysis Systems Design Design Build/Integrate Test Use/Support Produce Test Systems Spec Product Specs Design Product Changes Risk Reduction Needs

4 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Cost of Changes Cost Multiplier Validation Test Integrate Build Allocation System Requirement - Industry Studies Systems Analysis Systems Design Design Build/Integrate Test Use/Support Produce Test Systems Spec Product Specs Design Product Needs $?

5 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. NASA Cost Impact Costs in Phase A and B as Percent of Development Cost Final Cost as Excess Over Initial Phase C Commitment Source: Presentation by Werner Gruhl, Office of the Comptroller, NASA HQ, 1985

6 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. EIA 632, May 98 Operator Maintainer Passenger User or Customer Requirements Acquirer Requirements Product Other Stakeholder Requirements System Technical Requirements Missing Task 28 Assigned Requirements Logical Solution Representation Physical Solution Representation Specified Requirements Design Solution Source Reqs? Develop Validate Verify Unknown Other Satkeholders Enabling Products Ready Derived Requirements 17 19

7 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Systems Activities FunctionalityRequirementsSystem Elements

8 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Requirements Analysis Define Customer expectations Project, enterprise and external constraints Operation and maintenance concepts and scenarios Modes of operation System boundaries and interfaces Measures of Effectiveness Performance requirements Environments - IEEE 1220

9 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Concept of Operations

10 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. System Boundaries Validated System Requirement Level Frequency = Intelligible Level Frequency = Unintelligible Additional Radio Loss Operational Use Requirement

11 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Quality Functional Deployment QFD - House of Quality How's What's Comfortable ride Weight Dampening Spring Seat size Accel Acceleration Speed Priority Color -

12 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Site Visits Understand customer environment Notice unstated requirements Unusual situations Requirements errors Environment

13 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Requirements Qualities QUALITYABCDEFGHIJKLMN Completenessxxxxxxxxxxx Consistencyxxxxxxxxxxx Correctnessxxx Feasiblexxx Formalxxxx Minimalxxxxx Modifiable/Maintainablexxxxxxxx Right level of detailxxxx Simplicityxxxxxx Traceablexxxxxx Unambiguousxxxxxxxxx Verifiable/Testablexxxxxxxx -Mar, 1994

14 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Requirements Review Motorola Iridium experience 600+ pages of system requirements 1,000 review hours Major and minor issues identified 40,000 hours saved! Continued effort on derived requirements

15 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Requirements Issues Verifiable? The reliability of this system shall be the maximum achievable within the current state-of- the-art. - Early MLS draft spec Achievable? 100% probability of detection and 0% false alarm rate - Weather radar spec Resources available? 10,000 MTBF - Method X - ILS draft spec

16 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Functional Analysis Define Functionality/behavior/data flow/control flow Timelines Functional interfaces Functional failure analysis Functional architecture States and transitions - IEEE 1220

17 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Static Models Functional/Behavior/Data Flow Diagrams Sell Tickets Provide Info Monitor System Clean System Transport Guests Load Guests Prepare System Unload Guests

18 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Functional Interface Options F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 Allocation Alternative 1 Allocation Alternative 2 = Function Output/Input Functions from functional analysis

19 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Functional Interfaces Launch Orbit LaunchOrbit Functional Interface/ State Transition Temp Operate > -100

20 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Dynamic Models Computerized Executable Demonstrate Interactions Timing Resources Alternative paths

21 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Model Depth Shallow Show basic performance Depict interfaces Simple design Deep Understand complex interactions Present driving design detail Reveal technical issues More complex design

22 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. 777 & Statemate

23 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Prototype Example Large airborne phased array - curved design Small prototype Large enough to validate math model Final design may not be patch antenna.

24 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Synthesis Identify alternatives Define architecture Allocate functions Assess safety Define interfaces Develop models and prototypes - IEEE 1220

25 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Strategy - SBD Internal Component External Component (SW) System Boundaries Schematic Block Diagram (SBD) depicts the physical architecture

26 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Integration & Requirements Interface and boundaries defined Allocations made Interfaces recorded - Interface Control Documents Requirement Design 28 VDC

27 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Other Considerations Contracts Subcontracts Teams IPTs

28 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Allocations – De Facto or Planned FunctionRequirementComponent Or, how individual improvements can degrade system performance FunctionRequirementComponent Destroy Target Go to Target Propel Bullets Stabilize Bullets Aim Gun Control aircraft Guide aircraft Provide aerodynamics FunctionRequirementComponent Destroy TargetX% damage/hit Go to Target+/- X degrees Propel Bullets +/- X fps +/- X bullets/second +/- X degrees Stabilize Bullets+/- X RPM Aim Gun+/- degrees Control aircraft+/- stability Guide aircraft+/- control accuracy Provide aerodynamics+/- stability & response FunctionRequirementComponent Destroy TargetX% damage/hitBullets Go to Target+/- X degreesBullets Propel Bullets +/- X fps +/- X bullets/second +/- X degrees Gun Stabilize Bullets+/- X RPMGun Aim Gun+/- degreesMount/airframe Control aircraft+/- stabilityFlight control Guide aircraft+/- control accuracyPilot Provide aerodynamics+/- stability & responseAirframe FunctionRequirementComponent Destroy TargetX% damage/hitBullets Go to Target+/- X degreesBullets Propel Bullets +/- X fps +/- X bullets/second +/- X degrees Gun Stabilize Bullets+/- X RPMGun Aim Gun+/- degreesMount/airframe Control aircraft+/- stabilityFlight control Guide aircraft+/- control accuracyPilot Provide aerodynamics+/- stability & responseAirframe

29 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Trade Studies SPC Guide and Template

30 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Verification Matrix Requirement I ADT a X X X X X

31 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Verification Methods Inspection Size, color, soldering, documentation… Analysis Hazardous situations, useful life… Demonstration Turn on sequence, part replacement…. Test Performance, accuracies, interactions… Other Prior data, similarity...

32 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Design of Experiments Taguchi Test Points Test Volume Solution Region Parameter Z Parameter Y Parameter X

33 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Design of Experiments Multiple alternative designs Options Prototype ABCDEF X X XX X XX XXX XX XX X X X X XX

34 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Additional Systems Analyses Logistic Support Analysis Survivability/vulnerability FMECA Systems Safety hazard analysis Reliability Human Factors EMI/EMP Lifecycle cost Linear programming optimization …..

35 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Cycle Phases Systems Analysis Systems Design Design Build/Integrate Test Use/Support Produce Test Systems Spec Product Specs Design Product Needs

36 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Formal Reviews Organize to elicit customer information Manage flow of information Know what you want to accomplish

37 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Cycle Reviews Systems Analysis Systems Design Design Build/Integrate Test Use/Support Produce Test Systems Spec Product Specs Design Product Needs SRR FDR SSR PDR CDR PCA FCA ACR

38 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM Copyright © 2003, Software Productivity Consortium NFP, Inc. All rights reserved. And in Proposal Writing! SE must be part of proposal effort Lack of or inadequate SE repeatedly disastrous Communications Network Air to Ground Missile


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