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5 th (VTTN) National ELT Conference Hanoi, 15-16 January 2009 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Jean-Guy.

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Presentation on theme: "5 th (VTTN) National ELT Conference Hanoi, 15-16 January 2009 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Jean-Guy."— Presentation transcript:

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2 5 th (VTTN) National ELT Conference Hanoi, January 2009 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Jean-Guy Trépanier Teacher Trainer Phu Yen University WUSC Development Agent

3 A approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Publishing House Pearson Education Canada Building Capacity for Literacy Instruction The quality of the classroom teacher, not the instructional program, is the primary variable in determining the effectiveness of a comprehensive literacy framework. Dr. Frank Serafini

4 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Non native language teachers need to … …possess at their finger tips or on the tip of their tongue; varied classroom language protocols in order to minimize the use of their native tongue for instructions and directives. With the help of items from language arts and science, I believe the following applications might be useful: Linguistic Reformulations and Methodological Rehearsals.

5 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Of course, in an ideal world, my job as a trainer would be superfluous; I would only need a wand!!!!! …and zap …my students would master all the tricks of the trade…

6 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.Reformulations of both directives and contents I believe that repetition plays a very important role in any foreign language classroom. Practice makes perfect. Có công săt, có ngà nên kim. Cest en forgeant quon devient forgeron.

7 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Recent research has shown the value of second language learner's use of repetition for conversational participation in language learning. (Helena Prins, in Conquering Chinese English in the ESL Classroom) Prins quotes Veslemoy (2005) as stating that repetition helps students produce more language, as well as facilitate formulating what to say next. Repetition is a teaching strategy that can enhance participation, comprehension and feedback, and … I dare say can keep students awake sometimes!

8 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Prins further cites Rydland & Aukrust (2005) who reinforce the practice ofechoing: one would correct the incomplete statement I better now by repeating the correct form, "I am better now", or, I would add, by having other students provide the right production.

9 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Patricia Duff, in her Repetition in Foreign Language Classroom Interaction reports that Most current accounts -of the role of repetition in foreign language learning-acknowledge that it should be meaningful and relevant to the learners – a form of negotiations of messages and texts – and not merely (or entirely) a mechanical or rote parroting of structures that does not ultimately enhance students proficiency in the target language. (Hall & Verplaetse, 2000, p. 110)

10 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training In my teacher training therefore, I take every appropriate opportunity to make my students repeat various linguistic expressions to develop their confidence in juggling commands and directives for their future daily English activities.

11 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training After 10 years in Vietnam, I still find too many of my students, even in 2 nd Year English, who struggle with understanding simple commands like Open (close) your (note)book. Listen carefully. Repeat after me. Answer her (his) question. Please read page 2. Turn off your cell phone!!!! (not to mention talking telegraphic, but I will address the issue of missing links and phonics later)

12 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training With patience and sometimes drama, I repeat and vary the instructions with body language support: Write this down in your notebook. I want you to write this down in your notebook. Can you write this down in your notebook.

13 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training In practicing commands and orders given to pupils and students, one has to exercise cultural sensitivity and generational propos. It might be proper or suitable to call on students to follow simple commands such as Read the first 2 sentences on page 34. Zip up your jacket. Take off your left shoe.

14 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training In his activity Acting out commands, Dave of the famous ESL Cafe mentions that at first his students were leery of doing these "dumb" things, but they later loved it because they could tell each other to do outrageous things such as crawling on the floor, eating Suzie's chips, etc. I am not sure what extreme our Vietnamese teachers can reach, so this is to be adapted for the learning environment.

15 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training So, the following interactive activities will illustrate what I mean by reformulations of commands and contents but this is nothing revolutionary, really and I take the position that they are applicable to both student teachers and language students.

16 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training In order to involve the greatest number of locators, I drill students in Indirect Commanding and Question Asking: (T = teacher; StA = student A; StB = student B; StC = student C)

17 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.1. Indirect Commanding T: StA, tell StB to read page 2. StA: StB, (please) read page 2. StB, can you read page 2? My instructions could evolve to more complex structures by modeling on the board for example the necessary transformations: T: StA, tell StB that I want him/her to read page 2. StA: StB, T wants you to read page 2.

18 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.2. Indirect Question Asking This task involves verb transformations and pronoun changes and is divided into two: the Yes/No questions with if (or whether), the wh- open questions

19 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training The Yes/No questions with if (or whether) T: StA, ask StB if he/she ate breakfast this morning. StA: StB, did you eat breakfast this morning? StB: Yes, I did. (I had bánh mì opla) T: StA, ask StB whether there was a storm yesterday. StA: ̣(StB), was there a storm yesterday? StB: No, there wasnt / I dont think there was.

20 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training The wh- open questions (1) T: StA, ask StB what he/she ate for breakfast this morning. StA: StB, what did you eat for breakfast this morning? StB: Well, I ate (had) cereals and milk.

21 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training The wh- open questions (2) T: StA, ask StB how many beers he/she drank at the party last night. StA: StB, how many beers did you drink last night at the party? StB: I drank only 2 beers. T: So, StC, do you think StB got drunk? StC: I dont know. T to StC: Ask him/her. StC to StB: Did you get drunk? StB: None of your business. or Of course not!

22 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training The wh- open questions (3) T to StA, talking about StB: Ask her why she looks so tired. StA to StB: Why do you look so tired? StB: Because I studied late last night. (I will address the phonetic correction of endings like looks and because below.)

23 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training For more examples of indirect questions, see the article Indirect Questions in English by Francis Lide, in the Elaine Bacon Literacy Program, on the following website

24 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Sections 1.3 to 1.8 below are borrowed from the following site study.com/speaking/conversation-starters.html They are presented here as mini packages from which I instruct my student teachers to become conversant in 2 or 3 of each set. The emphasis is placed on developing automatisms so that the key words are well assimilated as well as the small words (articles, prepositions, …)

25 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.3. Asking for Instructions (1) Lesson: Healthy Living, Grade 4, Socials, Science How do you keep healthy? How do I keep (stay) healthy? What is the best way to stay healthy?

26 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.3. Asking for Instructions (2) Lesson: Saving Energy at Home, Grade 3-4, Socials, Science How do I go about it? What do you suggest? How do you suggest I proceed? What is the first step?

27 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.4. Giving Instructions Lesson: World Population, Grade 6, ESL, Socials/Geography, IT Let us consider a geography lesson for which you would set the following objectives: Students will be able to use an appropriate reference, to define the notions of life expectancy, infant mortality, birth rate and death rate, to locate 2 countries on a world map and to compare them.

28 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Sequencing (a general view) First (First of all) (To begin with), you open your reference book (or you access internet). Second (Then) (Next), you look up the following terms: infant mortality, life expectancy, birth rate, death rate, for two selected countries. Third (Then) (Later), you research statistical information to complete Table x on your worksheet. Last (Finally) (In the end), you compare the data of the chosen countries.

29 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Sequencing (a more detailed view) Starting out Before you begin, you should have your reference book (or you should turn on your computer) The first thing you do is open your reference book. I would start by opening my book on page x. The best place to begin is on page x of your reference book To begin with, we need our reference book.

30 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Sequencing (a more detailed view) Continuing After that, The next step is to... The next thing you do is... Once you've done that, then... When you finish that, then...

31 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Sequencing (a more detailed view) Finishing The last step is... The last thing you do is... In the end, When you've finished, When you've completed all the steps,

32 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.5. Commenting Lesson: Language Arts: Discussion on Road Safety, Grade If you would like to make a comment or insert a remark in an ongoing conversation, it is polite to acknowledge what someone has just said before stating your own ideas: That's interesting. I think that we need more traffic police officers. Interesting point. I would add that there are not enough traffic lights. Hmmm. I hadn't thought of that before.

33 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.5. Commenting Lesson: Language Arts: Discussion on Road Safety, Grade Questions can also be a useful way of bringing new ideas into a conversation: What do you think about heavier fines? Have you considered taking away drivers licences? What about banning cars?

34 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.5. Commenting Lesson: Language Arts: Discussion on Road Safety, Grade Sometimes a more direct approach is appropriate: Can I add something here? (Do you) mind if I interject something here?

35 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.6. Expressions for Descriptions Lesson: My Favorite Object Sentences: It is round. This is something useful. It's something that you need everyday. You can bend it. You can jump with it. You can use it to talk. It is used for singing. You need it for riding. You need/use it when its raining If you want/need to …, then you can …

36 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.6. Expressions for Descriptions Lesson: My Favorite Object Questions: Is it from Vietnam (or a game) ? What do you do with it? What is it made of? What is it used for? What's the difference between A and B?

37 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.7. Discussion Techniques Lesson: Expressing Opinions pro-con I can wear what I want. Of course the idea here, as for the preceding expressions, is for the trainees to playact mini lessons to be rehearsed in (fun) sketches. (see below section 2.)

38 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.7. Discussion Techniques Lesson: Expressing Opinions pro-con Opening a discussion To begin with, We need to discuss (determine, find out) … Let's start by looking at what the young wear. We'll start by (V ing) The problem (issue, question) here is … The important thing (here) is comfort. The main thing we need to discuss is … Let's look at the cost of uniforms. It looks like fashion rules the world. It appears that people are gullible!

39 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.7. Discussion Techniques Lesson: Expressing Opinions pro-con Asking for input What do you think? How about you? How do you feel about that? Any ideas on that?

40 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.7. Discussion Techniques Lesson: Expressing Opinions pro-con Responding (That sounds like a) good idea. Sounds good. The problem with that is... That raises (brings up) the issue of relativity!

41 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8.Paraphrasing(1) Nguyen Quoc Hung (2005) has emphasized Recast and Paraphrasing as part of What to train in his Teaching English to Young Learners: the challenge of training Primary English Teacher.

42 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8. Paraphrasing(2) Being an informed language IT savvy teacher, curious about paraphrasing, I went to and I found this quote: In the famous sketch from the TV show 'Monty Python's Flying Circus,' the actor John Cleese had many ways of saying a parrot was dead, among them, This parrot is no more, He's expired and gone to meet his maker, His metabolic processes are now history.

43 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8. Paraphrasing(3) Lets take a lesson from the B.C. Grade 2 Science curriculum de1_bc.html What Happens When You Mix Solids and Liquids Objectives: pupils will be able to distinguish between a solution, a suspension and a mechanical mixture, to record observations and measurements.

44 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8. Paraphrasing(4) Paraphrasing the following statement If salt and water blend so well together that one appears to disappear in the other, they form a solution. involves restating someone else's ideas in your own words.

45 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8. Paraphrasing(5) There are several phrases that can be used to introduce paraphrasing: So, the salt is gone? We have one kind of liquid. In other words, the water has dissolved the salt and we have a solution. I understand. You're saying that the water has melted the salt and the result is a solution. Oh. I see. You want to say that its a perfect mix!

46 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8. Paraphrasing(6) I get it. You mean we cant see the salt but its there in that solution. So, what you mean is that when the salt disappears in the water, its a solution. Let me see if I understand you correctly, the salt is still there, the water is salty now. What I think you're saying is that because its a solution, we cant see the salt. If I'm hearing you correctly the water has drunk the salt !!!

47 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8. Paraphrasing(7) Rephrasing implies a certain familiarity with structural and lexical transformations such as passive <> active, noun <> verb, gerund <> verb, adverb <> adjective …

48 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8. Paraphrasing(8) From the study of matter Most solutions are made by dissolving a solid in a liquid. When you dissolve a solid in a liquid, you make a solution. When a solid is dissolved by a liquid, we get a solution. I see, youre saying that a solid can disappear in a liquid, right?

49 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8. Paraphrasing(9) From the study of matter Adding heat to a salt-water solution evaporates the water, leaving the salt behind. By evaporation, you can separate a salt-water solution and you are left with salt. Where is the water?

50 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8. Paraphrasing(10) From Language Arts: Working with the pair to have <> to be helps develop automatisms between pronouns and possessive adjectives: His nose is very short. He has a very short nose. What about: The shortness of his nose made him very attractive!!!!!?

51 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8. Paraphrasing(11) From Language Arts: noun <> verb, adverb <> adjective This country is developing rapidly. This country is undergoing a rapid development.

52 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 1.8. Paraphrasing(12) For further enlightenment on Rephrasing, read in Annex A. three relevant sections of Differentiated Instruction, Reaching All our Students (Supporting Beginning Teachers) by Greg McLeod (2005) from the site btstart/BTDiff.pdf btstart/BTDiff.pdf

53 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training In another forum, it would be interesting to look at Comparative Stylistics to emphasize the morphological formation (inflections) of words in Indo- European languages versus the use of particles in Asian languages like Vietnamese.

54 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training đp beautiful > cá đp beauty hôn to kiss > n hôn a kiss gió be windy > con gió the wind vui joyful > nim vui joy bun sad > ni bun sadness hc hành to learn > vic hc hành learning sng to live > s ̣sng life kháng chin to resist > cuc kháng chin resistance

55 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(1) Although not a drama teacher, I do not hesitate to plunge my student teachers or teachers in training into the deep end of role-playing. I assume the role of director and make them rehearse various scenarios of mini lessons on adjectives use, nursery rhymes, question asking for directions in town, etc.

56 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(2) My objective is to make them able to practice some tasks for meaningful interaction with their classmates, trying all the time to integrate subjects in language arts, math, science. A language learning task is an activity that has a non-linguistic purpose or goal with a clear outcome and that uses any or all of the four language skills in its accomplishment by conveying meaning in a way that reflects real-world language use. (Shehadeh, 2005, pp )

57 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(3) Zooming in on tasks After having presented and/or while presenting some methodological principles on learner-centered activities (e.g. Blooming Smarts: the combination of Blooms Higher-Order Thinking and Gardners Multiple Intelligences), I offer pedagogical procedures aimed at giving practical guidance for classroom work.

58 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(4) Zooming in on tasks Part of my training is devoted to internet searches with keywords such as lesson plans. One useful website is the Educators Reference Desk with for example the lesson plan of The sounds of –ea-, complete with a notable PPT (see Annex B.) Here are a few slides.

59 The Sounds of EA Created by Grace Bryant

60 . ea

61 It is a pleasure to tease you! So ha, ha, ha, on you!

62 Which EA word doesnt belong? realscream aheadeager

63 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(5) Zooming in on tasks Another impressive site is with lesson plans across the curriculum such as Intercepting Villains Using the Correct Rate. (a Math problem to beat the Wicked Witch at Halloween time!!!) (and nursery rhymes on

64 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(6) Zooming in on tasks …theoretical or empirical research learning through tasks reading on activities conducive to good language learning, Task-Based Language Teaching (see articles in Doughty & Long, 2003), Enhancing automaticity through task-based language learning (De Ridder, Vangehuchten & Gómez, 2007).

65 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(7) Zooming in on tasks But more importantly, I exploit guiding materials from various Publishing Houses such as Scholastic and Nelson. A short excerpt from the DVD Teaching Literacy Strategies with Nelson Literacy (Nelson Education Ltd, 2009) will illustrate the instruction of Think Aloud for Reading I require my student teachers to rehearse in class. -short showing-

66 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(8) Zooming in on tasks Reading and writing are the opposite faces of the same process (use a 20,000 VD bill) Question asking for thinking aloud Any illustrated story (even in Vietnamese) can be used to develop the 4 skills (read 4-14 times)

67 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(9) Zooming in on tasks Knuffle Bunny, a cautionary tale by Mo Williams, (Hyperlon Books for Children, New York, 2004). Summary: Trixie, Daddy and Knuffle Bunny take a trip to the neighbourhood Laundromat. But the exciting adventure takes a dramatic turn when Trixie realizes somebunny has been left behind …

68 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(10) Zooming in on tasks Modeling the use of a picture book: Teachers introduction: Today, we are going to read the story of Trixie. Here is Trixie and this is her Bunny. (front cover) Now,( of course,) Trixie has a daddy and a mommy. (first page)

69 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(11) Zooming in on tasks Modeling the use of a picture book: Teachers question asking and instructions for repetition: (Going back to front cover, showing the little girl) So, whos this? ( T. asks for chorus repetition) This is Trixie. ……

70 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(12) Zooming in on tasks Modeling the use of a picture book: Teachers modeling of reading and thinking aloud Q: (showing the page where Trixie realizes something bad, using the Think Aloud cutout) Why do you think shes not happy here? R: She does not have her bunny. / She lost (forgot) her bunny.

71 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(13) Zooming in on tasks Modeling the use of a picture book: Teachers modeling of phonetic correction Q: Do you think Trixie likes her Bunny? R: Yeah, she does / likes it / her bunny. (so much, now she can speak!)

72 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(14) Zooming in on tasks Modeling the use of a picture book: Teachers modeling of phonetic correction I particularly dramatize the articulation of word endings: a lot of work is required to change the phonetic behavior of our Vietnamese students who too often drop the /z/ sound of because and the /s/ of likes. I use some of the tricks from Feeling Phonics, for example, the support of a final schwa /ə/ for students to pronounce an extra syllable.

73 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(15) Zooming in on tasks Modeling the use of a picture book: Teachers modeling of phonetic correction With regard to the difficulty of producing the /ks/ sound, I do not hesitate to approximate Trixie to bàc sĩ (doctor). Using the technique from Feeling Phonics above, I also emphasize the linking of /la ɪ ks/ - / ɪ t/ by dissecting from /la ɪ / /ks ɪ / /tə/ to /la ɪ ks ɪ t/

74 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training 2. Methodological rehearsals(16) Zooming in on tasks Modeling the use of a picture book: Teachers instructions for writing When finished reading, Ok, now, take your worksheet and crayons. Make a drawing of Trixie and her bunny and write their names. Then elicit the writing of simple sentences with verbs of action, narrating the story, identifying the problem, etc. …and whats left is assessment and closure…

75 An approach to classroom communication in primary school language teacher training Conclusion In order to develop natural linguistic reflexes in using the target language for the teaching of foreign languages in Vietnam (therefore minimizing the use of Vietnamese to convey meaning), I firmly believe that more time should be spent in training our future teachers in the achievement of simple language tasks to be repeated, reiterated, automated … By rehearsing the reformulation of directives and contents, our future teachers will develop a greater confidence in speaking more freely, limit senseless rote learning and pride themselves with effective teaching for better learning.


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