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Operational Concepts and the Case for Use Cases Unifying UML with Systems Engineering Raymond W Jorgensen Rockwell Collins, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Operational Concepts and the Case for Use Cases Unifying UML with Systems Engineering Raymond W Jorgensen Rockwell Collins, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Operational Concepts and the Case for Use Cases Unifying UML with Systems Engineering Raymond W Jorgensen Rockwell Collins, Inc

2 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 2 Legal Notice Copyright © 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Permission is hereby granted to anyone to use this copyrighted material for any lawful purpose, including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it freely, subject to the following restrictions: –The origin of this copyrighted material must not be misrepresented; you must not claim that you wrote the original text. –If you use this copyrighted material (in whole or in part) in a product, the Rockwell Collins copyright notice must appear in the product and acknowledgement of Rockwell Collins contribution must appear in any accompanying documentation. –Alterations to the Rockwell Collins copyrighted material must be plainly marked as such, and not misrepresented as work attributable to Rockwell Collins. Product support for the copyrighted material is not provided. NO WARRANTIES. THE COPYRIGHED MATERIAL IS PROVIDED AS IS WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ROCKWELL COLLINS DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WITH REGARD TO THE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL. NO LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT SHALL ROCKWELL COLLINS, ITS EMPLOYEES, OFFICERS, DIRECTORS OR SHAREHOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, DIRECT OR INDIRECT DAMAGES FOR PERSONAL INJURY, LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF BUSINESS INFORMATION, OR ANY OTHER PECUNIARY LOSS) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL, EVEN IF ROCKWELL COLLINS HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. This license shall be subject to the laws of the State of Iowa. Exclusive jurisdiction of any and all legal proceedings pertaining to this matter shall be in State or Federal Court in Linn County, Iowa.

3 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 3 Presentation Overview Classes or Requirements Define the Operational Concept Uses Cases & Scenarios Diagramming with UML

4 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 4 Requirement Overview Classes of Requirements Class Diagram of Requirements

5 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 5 Requirement Overview Classes of Requirements –Program Requirements: Defines what a contractor must do to fulfill contractual obligations (i.e. SOW) –Technical Requirements: Defines what a system or component will do to support an unfulfilled need –Operational Policies: Defines what the operators must do to perform their duties as part of the overall system operation

6 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 6 Requirement Overview Classes of Requirements Classes of Technical Requirements –Originating Requirements –Operational Concepts –System Requirements Establish the boundary conditions Source Requirements Stakeholder needs Constraints Define interaction between system and actors Scenarios Human vs. Machine Tasks Describe the problem statement Function Physical Characteristics Interfaces

7 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 7 Define the Operational Concept Use Cases

8 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 8 Effective Requirements Capture Define the Operational Concept Define Operational Concepts –Defines: intended purpose of system usage user interaction with the system –considers all actors who interact with the system user expectations of operability description of a day in the life of your product. –Find Answer: What is the user intended to do with the system?

9 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 9 Effective Requirements Capture Define the Operational Concept Define Operational Concepts –Establish the Need Statement of Need, Mission Need Statement - why are we here? –Capture Principle Requirements Identify constraining requirements that impact the operational concept –Identify life-cycle phases Operational concept should address each life-cycle phase Set of use cases for each life-cycle phase –Assess system operation Discovered through assessment of user community expected usage –Open dialog, interviews Derived from source requirements and stakeholder needs

10 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 10 Effective Requirements Capture Define the Operational Concept Roles Skills Authority Knowledge Language Culture Experience Education Reading level Technical prerequisites Occupational specialties –Identify the actors - know your audience!

11 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 11 Effective Requirements Capture Define the Operational Concept –Define Life-Cycle Contexts –Define Use Cases & Scenarios Use Case: A set of scenarios and conditions that express a complete thread of interaction between actors and systems. A use case may consist of one or more scenarios. Scenarios: A sequence of events or transactions between actors and systems.

12 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 12 Effective Requirements Capture Define the Operational Concept Define Operational Concepts –Contains no shall statements –Must not refer to specific design components Components have NOT been introduced into the problem domain, yet –Ask questions regarding how the operator/maintainer intends to use capability

13 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 13 Define the Operational Concept Use Cases Uses Cases Functional Requirements Use Case captures interaction –External visible exchange –subject of Validation Functional Requirement captures behavior –Internal processing –subject of Verification

14 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 14 Define the Operational Concept Use Cases Validation –Demonstrate that the right system has been created, i.e. is fit for purpose; is the right thing. Verification –Demonstrate that the system, as made, is right, i.e. fulfils the specified requirements; the thing is right

15 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 15 Define the Operational Concept Use Cases A Use Case hierarchy is used to capture the relationships (extensions) between different system uses, and the relationship of the different system actors and the use case in which they may play a role. The use case captures the operational interaction of the components/ actors in the use case. Each use case has a use case description capturing an overview and purpose of the use case.

16 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 16 Define the Operational Concept Use Cases & Scenarios –Capture a list of potential Use Cases At least one main Use Case should be developed for each life-cycle phase of the system –Use Cases are typically separated into individual scenarios that represent a cohesive main flow of events Main Scenario Alternate Courses - options open to the user Exception Cases - when something goes wrong

17 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 17 Define the Operational Concept Use Cases & Scenarios A use case may consist of one or more scenarios to capture the operational interaction. Each scenario has a sequence of steps defining the scenario. Each scenario may have a Sequence Diagram illustrating the interaction. The Use Cases and Scenarios are published in an operational concept document.

18 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 18 Define the Operational Concept Use Cases & Scenarios Capture the following information to fully define a use case scenario: Use Case Name Feature Set: Relationship between this use case and the principle requirements or originating requirements. Purpose Brief Description Actors

19 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 19 Define the Operational Concept Use Cases & Scenarios Trigger Stimulus: Identify the initiating event that would cause this scenario to occur. Preconditions: Scenarios that lead into this use case or assumptions/ conditions that exist prior to this use case Use Case Diagram Postconditions: Identify the state that exists after completing the scenario.

20 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 20 Define the Operational Concept Use Cases & Scenarios Main Course Steps Step Description: Include a step by step sequence of events. Data: Identify the information and control data transactions that occur in the associated step Branches: Identify any extension use cases that may branch from the associated scenario step Requirements: Establish a link relationship between the step and the appropriate system requirement (when available) User Interface: Identify the user interface definition that is associated with the scenario step.

21 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 21 Define the Operational Concept Use Cases & Scenarios Alternate Course: Describe alternate scenarios that result from operational decisions. Exception: Describe additional scenarios that address exception conditions or failures (abnormal events or off- nominal conditions). Address such issues as: Safety Security Misuse Abnormal Operation Weather Conditions Sequence Diagram: each scenario

22 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 22 Define the Operational Concept Use Cases & Scenarios Scenarios are used to discover: Functions & Functional Requirements User Interfaces Functional Interfaces.

23 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 23 System Architecture and Design Originating Requirements System Requirements Logical Representation Physical Representation Interface Design Constraints Functional Requirements Physical Requirements Interface Requirements Operational Concepts Use Cases Requirements Structural Analysis Implementation Requirements Structural Analysis Implementation Requirements Structural Analysis Implementation Requirements Structural Analysis Implementation Structure Charts Class Diagrams Object Diagrams Functional Flow Block Diagram Entity Relationship Diagram State Transition Diagram Functional Interface Diagram N Squared Diagram Use Cases & Scenarios Interface Descriptions Operational Concept Use System Requirements Functional Physical Interface Architectural Analysis & Modeling Structural Representation Requirements Allocation Requirements Structural Analysis Implementation Structure Charts Class Diagrams Deployment Diagrams Object Diagrams Requirement Artifact Needs: Originating Requirements Source Requirements Stakeholder Needs Constraints Boundary Conditions Context illustrates allocation

24 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 24 Define System Requirements Functional Requirements Scenarios are used to discover: Functions & Functional Requirements User Interfaces Functional Interfaces.

25 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 25 Use Cases & Actors Diagramming Notation

26 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 26 Use Cases & Actors Use Case Diagram Relationships –Association (Participatory) Actors participate in Use Cases –Extension Use Cases extend another Use Case –Includes Use Case includes another Use Case Use Case Diagram is really a Class Diagram where the Use Case Class is main component

27 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 27 Use Cases & Actors Use Case Diagram

28 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 28 Use Cases & Actors Use Case Diagram

29 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 29 Sequence Diagram Diagramming Notation Messages: Several subtypes - not covered in this course Also shows activation, showing when object is alive

30 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 30 Sequence Diagram

31 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 31 Sequence Diagram Use Case: Suspect Flees the Scene

32 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 32 Collaboration Diagram Notation is same as sequence diagram Sequence Diagram –Temporal relationships Collaboration Diagram –Spatial relationships

33 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 33 Collaboration Diagram

34 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 34 Collaboration Diagram

35 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 35 Summary Operational Concepts provide an effective means of understanding the system from the Users perspective –Excellent communication between Users and Engineers Use Cases provide an effective foundation for the Operational Concept –Focus on human interaction –Basis for system Validation activities

36 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 36 References/ Acknowledgements Customer Centered Products: Creating Successful Products Through Smart Requirements Management, Ivy Hooks, 2001 The Engineering Design of Systems, Dennis Buede, 2001 Modern Structured Analysis, Edward Yourdon, 1989 OMG Unified Modeling Language Specification v1.3, 2000 Use Case Based Requirements Development, Thomas Vayda, 2000

37 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 37 Rockwell Collins References Engineering Technical Consistent Process (ETCP) Capture Originating Requirements Guideline, RC-ENG-G-104 Define Operational Concept Guideline, RC-ENG-G-101 Define Requirements, RC-ENG-G-601 Manage Requirements Guideline (in progress) Define System Architecture Guideline, RC-ENG-G-102 System Diagramming Guideline, RC-ENG-G-103 Define System Architecture Checklist, RC-ENG-C-101 Define Interface Definition Guideline (in progress) RC-ENG- G-105 Define User Interface Guideline (in progress) Product Family Engineering Guideline (in progress)

38 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 38 Overview of Basic UML Beyond UML Stakeholder Need Constraining Requirement Requirement Types Source Requirement Functional Requirement Physical Requirement Interface Requirement User Interface Requirement Scenario Steps Verification Case Validation Case Note Types Comment Rationale Trade Study User Interface Definition Use Case Description Ops Concept Definition Verification Procedure Validation Procedure Validation Results Verification Results Design Description

39 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 39 Overview of Basic UML Beyond UML Abstraction Block/ Object Types System Hardware Component Software Component Actor/ Human Use Case Function Scenario State Use Case Hierarchy Functional Hierarchy Physical Hierarchy Structural Hierarchy Document Types Operational Concept Document Requirements Document Project Plan Statement of Work Design Document Interface Definition Product Specification User Interface Definition

40 18 April 2002 Ver 1.0 ©Copyright 2001 Rockwell Collins, Inc 40 Overview of Basic UML Beyond UML Interface Path Functional Interface Physical Interface User Interface Port Diagram/ Illustration/ Graphic Verification Description Verification Summary Validation Summary Validation Description More Document Types


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