Presentation on theme: "1 Human Systems Integration Presentation to Orlando INCOSE 09 June 2005 John Burns & Jerry Gordon Sonalysts, Inc."— Presentation transcript:
1 Human Systems Integration Presentation to Orlando INCOSE 09 June 2005 John Burns & Jerry Gordon Sonalysts, Inc.
2 Human Systems Integration & Systems Engineering I.Introduction –Definition & context –Requirements –How did we get here? II.Systems Engineering & Human Engineering –Mapping systems and human engineering –Bringing them together –What do HSI specialists build? III.Putting it All Together –Whats going on? –Whats left to solve? –Future needs
3 Part I Introduction
4 At the End of This Presentation… Youll be able to answer: What is HSI? What is the requirement for HSI? How does HSI relate to the systems engineering organization? Well be able to discuss: What are the challenges to realizing the goals of HSI? Is HSI relevant to systems engineering?
5 For Additional Information… Handbook of Human Systems Integration, Harold R. Booher, 2003, ISBN: , 1024 pages Human Systems Integration Symposium 2005: –http://www.navalengineers.org/Events/HSIS2005/HSIS05Index.htmlhttp://www.navalengineers.org/Events/HSIS2005/HSIS05Index.html Human Systems Information Analysis Center: –http://iac.dtic.mil/hsiac/index.htmhttp://iac.dtic.mil/hsiac/index.htm SC-21/ONR Science & Technology Manning Affordability Initiative: –http://www.manningaffordability.com/s&tweb/index_main.htmhttp://www.manningaffordability.com/s&tweb/index_main.htm
7 HSI Defined Human Systems Integration is defined as a process that optimizes the human part of the total system equation by integrating human factors engineering, manpower, personnel, training, health, safety, survivability, and habitability considerations into the system acquisition process
8 HSI Domains MP&T and, to a lesser extent, HFE are intransitive Safety, Health, Survivability, and Habitability are governed by laws and directives Each domain has experts, methods, & tools HSI HSI is part of Systems Engineering TrainingSafetyHealthHFESurvivabilityHabitabilityManpowerPersonnel
9 What is the HSI Requirement? Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Manual, Operation Of The Joint Capabilities Integration And Development System (CJCSI A) –Change from a requirements-based acquisition process to a capabilities-based acquisition process. Department of Defense (DoD) Instruction , 12 May 2003, Operation of the Defense Acquisition System The PM shall have a comprehensive plan for HSI in place early in the acquisition process to optimize total system performance, minimize total ownership costs, and ensure that the system is built to accommodate the characteristics of the user population that will operate, maintain, and support the system. HSI planning shall be summarized in the acquisition strategy and address the following: Human Factors Engineering Personnel Habitability Manpower Training Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health Survivability The PM shall have a comprehensive plan for HSI in place early in the acquisition process to optimize total system performance, minimize total ownership costs, and ensure that the system is built to accommodate the characteristics of the user population that will operate, maintain, and support the system. HSI planning shall be summarized in the acquisition strategy and address the following: Human Factors Engineering Personnel Habitability Manpower Training Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health Survivability MIL-HDBK Training System Acquisition
10 HSI…Putting the Human Back into the System Hardware Software Operators Maintainers Hardware Software Traditional System View More Accurate Representation of System
11 HSI is Not Just About Tools
12 Error Quantification 1. A Technique for Human Event Analysis 2. Absolute Probability Judgment 3. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program 4. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique 5. Human Error Reliability Methodology for Event Sequences 6. Human Reliability Management System 7. Justification of Human Error Data Information 8. Method of Paired Comparisons 9. Quantitative Risk Assessment System 10. Relex Reliability Prediction Software 11. Success Likelihood Index Method 12. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations 13. Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction Usability 1. Carlow Usability Test Tool for Evaluation and Research 2. Cognitive Walkthrough 3. Conceptual Walkthrough 4. DENIM 5. Diagnostic Recorder for Usability Measurement 6. Distributed Usability Evaluation Tool 7. Heuristic Analysis 8. Hiser Element Toolkit 9. IBM Ease of Use guidelines 10. Questionnaire for User Interface satisfaction 11. System Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI) 12. System Usability Scale 13. Technique for Human Error Assessment 14. Usability Problem Classification (UPC) 15. User Talkthrough 16. User Test 17. WebMetrics Website Analysis and Measurement Inventory 19. WebTango Situation Awareness 1. Attention-detection 2. Cognitive Compatibility SART 3. Crew Situation Assessment 4. Critical cue detection 5. Critical Decision Method 6. Performance measures 7. Situation Awareness Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale 8. Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique 9. Situation Awareness Rating Technique 10. Situation Awareness Verification and Analysis Tool 11. Situation Present Assessment Method Incident Investigation 1. Apollo RCA software w/ Reality Charting 2. Boeing Safety Management System 3. British Airways Human Factors Reporting System 4. Cabin Procedural Investigation Tool 5. Incident Analysis Tool - Modified 6. Maintenance Error Decision Aid 7. Paper Root cause analysis 8. Procedural Event Analysis Tool 9. Ramp Error Decision Aid 10. REASON Root Cause Analysis 11. Team Root Cause Analysis Error Representation 1. Boeing Fault Tree Analysis software 2. Boeing paper-based fault tree method 3. Cause Consequence Analysis 4. Event Tree 5. Fault Tree 6. Faultrease 7. NASA Fault Tree Handbook with Aerospace Applications 8. Relex Fault tree/event tree Decision Making 1. Adaptive User Model 2. Analytical Hierarchy Process 3. Applied Cognitive Task Analysis 4. Course of Action Training Tool 5. Knowledge Analysis of Tasks Error Identification 1. Generic Error Checklist 2. Generic Error Modeling System 3. Human Hazard and Operability Study 4. KSC HF PFMEA 5. Murphy Diagrams/Critical Action and Decision Approach 6. Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis 7. Process Hazard Analysis Pro 8. Relex FMEA Overexertion 1. 3-D Static Strength Prediction Program 2. American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists Lifting Guide 3. Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm 4. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Lifting Guide 5. Utah Compression Force Anthropometry 1. Anthropometric Data Analysis 2. Crew Chief 3. DOD-HDBK-743A, Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel 4. Generator of Body Data 5. Human Engineering Analysis and Requirements Tool 6. HumanScale 7. Mannequin BE 8. Soldiers Day Comprehensive 1. Anthropos ErgoMax 2. Jack 3. Mannequin Pro 4. Panel Layout Automated Interactive Design 5. Vision 3000 Repetitive Trauma Office 2. American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists Hand Activity Level 3. Continuous Safety Sampling Method 4. Ergo Intelligence Upper Extremity Assessment 5. Ergonomics Audit Program Checklist 6. FAA Air Traffic Control Checklist 7. Level 1 Ergonomics Methodology Guide for Maintenance/Inspection Work Areas 8. Moore-Garg Strain Index 9. Occupational Safety and Health Agency computer workstation checklist 10. Rapid Entire Body Assessment 11. Rapid Upper Limb Assessment 12. Washington Safety and Health Agency checklist Mental Workload 1. Automated Neuropsychophysical Assessment Metrics 2. Bedford Workload Scale 3. Cognitive Neurometric System 4. Complex Cognitive Assessment Battery 5. Embedded secondary task method 6. External secondary task method 7. Frequency Weighted Task Complexity Index 8. Instantaneous Self Assessment 9. Modified Cooper-Harper Workload Scale 10. NASA Bipolar rating scales 11. NASA Task Load Index 12. Performance and Usability Modeling in ATM 13. Primary task method 14. Psycho-physical Assessment Test System / Workload Assessment Monitor 15. Subjective Workload Assessment Technique Info Processing 1. APEX 2. ATLAS 3. GOMS Language Evaluation and Analysis 4. iGEN 5. Improved Performance Research Integration Tool 6. Integrated Performance Modeling Environment 7. Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System 8. Ship System Human Systems Integration for Affordability and Performance Engineering Task Analysis 1. Boeing Task Analysis paper method using Micrografx and Designer 2. Critical Decision Method for Task Analysis 3. Decision-Action diagram 4. Event Sequence Diagram 5. Hierarchical Task Analysis 6. Linear Task Analysis 7. Rasmussen's SRK framework 8. Tabular TA 9. Timeline TA Fatigue 1. Energy Expenditure Prediction Program 2. Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool 3. FMR Alertness Monitor 4. Rodgers Priority for Change Perception 1. Legibility Modeling Tool 2. Locate 3. Standard observer for spatio- chromatic detection Toolkit 1. ErgoIntelligence MMH 2. ErgoMaster 3. ErgoWeb JET Software (Job Evaluator Toolbox) 4. VISION 3000 Software NASA HF Tools
13 NAVSEA 03 Human Performance Modeling Tools Tool 3DSSPP ACT-R C3TRACE CART CASHE-PVS ENVISION-ERGO ErgoIntel MMH ErgoMaster FAST iGEN IPME Manning & Affordability Human Engineering Tools ACT ADIVA ALPHA/Sim ASSESS CASA COMBIMAN ComputerMan CREW CHIEF CUTTER Destination ENVISION/ERGO EPIC Human Scale I-CAN iGEN IMAGE IMPACT IMPRINT INDI IPME I-TASK LMT MacSHAPA MDHMS OASYS ORCA PATS/WAM PRICE HL RECAP ROMAN SAFEWORK SIMWAN Tramsom Jack WINCREW NAVY HF Tools & Methods
14 HSI: Why Get Involved Early? FY FY+4 (IOC) FY+8 FY+12 (FOC) FY+16FY+26FY+34 FY+42 FY+50 (Retirement) $M Construction Operations RDT&E 65 % 33 % Decisions made here... lock in 80-90% of costs here... and determine mission capability here Early decisions drive TOC
15 HSI: Early & Often IOC B A System Development & Demonstration Production & Deployment Pre-Systems Acquisition Systems Acquisition Operations & Support C Sustainment LRIPFull-Rate Prod & Deployment Sustainment Disposal FOC The Defense Acquisition Management Framework Joint Capability Integration and Development System New SystemUpdate Spec ECP, OR Human Systems Integration Legacy drivers Trade Space System Requirements Performance Prediction
16 Human Engineering Process ONR Manning and Affordability (1998) gave us the Top Down Functional Analysis (TDFA) methodology Process for analyzing and allocating functions at console level of detail –Mission Analysis –Requirements Analysis –Function Analysis –Functional Allocation –Design –Verification A systematic approach to considering the impact of the system on the human
17 Part II Systems Engineering & Human Engineering
18 Systems Engineering Process View Requirements Analysis Function Analysis Design Synthesis System Analysis and Control EIA – 632 Systems Engineering process
19 System Engineer Data View FFBD UML Requirements
20 Human Engineering Process View
21 Human Engineering Data View
22 Mission Function Task Requirements Function Allocation Design Synthesis Role - Resource Resources System Behavior Linking the Views What is being done? What is doing it?
23 Task Network Modeling Executable Models Hierarchical Represent the Sequencing of Operators Performing Actions WSM and/or TSCM
24 How HSI and SE pieces Fit Together Hardware Software System Maintainers Operators Requirements Describe Interface to Organization Capabilities Describe DODAF SV DODAF OV
25 What is a Function? Hardware Software System Something this does? Maintainers Operators Which implies that these must do something? Or something that this whole organization does? Hardware Software System Maintainers Operators
26 Function Allocation Hardware Software System Maintainers Operators Increasingly Manual Increasingly Automated Optimized for Total System Performance
27 The DODAF Recognizes This Relationship Operational Views (OV)System Views (SV) Organizational Composition Organizational Functions Organizational Rules Information Capabilities Machine Composition Machine Functions Machine Rules Data Requirements
28 Humans in the System Boundary Notions of Human Capital Objects (HCO) as system components System behavior (i.e. functional description) is now organizational in nature Humans must be interfaced to the machine (Kybernetica) via Human factors, ergonomics and health and habitability
29 HSI and Systems Engineering Conventionally, human issues were grouped as logistics issues and system was hardware and software Manning and Affordability (USN) addressed HSI as a Human Engineering Process in parallel with the systems engineering process We think that HSI should be part of Systems Engineering HSI and SE would then address the fabrication and support of human components (i.e. Human Capital Objects) in the systems engineering trade space
30 Fabrication of Human Capital Objects Production Process –Selection –OJT –Accession training –Professional development Quality Assurance –Skills and aptitudes –Qualifications and certifications –5VM Logistics Inventory –Recruiting –Manpower levels Interface Specification –Human Factors Engineering –Health and Habitability Performance Specification –SEAPRINT data –Training Standards/ILE Process Improvement –Science of learning –Human Performance Centers
31 Human Capital Object Acquiring human capital objects (HCOs) has the same concerns as building machines: performance expectations, production facilities, fabrication and logistics support costs, supply pipeline, development schedule, & technical risk
32 Systems Engineering for the Total System Requirements Analysis Function Analysis Design Synthesis System Analysis and Control What is the desired capability? What does that require organizationally in the form of the human-system architecture? How do I staff, support and train that organization? Maintain HSI presence Coordinate HSI plan HSI concerns addressed in requirements HSI concerns affect architectural approach EIA – 632 Systems Engineering process
33 Part III Putting It All Together
34 Initiatives JCIDS MANPRINT, SEAPRINT, AIRPRINT, US Navy Virtual SYSCOM Human Performance Centers OPNAV N12 REORG
35 Math isms that get in the way of Human Performance Analysis Measures and Constructs used by human performance specialists often collapse these issues Preserved in the best practices of a particular specialty, consistent with a traditional problem space Communication is best when the receiver has a model of the transmitter We can move data, but we use information
36 Variable Order is Important Recursive data relationships Coupled Solution Spaces (intransitive) Total Life Cycle Costs
37 Boundaries and Assumptions New System Consoles New System UAV Operators External Agency Old View New View Virtual System 1 Virtual System 2 Aggregations and Compositions are not strictly hierarchical
38 Level of Detail Confidence and Precision Organizational - Architectural Teams – Space Arrangement and C2 Individual - Consoles Cognitive- Application Emergent Effects
39 Correlation Does not Equal Causality * 0-1 *-* 1-* 1-1
40 Pareto Principle (80/20 rule) Frequency Of usage of feature Relative Effect on Total Cost / Performance/cost Impact of Dropping Feature
41 Averages & Medians versus Ranges Threshold Weighted average median
42 Time domain versus frequency domain Cue 1 Process 1aProcess 2 Process 1b If Process 2 uses best of raw (cue 1) and processed (1b) data, is process 1b completed timely enough to be used? From performance range in previous slide, WHEN does the below threshold performance occur?
43 Axiom #1- Boundaries The use and arrangement of human or machine components will have an impact on the functional decomposition of the system –Information clustering –Frequency response –Activity type Corollary – requirements presupposes a notional allocation between human and machine. When SE allocate requirements back to humans, they are load shedding based on developmental cost/schedule constraints with no explicit attempt to evaluate impact on performance expectations or total ownership cost (TOC). Functional Decomposition is tied to selected analysis boundary Organizations talk of Capabilities – Constructed systems talk of requirements
44 Axiom #2- Object Oriented Analyzing complex systems requires a reductionist approach. Object-Oriented Requires defining components Components must be crafted from decoupled sub- systems Componency facilitates successful integration as well as facilitating reuse necessary for system of systems (SoS)/family of systems (FoS) concept. Logical Components must include the appropriate contribution of humans.
45 Axiom #3- Precision Design and requirements decisions should only be made at the level of detail for which confidence in the information is high. Every level of detail has constraints and variables which have effects on constraints and decisions for both finer and coarser grains
46 Axiom #4- Decoupling Optimization of Cost, Schedule and Performance requires: –Logical Components must be analyzed individually for sensitivity to potential design changes, and the most sensitive components addressed first in the trade space –Fabrication and Support (including HSI and traditional ILS) issues with each component must be addressed in the proper order to ensure a decoupled trade space
47 Axiom #5- Formalism In order to succeed and fully support systems engineering, HSI must adopt the formalism, language and paradigm of systems engineering. SE supports acquisition by creating and monitoring artifacts ICD, CDD, CPD Milestone decisions HSIP, NTSP, MER Acquisition strategy drives the nature of the design problem In order to be useful, HSI must be informed by, and directly support the artifacts of, system acquisition.
48 The New System Over-View MH-60S MPA RDT Console GCS Ground Crew USV BAMS LCSUUV
49 Final Thoughts What are the challenges to realizing the goals of HSI? Is HSI relevant to systems engineering Whither HSI? Should HSI be incorporated (back into) integrated logistics support?