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1 Object Oriented Development For DoDAF System of Systems Stanley P. Stanilka The Boeing Company Integrated Defense Systems

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Presentation on theme: "1 Object Oriented Development For DoDAF System of Systems Stanley P. Stanilka The Boeing Company Integrated Defense Systems"— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Object Oriented Development For DoDAF System of Systems Stanley P. Stanilka The Boeing Company Integrated Defense Systems

3 2 DoDAF System of Systems The Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) provides architecture examples for modeling complex system of systems within the network centric global battlespace theater. DoD Architecture Framework, Version 1.0, United States DoD, 9 February 2004 Background

4 3 An architecture description is a representation of a defined domain, as of a current or future point in time, in terms of its constituent parts, what those parts do, how the parts relate to each other and to the environment, and the rules and constraints governing them. DoD Architecture Framework, Version 1.0, United States DoD, 9 February 2004 DoDAF Architecture Framework states that:

5 4 DoDAF Architecture Framework Views DoD Architecture Framework, Version 1.0, United States DoD, 9 February 2004

6 5 Complex System Of Systems Radar Tower

7 6 Government Political Processes Complex Communications Systems Complex Hardware & Software Complex Security Systems Complex Computing Systems Many Corporations Complex Military Hardware Many Users Many Suppliers Demographic Challenges Geographic Challenges Complex System Of Systems

8 Airframe Hydraulic System Electrical System & Wiring Fuel & Powerplant Avionics Systems Rotor System Dynamic Drive System Flight Control System Avionics Components & Mission Equipment ComponentsComplexity 4+ Million Lines of Code 48,000 parts

9 Complexity

10 Satellite City Ethernet Satellite Comm. Tower Radar Tower Complexity

11 10 DoDAF Framework - Proposes Structural Analysis - Contains Mostly Static Constructs Unified Modeling / Object Oriented Methods - Proposes Structural & Behavioral Analysis - Is Process Regimented DoDAF Framework - Proposes Structural Analysis - Contains Mostly Static Constructs Unified Modeling / Object Oriented Methods - Proposes Structural & Behavioral Analysis - Is Process Regimented The Two Most Common Methods That Systems Engineers Will Use To Model Complex Systems Many INCOSE Papers have been published on Object Oriented Systems Engineering Methods

12 11 The models mandated by the DoDAF do not always align with hardware & software development methods and associated production processes utilized in commercial enterprises (industry) who position their products for acquisition into the network centric military markets. This is especially true for software development where object oriented analysis and design methods have become entrenched as an industry standard. The models mandated by the DoDAF do not always align with hardware & software development methods and associated production processes utilized in commercial enterprises (industry) who position their products for acquisition into the network centric military markets. This is especially true for software development where object oriented analysis and design methods have become entrenched as an industry standard. Dilemma

13 12 Object Oriented Development For DoDAF Centric Systems of Systems Problem Summary When applied to the analysis and design of network centric systems of systems, object oriented techniques do not typically support architectural modeling or integration analysis at the system level. Rather, OO techniques tend to focus on lower level modular software development at the component level. Therefore How might OO techniques integrate with the DoDAF for the design and development of network centric systems of systems?

14 13 The Land Warrior System The Land Warrior System was utilized in this case study. The Land Warrior System was utilized in this case study. –The Land Warrior described in this case study is a hypothetical rendition of a network centric battlespace situation. –The Land Warrior system was described and analyzed using UML techniques and compared to all DoDAF views. UML DoDAF Views Requirements Use Case Analysis All Views AV-1 & AV-2 Operational Views OV-1 through OV-7 Requirements Noun Parse and Object Class Identification Systems Views SV-1 through SV-11 Technical Views TV-1, TV-2 Domain Models Sequence & Collaboration Diagrams Statecharts

15 14 Object Oriented Analysis UML Collaboration & Sequence Diagrams DoDAF Framework and Guidelines Use Case / Requirements Analysis Object Oriented Systems Engineering Methods (OOSEM) Behavioral & Functional Modeling Design Patterns Domain Modeling Logical Architecture Views Object Oriented Network Centric Systems Of Systems GAP Analysis Is Needed To Better Understand How OO Techniques Can Be Applied Within The DoDAF Framework

16 15 UML Iterative Process In Contrast To DoDAF Constructs Finding No. 1 Grady Booch states good people with a good process will outperform good people with no process every time¹. Grady Booch states good people with a good process will outperform good people with no process every time¹. –UML emphasizes an iterative development process. –The iterations stop when all system functions are captured in cohesive object classes. System design can commence at this point. ¹ Larman, C., Applying UML and Patterns Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002

17 16 Within the DoDAF, a hierarchy of operational and systems views of the system are provided. Within the DoDAF, a hierarchy of operational and systems views of the system are provided. –Although this is an architectural approach known as system decomposition, a process is not described. –In general, each system and operational level in the DoDAF provides a static context or domain description that is inherited by lower levels in the hierarchy. UML Iterative Process In Contrast To DoDAF Constructs Finding No. 1

18 17 Object Class Identification Finding No. 2 A noun parse of the UML formatted use cases typically yields the class objects necessary to describe the domain model. A noun parse of the UML formatted use cases typically yields the class objects necessary to describe the domain model. –UML process requires a substantial amount of system decomposition, from the high system of systems level described by the Land Warrior use case to the functional requirements level at each node. –The DoDAF appears to provide a less painful approach to modeling systems of systems by decomposing the system only to the system node levels and avoiding the identification of functional capabilities. –DoDAF provides better architectural views. –UML / OO provides better descriptions of class responsibilities.

19 18 Object Classes / Operational Nodes Finding No. 2 There is a high degree of similarity between object classes described by OO and operational nodes described by DoDAF

20 19 Object Classes / Operational Nodes Finding No. 2 There is a high degree of similarity between object classes described by OO and operational nodes described by DoDAF

21 20 Collaboration and System Sequence Diagrams Finding No. 3 In UML, Collaboration and System Sequence diagrams are produced to simulate the behavior of class objects within a system when stimulated by an event. In UML, Collaboration and System Sequence diagrams are produced to simulate the behavior of class objects within a system when stimulated by an event. –These two types of interaction diagrams are interchangeable and can serve to benefit both the architect and the developer. Sequence diagrams are also provided as architectural modeling artifacts within the DoDAF. Sequence diagrams are also provided as architectural modeling artifacts within the DoDAF. –Specifically, the DoDAF describes operational view OV-6c as an operational event trace diagram. Similarly, systems view SV-10c is described as a systems event trace diagram.

22 21 Collaboration and System Sequence Diagrams Finding No. 3 OO Sequence Diagram for The Land Warrior Note: OO Sequence Diagram format is very similar to the DoDAF view OV-6c & SV-10c Sequence diagram that conveys a messaging sequence when the Land Warrior communicates with the Command & Control Center through the Personal Digital Assistant

23 22 An object-oriented software producer might question this high level of refinement with respect to his or her charter. An object-oriented software producer might question this high level of refinement with respect to his or her charter. –They are certain to criticize these examples in accordance with their object-oriented paradigm that focuses purely on software development and leaves architectural modeling to some other organization. –It is likely that they will cite these figures as being drawn incorrectly since conventional UML sequence diagrams recommend that object instances, not classes, be modeled to represent system behavior –The UML use cases that were utilized to produce these sequence diagrams described system level features, not expected functionality. In order for conventional UML sequence diagrams to be produced, the use cases would need to be sufficiently refined to a lower level of abstraction and partitioned to the node level or possibly at levels below each node in order to convey functionality Collaboration and System Sequence Diagrams Finding No. 3

24 23 Summary Comparison For All DoDAF Views versus OO/UML Is Provided In My Paper DoDAF ArtifactComparison Analysis To OO/UML Method AV-1 Overview and Summary Information AV-1 is a managerial summary that documents the purpose, scope and goals of the project. It behooves object-oriented practitioners to adopt this cover letter of sorts since it is good project management technique. AV-2 Integrated DictionaryThe UML suggests that glossaries, data dictionaries and supplemental specifications be added to the requirements analysis. Additionally, UML techniques emphasize that data labels be applied directly to the UML diagrams, as does the DoDAF. OV-1 High-level Operational Concept Graphic OV-1 depicts the system level hardware or nodes in a system of systems. UML class diagrams can be utilized to model these hardware components even though the conventional OO application of domain class diagrams in intended for software classes within a software operating system.

25 24 Questions


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