Presentation on theme: "Object Oriented Development For DoDAF System of Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Object Oriented Development For DoDAF System of Systems Stanley P. StanilkaThe Boeing CompanyIntegrated Defense Systems
2 DoDAF System of Systems BackgroundDoDAF System of SystemsThe Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) provides architecture examples for modeling complex system of systems within the network centric global battlespace theater.DoD Architecture Framework, Version 1.0, United States DoD, 9 February 2004
3 DoDAF Architecture Framework states that: An architecture description is a representation of a defined domain, as of a current or future point in time, in terms of its constituent parts, what those parts do, how the parts relate to each other and to the environment, and the rules and constraints governing them.DoD Architecture Framework, Version 1.0, United States DoD, 9 February 2004
4 DoDAF Architecture Framework Views DoD Architecture Framework, Version 1.0, United States DoD, 9 February 2004
5 Complex System Of Systems SatelliteCityEthernetSatelliteComm. TowerSatelliteRadar Tower
6 Complex System Of Systems Government Political ProcessesComplex Communications SystemsComplex Hardware & SoftwareComplex Security SystemsComplex Computing SystemsMany CorporationsComplex Military HardwareMany UsersMany SuppliersDemographic ChallengesGeographic Challenges
7 Complexity Avionics Components & Mission Equipment Components Fuel & PowerplantDynamic Drive System4+ Million Lines of CodeFlight Control SystemHydraulicSystemAvionics Systems48,000 partsAirframeElectrical System & WiringRotor System
10 The Two Most Common Methods That Systems Engineers Will Use To Model Complex Systems DoDAF Framework - Proposes Structural Analysis - Contains Mostly Static Constructs Unified Modeling / Object Oriented Methods - Proposes Structural & Behavioral Analysis - Is Process RegimentedMany INCOSE Papers have been published onObject Oriented Systems Engineering Methods
11 DilemmaThe models mandated by the DoDAF do not always align with hardware & software development methods and associated production processes utilized in commercial enterprises (industry) who position their products for acquisition into the network centric military markets. This is especially true for software development where object oriented analysis and design methods have become entrenched as an industry standard.
12 Object Oriented Development For DoDAF Centric Systems of Systems Problem SummaryWhen applied to the analysis and design of network centric systems of systems, object oriented techniques do not typically support architectural modeling or integration analysis at the system level.Rather, OO techniques tend to focus on lower level modular software development at the component level.ThereforeHow might OO techniques integrate with the DoDAF for the design and development of network centric systems of systems?
13 The Land Warrior System The Land Warrior System was utilized in this case study.The Land Warrior described in this case study is a hypothetical rendition of a network centric battlespace situation.The Land Warrior system was described and analyzed using UML techniques and compared to all DoDAF views.UMLDoDAF ViewsRequirements Use Case AnalysisAll Views AV-1 & AV-2Operational Views OV-1 through OV-7Requirements Noun Parse and Object Class IdentificationSystems Views SV-1 through SV-11Technical Views TV-1, TV-2Domain ModelsSequence & Collaboration DiagramsStatecharts
14 GAP Analysis Is Needed To Better Object OrientedAnalysisUMLCollaboration& SequenceDiagramsDoDAFFramework andGuidelinesUse Case /RequirementsObjectOrientedSystemsEngineeringMethods(OOSEM)Behavioral &FunctionalModelingDesignPatternsDomainLogicalArchitectureViewsObject Oriented Network CentricSystems Of SystemsGAP Analysis Is Needed To BetterUnderstand How OO Techniques Can Be Applied Within The DoDAF Framework
15 UML Iterative Process In Contrast To DoDAF Constructs Finding No. 1Grady Booch states “good people with a good process will outperform good people with no process every time¹.”UML emphasizes an iterative development process.The iterations stop when all system functions are captured in cohesive object classes. System design can commence at this point.XXXXXXXXXXX¹Larman, C., “Applying UML and Patterns” Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002
16 UML Iterative Process In Contrast To DoDAF Constructs Finding No. 1Within the DoDAF, a hierarchy of operational and systems views of the system are provided.Although this is an architectural approach known as system decomposition, a process is not described.In general, each system and operational level in the DoDAF provides a static context or domain description that is inherited by lower levels in the hierarchy.
17 Object Class Identification Finding No. 2A noun parse of the UML formatted use cases typically yields the class objects necessary to describe the domain model.UML process requires a substantial amount of system decomposition, from the high system of systems level described by the Land Warrior use case to the functional requirements level at each node.The DoDAF appears to provide a less painful approach to modeling systems of systems by decomposing the system only to the system node levels and avoiding the identification of functional capabilities.DoDAF provides better architectural views.UML / OO provides better descriptions of class responsibilities.X
18 Object Classes / Operational Nodes Finding No. 2There is a high degree of similarity between object classes described by OO and operational nodes described by DoDAF
19 Object Classes / Operational Nodes Finding No. 2There is a high degree of similarity between object classes described by OO and operational nodes described by DoDAF
20 Collaboration and System Sequence Diagrams Finding No. 3In UML, Collaboration and System Sequence diagrams are produced to simulate the behavior of class objects within a system when stimulated by an event.These two types of interaction diagrams are interchangeable and can serve to benefit both the architect and the developer.Sequence diagrams are also provided as architectural modeling artifacts within the DoDAF.Specifically, the DoDAF describes operational view OV-6c as an operational event trace diagram. Similarly, systems view SV-10c is described as a systems event trace diagram.
21 Collaboration and System Sequence Diagrams Finding No. 3 Sequence diagram that conveys a messaging sequence when the Land Warrior communicates with the Command & Control Center through the Personal Digital AssistantOO Sequence Diagram for The Land WarriorNote: OO Sequence Diagram format is very similar to the DoDAF view OV-6c & SV-10c
22 Collaboration and System Sequence Diagrams Finding No. 3An object-oriented software producer might question this high level of refinement with respect to his or her charter.They are certain to criticize these examples in accordance with their object-oriented paradigm that focuses purely on software development and leaves architectural modeling to some other organization.It is likely that they will cite these figures as being drawn incorrectly since conventional UML sequence diagrams recommend that object instances, not classes, be modeled to represent system behaviorThe UML use cases that were utilized to produce these sequence diagrams described system level features, not expected functionality. In order for conventional UML sequence diagrams to be produced, the use cases would need to be sufficiently refined to a lower level of abstraction and partitioned to the node level or possibly at levels below each node in order to convey functionality
23 See my paper for a full comparison Summary Comparison For All DoDAF Views versus OO/UML Is Provided In My PaperDoDAF ArtifactComparison Analysis To OO/UML MethodAV-1 Overview and Summary InformationAV-1 is a managerial summary that documents the purpose, scope and goals of the project. It behooves object-oriented practitioners to adopt this ‘cover letter of sorts’ since it is good project management technique.AV-2 Integrated DictionaryThe UML suggests that glossaries, data dictionaries and supplemental specifications be added to the requirements analysis. Additionally, UML techniques emphasize that data labels be applied directly to the UML diagrams, as does the DoDAF.OV-1 High-level Operational Concept GraphicOV-1 depicts the system level hardware or nodes in a system of systems. UML class diagrams can be utilized to model these hardware components even though the conventional OO application of domain class diagrams in intended for software classes within a software operating system.See my paper for a full comparison