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Virtual Manufacturing

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1 Virtual Manufacturing
Virtual Manufacturing Anna Chernakova 1 1

2 U.S. Manufacturing – Global Leadership Through Modeling and Simulation
The long-term national and economic security of the United States is increasingly dependant on innovative and agile manufacturing capabilities. The new focus should be on “simulation-based manufacturing”... U.S. Council on Competitiveness, March 2009 The Council on Competitiveness is the only group of corporate CEOs, university presidents and labor leaders committed to the future prosperity of all Americans and enhanced U.S. competitiveness in the global economy through the creation of high-value economic activity in the United States. Biomedical 2 2 2

3 Agenda: 1. Inspirations 2. Rome reborn: one of the largest 3D models
3. Intro to Virtual Manufacturing (VM) 4. VM Case studies 5. Future of VMS 3 3 3

4 Photorealistic 3D Simulations 3D Transistor Model
There’s not one defining moment which led me to Virtual Manufacturing…. Photorealistic 3D Simulations 3D Transistor Model Design/Process Errors Design for Manufacturability Design for Six Sigma 3D Model of Magnetic Head Process 4 4 4

5 Rome, 1000BC – 550AD / DFM, 2010 5 5 5

6 Another look at a segment of the Plastico di Roma Antica, Italo Gismondi's Model of Ancient Rome.  The actual model is 55 by 55 feet.   Imagine this kind of detail spread out over 55 feet.  No wonder it took 40 years to finish! Italo Gismondi DFM, 2010 6 6 6

7 Plastico di Roma Antica 1933-1971 1:240
7 7 7

8 Bernard Frischer 8 8 8

9 Rome Reborn 111 Purpose of 3D model: to spatialize and present information and theories about how the city looked to create the cyberinfrastructure whereby the model could be updated, corrected, augmented. The model is thus a representation of the state of our knowledge (and, implicitly, of our ignorance) . Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, UV UCLA Cultural Virtual Reality Laboratory Reverse Engineering Lab, Politecnico di Milano Purpose of 3D model: - present information - to create the cyberinfrastructure whereby the model could be updated, corrected, augmented - do experiments 9 9 9

10 10 10 10

11 The next revolution in manufacturing.
Intro to VM The next revolution in manufacturing. MANUFACTURING 3D MODELING, SIMULATION Biomedical Biomedical 11 11 11

12 VM benefits Reduce development and manufacturing cost
Reduce time-to-market Enhance communication Enhance Yield 12 12

13 Why Virtual manufacturing?
Cost Complexity Win/Win Preserves the advantages of the original system Does not introduce any new disadvantages Eliminates the deficiencies of the original system Does not make the original system more complicate Brings product and customer closer Bridges the gap between Design, Manufacturing, Test and Quality Work smarter, not harder 13 13

14 Industry Case Studies Automotive (Ford) Aerospace (Boeing, AAI)
Electronics (Mentor Graphics) Microelectronics (IBM) Data Storage (Seagate) Biomedical 14 14 14

15 Ford The next revolution in global manufacturing Aerospace Automotive
Biomedical Electronics 15 15 15

16 Ford: Prototype builds
Advanced digital pre-assembly engineering checks on a new prototype > 10,000 Reduced potential manufacturing concerns by > 80% Reduced design and production tooling issues by 50% Improved quality by 11% (industry average 2%) 40% of Ford’s testing is done virtually, 5%-10% without a physical prototype. 16 16 16

17 Ford: ROI Products A 305-horsepower Mustang with 31 mpg on the highway. An economy car with a six-speed automatic transmission with all the fuel economy of a manual. A whole line of cars that literally park themselves. 17 17 17

18 Ford: Advanced 3D modeling
The next revolution in global manufacturing Aerospace Automotive Biomedical Electronics Using advanced 3D modeling and a giant high-def screen Ford is able to eliminate the need for a physical model at the early stages of development. 18 18 18

19 Ford: Virtual Environment
Ford uses a specialized virtual reality station to generate virtual vehicle interiors and exteriors which reduces the need for physical prototypes. Programmable Vehicle Model CAVE plus some physical parts: wheel, doors, shift. It is a combination of virtual and physical(doors could me moved up and down for example, you can hold the wheel and look back Programmable Vehicle Model + immersed vehicle environment to evaluate: -Reach -Visibility, front, back, down, around for parking -Ergonomics Vary vehicle, very passenger(the stature could be changed from to 4foot9 female to 6 foot male) Programmable Vehicle Model 19 19 19

20 Ford: Improving quality through VM
Virtual manufacturing demo to journalists at Ford's full line product drive and new technology media event held in Dearborn, MI. August 5-6, Ford’s embrace of digital technology to redefine the traditional way of building cars stretches from digital drafting boards and design juries right down to driving and in-car simulators that attempt to predict – and account for – how drivers will react to different cues on the road. Ford is focused on quality but this is not quality by itself. It is directly related to cost reduction. Key enabler of quality is the Checklist. 20 20 20

21 Ford: Virtual Checklist
Finding problems before the physical build 21 21 21

22 Boeing: Simulating the entire assembly process
Boeing Dreamliner had its virtual rollout in 2006 before its first maiden flight in Dec 2009. Boeing has developed a computerized simulation of the entire assembly process, which lets workers check for glitches before the parts are ever put together. 22 22 22

23 Boeing: ROI Boeing is saving more than 2,000,000$ annually due to VM.
VM center (2008) built in Ohio to develop prototypes: compressed development cycle all what-if scenarios in the 3-D environment enhanced collaboration and teamwork The VMC was called a 3-D prototyping center, a lean manufacturing tool, a workload transition enabler, a training spark, and a process improvement capability. Boeing Dreamliner had its virtual rollout in 2006 before its first maiden flight in Dec 2009. Boeing has developed a computerized simulation of the entire assembly process, which lets workers check for glitches before the parts are ever put together. "Think about it - we're building wings in Japan and they have to meet the fuelselage coming from Italy," said Boeing employee, Dave Shogren. "That all has to come together the first time - in America.“ "We've literally gone from digital design to the start of producing the 787 airplane," Program Chief Mike Bair told customers. The center will mostly be focused on creating virtual manufacturing prototypes of items the company will build. Boeing “We can play out what-if scenarios in the 3-D environment Boeng is saving more than 2million $ annualy thanks to VM. 23 23 23

24 Boeing: ROI . “The VMC will make Boeing more competitive by expanding its capabilities to inject technical and engineering data in to the manufacturing process in a very cutting edge way …with prototypes that have not yet been produced.” The VMC was called a 3-D prototyping center, a lean manufacturing tool, a workload transition enabler, a training spark, and a process improvement capability. Boeing Dreamliner had its virtual rollout in 2006 before its first maiden flight in Dec 2009. Boeing has developed a computerized simulation of the entire assembly process, which lets workers check for glitches before the parts are ever put together. "Think about it - we're building wings in Japan and they have to meet the fuelselage coming from Italy," said Boeing employee, Dave Shogren. "That all has to come together the first time - in America.“ "We've literally gone from digital design to the start of producing the 787 airplane," Program Chief Mike Bair told customers. The center will mostly be focused on creating virtual manufacturing prototypes of items the company will build. Boeing “We can play out what-if scenarios in the 3-D environment Boeng is saving more than 2million $ annualy thanks to VM. 24 24 24

25 AAI Corporation and VM Challenge
Improve AAI’s competitive position in the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) marketplace. Solutions • Accelerate the development cycle by using advanced fluid dynamics (CFD) software Develop staff with a focus on simulation • Create a virtual wind tunnel to reduce time/cost • Simulate different configurations, modifications and payloads. • Analyze impact of design changes on prototype’s propeller, fuselage, etc. AAI Corporation provides a vast array of innovative aerospace and defense tech- nologies to the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps and allied armed forces. AAI specializes in tactical unmanned aircraft systems, training and simulation systems, automated aircraft test. 25 25 25

26 and VM AAI Corporation Return on Investment
• Increases aircraft endurance due to decreased fuel consumption, resulting in reduced costs per flight hour • Compresses design cycle, reducing physical prototyping costs and development costs • Company’s move into new era of advanced UAV design ramped up their competitive position • AAI is better able to meet customer requirements with a better product in less time AAI Corporation provides a vast array of innovative aerospace and defense technologies to the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps and allied armed forces. AAI specializes in tactical unmanned aircraft systems, training and simulation systems, automated aircraft test. 26 26 26

27 Electronics: PCB Biomedical Biomedical
A Circuit Board, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components. What industry challenge is solved with Valor MSS™ ? The central challenge to the PCB manufacturing industry is to provide complete and accurate information in real-time to drive manufacturing planning and execution in the most profitable way possible. Today most manufacturers face huge challenges in this area for two major reasons. 1) They are dependent on multiple software solutions each with their own data types, formats and software platforms making it extremely difficult to share and leverage information. For example, a Quality Management System (QMS) which captures data about a repeating failed component at test or inspection generally has no capability to quickly feed this material loss occurring on the shop floor to other systems within ERP responsible for supplying and kitting the part to the line. The problem is made worse if the component failure is related to a specific supplier. 2) Many manufacturers use only manual systems to collect critical shop floor data relating machine performance, lot tracking, material consumption, process yields, compliance, asset utilization or traceability. This frequently creates gaps and errors in the data, plus costly time delays to achieve any actionable information or meaningful reports to management, or to customers. Biomedical Biomedical 27 27 27

28 PCB and Mentor Graphics
Mentor Graphics Valor MSS (Manufacturing System Solutions) is a complete manufacturing execution suite designed to integrate solutions for seamless operation to assist manufacturers in the design, planning, monitoring, control, scheduling, traceability, test and rework processes of PCB assembly operations. Mentor's Valor MSS suite was founded on the principles of “Lean Thinking,” eliminating waste, including materials and energy, leading to reduced environment and financial costs. Valor MSS provides a unique global visibility of all operations, tasks, resources, activities and traceability based on a 3D live manufacturing view, business intelligence reporting and dashboards. Biomedical Biomedical 28 28 28

29 Mentor's Valor MSS Solutions
Design, planning, monitoring, control, scheduling, traceability, test and rework processes of PCB assembly operations. Eliminating waste, including materials and energy, leading to reduced environment and financial costs (founded on the principles of “Lean Thinking”) Unique global visibility of all operations, tasks, resources, activities and traceability based on a 3D live manufacturing view and business intelligence reporting . Mentor Graphics Valor MSS (Manufacturing System Solutions) is a complete manufacturing execution suite designed to integrate solutions for seamless operation to assist manufacturers in the design, planning, monitoring, control, scheduling, traceability, test and Integrated solutions for seamless operation to assist manufacturers in: rework processes of PCB assembly operations. Mentor's Valor MSS suite was founded on the principles of “Lean Thinking,” eliminating waste, including materials and energy, leading to reduced environment and financial costs. Valor MSS provides a unique global visibility of all operations, tasks, resources, activities and traceability based on a 3D live manufacturing view, business intelligence reporting and dashboards. Biomedical Biomedical 29 29 29

30 Microelectronics: Complexity and Cost
3D Processor DRAM Integrated Systems stacking multiple high-capacity DRAM tiers with one processor tier hundreds through-silicon vias (TSVs) must go through the stacked DRAM tiers to deliver a large amount of current and all the I/O signals from the package to the processor tier(s)‏ drastically reduced memory access latency The cost of a single wafer run today ranges from $100k for specialized MEMS devices to over a million dollars for the latest nanometer-scale semiconductor design on 300mm wafers. This presents a significant process development and integration challenge for which SEMulator3D's virtual fabrication methodology is uniquely qualified to address according to Coventor's CEO Mike Jamiolkowski: "Virtual fabrication in the fab and the lab is critical to reducing the time and cost required to leverage new process technologies. SEMulator3D 2011 takes process modeling to the next level by enabling greater productivity and more accurate, predictive results. Not only does this help engineers save the cost of multiple test wafer runs, it means they can get new processes into production faster and spend more time on process innovation for the next generation." "IBM uses Coventor's SEMulator3D to emulate advanced FEOL, MOL and BEOL integrated processes, with specific attention to 22nm technology and beyond. SEMulator3D allows modeling of a complete process sequence and creates realistic 3D models that can be shared with colleagues. The process/layout editor tools allow development and calibration of a process emulation and expands our understanding of the resulting structures to a variety of layouts," said David Fried, 22nm chief technologist at IBM. "With this capability, our visibility into the full technology implication of process selections and changes has been improved. SEMulator3D has helped IBM predict problems that otherwise would only have been found by subsequent testing and physical failure analysis." Single wafer cost: $100,000 for specialized MEMS devices - $1,000,000 for nm design on 300mm wafer 30 30 30

31 IBM 22nm and beyond technology
emulate advanced integrated processes modeling of a complete process sequence creates realistic 3D models that can be shared “Our visibility into the full technology implication of process selections and changes has been improved. SEMulator3D has helped IBM predict problems that otherwise would only have been found by subsequent testing and physical failure analysis." David Fried, 22nm chief technologist, IBM. 31 31 31

32 32 32 32

33 How Does It Work? Process File Modeler Viewer
3.) Modeler combines Process and CAD inputs to emulate the device 1.) Parameterized Process Description 4.) Use the Viewer module to view the emulated device in 3-D Modeler Viewer A voxel (volumetric pixelor, more correctly, Volumetric Picture Element) is a volume element, representing a value on a regular grid in three dimensional space. This is analogous to a pixel, which represents 2D image data in a bitmap (which is sometimes referred to as a pixmap). As with pixels in a bitmap, voxels themselves do not typically have their position (their coordinates) explicitly encoded along with their values. Instead, the position of a voxel is inferred based upon its position relative to other voxels (i.e., its position in the data structure that makes up a single volumetric image). In contrast to pixels and voxels, points and polygons are often explicitly represented by the coordinates of their vertices. A direct consequence of this difference is that polygons are able to efficiently represent simple 3D structures with lots of empty or homogeneously-filled space, while voxels are good at representing regularly-sampled spaces that are non-homogeneously filled. Voxels are frequently used in the visualization and analysis of medical and scientific data. Some volumetric displays use voxels to describe their resolution. For example, a display might be able to show 512×512×512 voxels Common uses of voxels include volumetric imaging in medicine and representation of terrain in games and simulations. Voxel terrain is used instead of a heightmap because of its ability to represent overhangs, caves, arches, and other 3D terrain features. These concave features cannot be represented in a heightmap due to only the top 'layer' of data being represented, leaving everything below it filled (the volume that would otherwise be the inside of said caves, or the underside of arches or overhangs). 2.) CAD Layout ‏ 33

34 MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems)VM
34 34 34

35 Seagate: Building Virtual Product&Process 3D Modeling DFM DRC DFSS
System Automation In a complex, highly competitive environment companies are driven to deliver products with: industry-leading quality and reliability, superior capabilities, lowest development and manufacturing costs fastest time to market. Simultaneously achieving these objectives requires a fundamental change in how design, develop and deliver our products. Such change will be defined and deployed through a Design for Manufacturability initiative. Because the statistical analysis typically requires many data points, a combination of computer-based model analysis with statistical analysis is the most time- and cost-efficient method in practice. DFSS goes one step further than a probabilistic characterization by allowing users to optimize design variables to achieve a particular probabilistic result such as Six Sigma, which, including long-term effects, is 3.4 failures in one million parts! 35 35 35

36 Seagate: I. Slider II. Magnetic head >1000 steps ~ semicon process
Demo 3D head and applications Automatic conversion route to 3D model II. Magnetic head >1000 steps ~ semicon process complex few steps highly critical 36 36 36

37 VM – Slider Design ROI: Direct savings of $500K annually in direct labor cost . - Indirect savings due to drastic reduction of design errors.

38 VM flow 3D model (application) specific Process-aware Design Model
Optimization Model Verification Page 38 38 38

39 VM Example 3D Model Design for Manufacturing Design Rule Checks
Process Variations Simulation Design for Manufacturing Design Rule Checks Page 39 39 39

40 Define Actual Input Parameters
DOE generator Select Design Type (Full factorial, RSM, etc)‏ Define Actual Input Parameters DOE n DOE1 DOE 2 …. Model 1 Model 2 ….. Model n 40 40 40

41 Virtual Optimization CTOpt= TF (IPOpt) Critical Target(s)
Target Verification Critical Target(s) Input Distribution Input parameters DOE Generator Virtual Model Library Virtual Model Virtual Model Calibration/Validation Real process/device metrology Virtual metrology/DRC Data Analysis Real process/device CTOpt= TF (IPOpt) 41

42 Virtual experiments generator/Op timizer
VMS Virtual experiments generator/Op timizer MANUFACTURING 3D MODELING, SIMULATION DFM DRC DFT Biomedical Biomedical 42 42 42

43 U.S. Manufacturing – Global Leadership Through Modeling and Simulation
The long-term national and economic security of the United States is increasingly dependant on innovative and agile manufacturing capabilities. The new focus should be on “simulation-based manufacturing”... U.S. Council on Competitiveness, March 2009 The Council on Competitiveness is the only group of corporate CEOs, university presidents and labor leaders committed to the future prosperity of all Americans and enhanced U.S. competitiveness in the global economy through the creation of high-value economic activity in the United States. Biomedical 43 43 43

44 “Grand Challenge Case Study: Vehicle Design.” Requirement Categories
US Council on Competitiveness and VM “Grand Challenge Case Study: Vehicle Design.” Full Vehicle Design Optimization for Global Market Dominance Requirement Categories Computational Method Body Styling 3D Full Body Computer Aided Design Crash Worthiness 3D Dynamic Structural Deformation Analysis Vehicle Structural Integrity Finite Element Structural Analysis Fuel Efficiency Computational Fluid Dynamics Passenger Comfort (Noise and Vibration) Acoustics and Finite Element Analysis 44 44 44

45 “Grand Challenge Case Study: Vehicle Design.”
Council on Competitiveness Case Studies and VM “Grand Challenge Case Study: Vehicle Design.” Despite the impressive gains in using high performance computers to advance vehicle design, market and regulatory requirements often compete with each other making it difficult to achieve an optimal design. Even though the requirements are interdependent, current computational tools can only address these competing requirements through multiple, independent simulations. The next high-payoff high performance computing grand challenge is to optimize the design of a complete vehicle by simultaneously simulating all market and regulatory requirements in a single, integrated computational model. Meeting this challenge could generate billions of dollars in benefits but requires dramatically more compute capability than is available todayAlong with theory and experimentation, modeling and simulation with high performance computers has become the third leg of science and the path to competitive advantage. But the country is only beginning to tap the potential competitiveness benefits of this promising technology – and in this increasingly competitive global environment, out-compete will increasingly mean out-compute. Full Vehicle Design Optimization for Global Market Dominance, sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Science, provides additional evidence, along with concrete and quantifiable assessments, of the economic benefits of HPC-driven innovation. This report is one of five in this first series of grand challenge studies describing some of the “what if” questions that HPC can address and the new opportunities for economic growth it can create. The grand challenge studies focus on the oil and gas, chemical, and auto industries. Multiple, independent simulations Single, integrated model 45 45 45

46 “Challenge Case Study: Auto Crash Safety”
Council on Competitiveness Case Studies and VM “Challenge Case Study: Auto Crash Safety” Optimize the safety of a vehicle by measuring the effects of a crash on all of the physical attributes of the human body Mathematical model of the full human body, a “grand challenge” in itself to develop Integrate this highly complex model into already complex crash simulations 46 46 46

47 “Challenge Case Study: Auto Crash Safety”
Council on Competitiveness Case Studies and VM “Challenge Case Study: Auto Crash Safety” 47 47 47

48 Virtual Manufacturing
Prototype the future: one in which virtuality will change and enhance the way we work and live. 48 48

49 Backup slides 49 49

50 Visual inspection & Analysis
“No Defect “ Design Misalignment DOE Generator Change Design 81 virtual models Automatic Error Detection P R O C E S Defect No defect Visual inspection & Analysis DFM, 2010 50

51 DFM, 2010 51 51

52 “Grand Challenge Case Study: Vehicle Design.”
Council on Competitiveness Case Studies and VM “Grand Challenge Case Study: Vehicle Design.” Full Vehicle Design Optimization for Global Market Dominance Auto Crash Safety Study Crude Oil Catalysts Study Oil and Gas Recovery Study Textile Manufacturing Study Along with theory and experimentation, modeling and simulation with high performance computers has become the third leg of science and the path to competitive advantage. But the country is only beginning to tap the potential competitiveness benefits of this promising technology – and in this increasingly competitive global environment, out-compete will increasingly mean out-compute. Full Vehicle Design Optimization for Global Market Dominance, sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Science, provides additional evidence, along with concrete and quantifiable assessments, of the economic benefits of HPC-driven innovation. This report is one of five in this first series of grand challenge studies describing some of the “what if” questions that HPC can address and the new opportunities for economic growth it can create. The grand challenge studies focus on the oil and gas, chemical, and auto industries. 52 52 52


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