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Doi> Norman Paskin, International DOI Foundation Digital Object Identifier.

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1 doi> Norman Paskin, International DOI Foundation Digital Object Identifier

2 What is DOI? What is International DOI Foundation? Applications Where we are now doi> Overview of presentation

3 doi> Background Trade in intellectual property represents over 5% of the worlds traded economy, and this proportion is increasing. This trade is increasingly in rights, digital files, and other intangible items which are not covered by the EAN-UCC system. e-commerce of e-goods and physical goods The DOI System, developed by the content industries through an independent International DOI Foundation (IDF), is an existing, proven system which provides this functionality on the internet Developed by and for the content supply chain Business opportunities: services about rights and related data in existing traded items; synergies for linkage of identified items to information; opportunities for trading in currently non-traded items







10 Identify e-goods which are traded by e-commerce (intellectual property) –To manage it, must identify it –To use in a supply chain, must make information about it available –Must be reliable: persistent –Must work with existing systems: interoperable –Must not be tied to one technology, sector, business model, etc Proven, successful –Theory: consistent data model –Practice: > 10 million, services rely on it Use of well-developed standards: Handle, indecs No competition –Active area: URI, URN, PURL, OpenURL, XRI… –DOI leads: no other as well specified and proven in practice No threat –Not-for-profit organisation –Franchised system to variety of authorised agencies doi> DOI

11 Description by structured metadata Internet Resolution Numbering scheme Policies doi>

12 DOI syntax can include any existing identifier, formal or informal, of any entity An identifier container e.g. –10.1234/5678 –10.5678/978-0-7645-4889-4 –10.2224/2003-12-02-PLS-DOI First class object: name –Non-semantic Persistent


14 Handle resolution allows a DOI to link to any & multiple pieces of current data Resolve from DOI to multiple data: –Location (URL) – persistence –Multiple locations –Metadata –Services –Extensible: new types Handle system - Granularity - Scalability - Administrative delegation - Security -etc - Kahn (internet)


16 the Handle System … offers both better technology and lessons-learned governance...but lacks the visibility of the DNS, which is an order of magnitude larger in the number of things registered…But there is now a broader, outward- facing implementation, overseen by the International DOI Foundation Esther Dyson, Release 1.0: "Online Registries: The DNS and Beyond..." September 2003 doi> Internet Registries

17 framework: DOI can describe any form of intellectual property, at any level of granularity Metadata Necessary for interoperability –Enabling information that originates in one context to be used in another in ways that are as highly automated as possible. Able to use existing metadata –Mapped using standard dictionary Providing a standard way of accessing and using the object –DOI Applications, Services Indecs = interoperability of data in e commerce systems –Adopted by ISO MPEG etc

18 DOI policies allow any business model for practical implementations Implementation Business model –Governance and agreed scope, policy, rules –Cost-recovery (self-sustaining) –Registration agencies (cf EAN, ISBN, Visa) Each can develop own applications, services, sector rules, business model, fees, metadata etc


20 What is DOI? What is International DOI Foundation? Applications Where we are now doi>

21 Current Members: 34 (including PLS) 7 Registration Agencies so far –CrossRef (International) –Content Directions Inc (US) –Enpia (Korea) –TSO (UK) –MEDRA (Spain/Germany/Italy/France) –Learning Objects Network (US) –Copyright Agency Ltd (Australia) + 4 others in process at present doi> IDF

22 Conversion from membership support to operational support: Year Number of RAs (end year) %of revenues RAs 1999 A00 2000 A 1<10 2001 A320 2002 A637 2003 LE745 2004 F851 2005 F1463 Self-sustaining doi>

23 What is DOI? What is International DOI Foundation? Applications Where we are now doi>

24 CrossRef: first and still biggest application 245 publishers, 145 libraries, etc.; replacing thousands of bilateral agreements 10 millionth DOI (August 2003) was a CrossRef one Journal articles doi>


26 TSO: UK Official Publications now have DOIs EC: Office of Publications: from 2004 OECD: all publications, tables, etc DOD (with LON): –"The Department of Defense is implementing the advanced Knowledge Resource System to link together heterogeneous repositories of content and we find the DOI to provide unique capabilities that are essential to the system and the overall architecture. I would recommend...the unique functionality of the DOI for government architecture." –Leslye McDade-Morrison, Office of the Chancellor for Education and Professional Development, U.S. Department of Defense, August 2003 Collaborating with CENDI etc Government documents doi>


28 National Libraries joined IDF: –CENL (41 countries) with gatekeepers BL, KB, DB Digital Library Federation –Collaboration on appropriate copy (localisation) DOIs for Data: –German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB), the world's largest library of science and technology. –Major project funded by DFG: use of DOIs to persistently identify scientific data sets. IDF Press Release Sept 15 Libraries doi>

29 The EAN.UCC system –analogy and a model for DOI. –identifies traded tangible entities –EAN bar codes are the main current product –AutoID and RFID will be future products: linked to internet Seybold San Francisco conference survey: many benefits of print/electronic integration [...] are yet to be realized… Only 16 percent of the companies used content management systems to re-purpose content from print publications for the Internet. The transition is in many cases still done manually with the publishing process showing a great lack of automated systems. DOIs and EPC (Electronic Product Codes) doi>

30 What is DOI? What is International DOI Foundation? Applications Where we are now doi>

31 Practical, successful, implementation of naming objects –Over 10 million DOIs New applications blossoming –Government, data, etc Sound template for advanced applications: multiple resolution + metadata –Practical implementations underway Becoming more understood and accepted in the emerging identification and metadata issues Linkage with other standards: –MPEG RDD, OpenURL, etc Linkage with practical activities: –publishers, libraries, EAN… 2003 Summary doi>

32 Summary of DOI progress D-Lib magazine, June 2003 –DOI: 10.1045/june2003-paskin –


34 parties Entities such as: manifestations (products) abstractions licencesetc… Companies, libraries, authors, publishers etc. Vanity Fair, Beethovens Fifth, etc Books, CDs, DVDs, pdf files, MP3 files, etc. Licence from OUP to MIT #3456, etc. How it all fits… doi>

35 products parties Entities such as: manifestations (products) abstractions e.g. ISO:ISILISTC, ISWCISBN, ISSN, ISAN licencesetc… e.g. non-ISO:PIISICI IPI e.g. FRBR; indecs>Data model/ontology Defines entities to be identified Product information exchange formats e.g. ONIX, PRISM Matching e.g. InterParty e.g. DOI structured metadata associated by internal databases or global resolution to Public services about identified entities: global, interoperable in common dictionary allows resolution to e.g. indecsDD e.g. DOI Have identifiers

36 doi>

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