Presentation on theme: "Matter – Properties and Change"— Presentation transcript:
1 Matter – Properties and Change CHAPTER 3Matter – Properties and Change
2 National Standards for Chapter 3 UCP.1 Systems, order, and organizationUCP.2 Evidence, models, and explanationUCP.3 Change, constancy, and measurementA.1 Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiryA.2 Understandings about scientific inquiryB.1 Structure of atomsB.2 Structure and properties of matterB.3 Chemical reactionsB.6 Interactions of energy and matterG.1 Science as a human endeavorG.2 Nature of scientific knowledgeG.3 Historical perspectives
3 Vocabulary/Study Guide Define each term using the GlossaryEither write on the handout, or use your own paperThis is due on Test Day (tentatively, Monday, September 23)
4 Section 1: Properties of Matter National Standards:UCP.1 Systems, order, and organizationA.1 Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiryB.2 Structure and properties of matter
5 Objectives – Section 1 Identify the characteristics of a substance. Distinguish between physical and chemical properties.Differentiate among the physical states of matter.REVIEW VOCABULARY:density: a ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume
6 New Vocabulary states of matter physical property solid extensive propertyliquid intensive propertygas chemical propertyvaporMost common substances exist as solids, liquids, and gases, which have diverse physical and chemical properties.
7 Substances Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter is everything around us.Matter with a uniform and unchanging composition is a substance.
8 States of MatterThe physical forms of matter, either solid, liquid, or gas, are called the states of matter.Solids are a form of matter thathave their own definite shapeand volume.Liquids are a form of matter thathave a definite volume but takethe shape of the container.
9 States of Matter Gases have no definite shape or volume. They expand to fill theircontainer.Vapor refers to the gaseous state of a substance that is a solid or liquid at room temperature.
10 Properties of Matter Physical property: Extensive properties: Give examples:Intensive properties:Chemical property:
11 Physical Properties of Matter A physical property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s composition.
12 Physical Properties of Matter Extensive properties, such as mass, length, and volume, are dependent on the amount of substance present.Intensive properties, such as density, are dependent on the what the substance is not how much there is.
13 Chemical Properties of Matter The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances is called a chemical property.Iron forming rustCopper turning green in the air
14 Observing Properties of Matter A substance can change form–an important concept in chemistry.Both physical and chemical properties can change with specific environmental conditions, such as temperature and pressure.
15 Homework, Section 1 SECTION 1 REVIEW, Page 75 Questions #2, 3 Answer with complete sentencesFinish filling in charts that were handed out in class: States of Matter and Properties of MatterDue tomorrow
16 Section 2: Changes in Matter National Standards:UCP.3 Change, constancy, and measurementA.2 Understandings about scientific inquiryB.2 Structure and properties of matterB.3 Chemical reactionsB.6 Interactions of energy and matterG.1 Science as a human endeavorG.2 Nature of scientific knowledgeG.3 Historical perspectives
17 Objectives – Section 2Define physical change and list several common physical changes.Define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place.Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.Review Vocabulary:observation: orderly, direct information gathering about a phenomenon
18 New Vocabulary physical change phase change chemical change law of conservation of massMatter can undergo physical and chemical changes.
20 Physical ChangesA change that alters a substance without changing its composition is known as a physical change.A phase change is a transition of matter from one state to another.Boiling, freezing, melting, and condensing all describe phase changes in chemistry.
21 Chemical ChangesA change that involves one or more substances turning into new substances is called a chemical change.Decomposing, rusting, exploding, burning, or oxidizing are all terms that describe chemical changes.
22 Conservation of MassThe law of conservation of mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction, it is conserved.The mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products.massreactants = massproductsPractice Problems #5-9 on page 78
24 Math Transparency 2: Visualizing the Conservation of Mass
25 Homework, Section 2 SECTION 2 REVIEW, Page 79 Questions #10-14 – Answer with complete sentencesPractice Problems Page 78:5-9 – Write the problems, then the answers. We will do some of these in class. Finish them for homework.Due tomorrow
26 Section 3: Mixtures of Matter National Standards:UCP.1 Systems, order, and organizationUCP.3 Change, constancy, and measurementA.1 Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiryB.2 Structure and properties of matter
27 Objectives – Section 3 Contrast mixtures and substances. Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures.Review Vocabulary:substance: a form of matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition; also known as a pure substance
28 New Vocabulary mixture distillation heterogeneous mixture crystallizationhomogeneous mixture sublimationsolution chromatographyfiltrationMost everyday matter occurs as mixtures—combinations of two or more substances.
29 MixturesA mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties.A homogenous mixture is a mixture where the composition is constant throughout.Homogeneous mixtures are also called solutions.A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture where the individual substances remain distinct.
30 Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixture Homogeneous Mixture A mixture that does not blend smoothly throughout and in which the individual substances remain distinct.Its composition is not uniform; the substances remain distinctFor example: salad dressing, orange juiceA mixture that has constant composition throughout; it always has a single phase.It will contain the same relative amount of substances, no matter the volume of each part.For example: silver mercury amalgam, tea, metal alloys air
32 Separating MixturesFiltration is a technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid in a heterogeneous mixture.Distillation is a separation technique for homogeneous mixtures that is based on the differences in boiling points of substances.Crystallization is a separation technique for homogenous mixtures that results in the formation of pure solid particles from a solution containing the dissolved substance.
33 Separating MixturesSublimation is the process of a solid changing directly to a gas, which can be used to separate mixtures of solids when one sublimates and the other does not.Chromatography is a technique that separates the components of a mixture on the basis of tendency of each to travel across the surface of another material.
37 Section 4: Elements and Compounds National Standards:UCP.1 Systems, order, and organizationUCP.2 Evidence, models, and explanationA.1 Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiryB.1 Structure of atomsB.2 Structure and properties of matterG.1 Science as a human endeavorG.3 Historical perspectives
38 Objectives – Section 4 Distinguish between elements and compounds. Describe the organization of elements in the periodic table.Explain how all compounds obey the laws of definite and multiple proportions.REVIEW VOCABULARY:proportion: the relation of one part to another or to the whole with respect to quantity
39 New Vocabulary element law of definite proportions periodic table percent by masscompound law of multiple proportionsA compound is a combination of two or more elements.
40 ElementsAn element is a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.92 elements occur naturally on Earth.Each element has a unique name and a one, two, or three-letter symbol.The periodic table organizes the elements into a grid of horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called groups.
41 ElementsThe periodic table organizes the elements into a grid of horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called groups.Elements in the same group have similar chemical and physical properties.The table is called periodic because the pattern of similar properties repeats from period to period.
42 CompoundsA compound is a made up of two or more elements combined chemically.Most of the matter in the universe exists as compounds.Table salt, NaCl, and water, H2O, are compounds.Unlike elements, compounds can be broken into smaller components by chemical means.
43 CompoundsSeparating a compounds into its elements often requires external energy, such as heat or electricity.This figure shows electrolysis of water to form hydrogen and oxygen gas.
44 CompoundsThe properties of a compound are different from its component elements.
45 Law of Definite Proportions The law of definite proportions states that a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass, no matter how large or small the sample.Ex. Water is always composed of 2 Hydrogen to 1 Oxygen
46 Law of Definite Proportions The relative amounts are expressed as percent by mass, the ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of the compound expressed as a percentage.
47 Law of Definite Proportions This table demonstrates that the percentages of elements in sucrose remain the same despite differences in sample amount.
48 Law of Multiple Proportions The law of multiple proportions states that when different compounds are formed by a combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in whole number ratios.Ex. Peroxide, H2O2, and water, H2O.Different compounds formed from the same elements.Hydrogen mass the same in both compounds but oxygen mass is a 2:1 ratio in peroxide to water.
50 Homework, Section 4 SECTION 4 REVIEW, Page 90 Questions #25-30 – Answer with complete sentencesPractice Problems Page 88:19-23 – Write the problems, then the answers. We will do some of these in class. Finish them for homework.Due tomorrowChapter 3 Test is tentatively scheduled for Wednesday, September 25.Ch. 3 Vocab/Study Guide is due on Test Day.